ACCORD - Archaeology Community Co-Production of Research Data

Lead Research Organisation: Glasgow School of Art
Department Name: Digital Design Studio

Abstract

The ACCORD project seeks to examine the opportunities and implications of digital visualisation technologies for community engagement and research through the co-creation of three-dimensional (3D) models of historic monuments and places. Despite their increasing accessibility, techniques such as laser scanning, 3D modelling and 3D printing have remained firmly in the domain of heritage specialists. Expert forms of knowledge and/or professional priorities frame the use of digital visualisation technologies, and forms of community-based social value are rarely addressed. Consequently, the resulting digital objects fail to engage communities as a means of researching and representing their heritage, despite the now widespread recognition of the importance of community engagement and social value in the heritage sector. The ACCORD project aims to address this gap through the co-design and co-production of an integrated research asset that addresses social value and engages communities with transformative digital technologies.

ACCORD will create a permanently archived open-access dataset of community co-produced 3D digital models of archaeological sites and monuments, integrated with expressions of social value and contextual documentation. The project will actively engage community groups that have ongoing relationships to heritage places in the process of creating 3D records and models of those places. With the support of visualisation technologists, community engagement practitioners, and experts in social value, each community group will design, direct and produce their own 3D objects. The use of digital technologies to enhance and generate forms of social significance will be an important outcome, adding distinctive value to existing heritage assets and our understandings of them. Community groups will be able to draw on the resulting digital datasets for various purposes, such as public presentation, education, and tourism initiatives. The records and models resulting from the project will also provide important research resources for community groups, heritage managers and academic researchers.

Evaluation will be an integral aspect of ACCORD project, examining the relationships between community groups, digital heritage professionals and the outputs they have created. This will include a review of the transformative aspects of the process, investigating changes in attitudes to 3D recording technologies during the life of the project, as well as the forms of significance, authenticity and value acquired by the resulting 3D objects. Ultimately, through the co-production of an open-access dataset, and the creation of a 'community of communities' engaged in sharing skills and experiences, ACCORD seeks to broaden capacity for the creation and reuse of digital visualisation technologies in community heritage activities and research.

Planned Impact

Impact outside academia is core to the ACCORD project. This research will increase knowledge and understanding of the intersection between digital recording and visualisation activities and social value. The fieldwork activities will be of direct benefit to the community groups involved, allowing a critical reflection on the transformation of attitudes toward recording technologies and processes throughout the life of the project and enable self-sustaining activity from 'ground up' groups to take place in the future. The ACCORD project's focus on the creation of a 'community of communities', to continue after the life-time of the project, facilitated via a shared project web space, means that the initial benefits in terms of capacity building for skills and demystification of technologies should continue to bear fruit.

Specific beneficiaries include:

-Archaeological practitioners and digital recording and visualisation specialists, through the project's contribution to culturally informed recording of the historic environment and critical reflection on appropriate modes of engagement between digital heritage experts and the wider community

-Our partner heritage organisations (Archaeology Scotland and Glasgow Museums as well as the RCAHMS itself) through practical involvement at the heart of research that will feed into their ongoing and future work, informing the assessment and decision-making processes.

- Members of the public, through both the community engagement exercise and more generally through the impact of the research on future recording exercises, improving community engagement practice and cultural heritage management activities sensitive to issues of social significance. Members of the public who are engaged in private archaeological research will directly benefit from the open access to the ACCORD project research asset. Members of participating community groups will gain direct knowledge and experience of advanced digital technologies and the ways in which they can be used to represent cultural heritage assets (approx 10-20 per group for a total of between 100 and 200)

- Interested publics across the world, through the co-produced project assets which will feed into the existing high quality collections held by data archives and aggregators such as the Archaeology Data Service and Europeana

- The general public, through the impact of the research on future recording projects (community or professional). Through dissemination of the results to those involved in the recording of the historic environment, we will raise awareness of the relationship between the social value and the nature of recording and visualisation practice, facilitating future projects that are sensitive to issues of social and cultural significance.
 
Title Digital Design Weekend at the Victoria & Albert Museum 
Description ACCORD 3D prints included in the Digital Design Weekend at the V & A, 21st and 22nd of September 2014, an event organized as part of the London Festival of Design. 
Type Of Art Artefact (including digital) 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact Inclusion of community co-produced 3D prints of heritage artefacts in a Design Exhibition. This was considered a major success for the community groups involved and fed back directly into the ACCORD research into community value of digital objects. 
 
Description The ACCORD project has met its original objectives and delivered a number of important key findings. The most significant of these are:
• The use of community co-design and co-production methodologies facilitates community engagement with 3D digital technologies. This approach involves academics, heritage professionals and digital technologists working alongside members of community heritage groups to produce heritage visualizations using consumer grade techniques such as photogrammetry and Reflectance Transformation Imaging. One of the key findings is that these methods not only facilitate successful community engagement, but they are also transformative challenging the assumptions and modes of working of all those involved.
• Another key finding is the importance of focusing on places of significance to community heritage groups in and of themselves. The use of co-design processes is key to this, allowing sites to be identified that have local social values associated with them. Sometimes these sites corresponded with authorized historic values and forms of designation (scheduled monuments, listed buildings and so forth), but in such cases local social values were also evident. In other cases places of local social and communal value diverged from traditional conceptions of heritage altogether.
• The deployment of 3D digital technologies in this manner, demonstrates that they can act as a means of validating the significance of, and promoting, the social and communal values associated with heritage places. This does not minimise the value of a high quality digital outputs focusing on nationally and internationally significant heritage, but shows that the act of working together with communities through co-production brings its own benefits. ACCORD demonstrates that these technologies provide a means of representing social and communal values of heritage, but it also shows that they can play an active role in reinforcing and creating value.
• ACCORD findings also shed light on the thorny question of authenticity in relation to 3D heritage technologies and the resulting visualizations. The project produced evidence that community co-design and co-production can facilitate the transfer of some forms of authenticity from an original historic object to its digital record through the networks of relationships that are mobilised during the recording and post-processing phases. In short, for those engaged in community co-design and co-production the resulting visualizations acquire certain forms of authenticity even though distinctions are still drawn between the digital models and their historic counterparts.
• Focused (or 'rapid') ethnographic approaches (including focused group interviews and participant observation) were used alongside the co-design and co-production of 3D digital records and models during the ACCORD project. This methodological innovation allowed many of the findings discussed above to be identified and recorded. It also allowed very clear statements of the contemporary social value of community selected heritage sites to be generated. Thus another key finding is that the combined use of focused ethnography alongside digital visualization recording practices provides an excellent means of investigating the, often neglected, social and communal values of heritage places. With further development this has great potential for use in heritage conservation contexts where social and communal values are an increasingly important aspect of cultural significance assessment.
• Unforeseen benefits and findings include an insight into the value of physical replicas generated from co-produced data, particularly via low-cost 3D printing and increase in capacity among the community groups in terms of technical expertise through participation in the project. While we had hoped that a small number of individuals or groups would be inspired to carry on using low-cost photogrammetry for their own purposes, we have been surprised by how many of the groups have continued to create and share models since the end of the project.

Whilst project objectives have been achieved a significant further research question has emerged through the ACCORD project. This relates to the authenticity and value accruing to digital objects, which we have demonstrated is generated through the co-production process. It is not clear how far beyond the immediate co-production group these aspects of the record extend. This question would require longitudinal study, or the creation of new contexts, such as museum exhibitions, in which the response of wider audiences could be assessed.
Exploitation Route The fundamental concept of co-design and co-production has been very well received by the academic and professional community and project team members have been invited to consult on both new and pre-existing community engagement projects with a view to deploying this approach in future (e.g. Ogham in 3D and Archaeology Scotland). Co-I Jones now sites on Archaeology Scotland's Management Board, in part as a result of her expertise in community engagement. The ACCORD research team expended significant effort in designing, and subsequently refining, a methodological approach that allowed the key findings of the project to be arrived at. This methodology is published and there has been significant interest in reusing it entirely, or in part, for future research. It has been specifically referenced in two substantial research proposals that have already been submitted for future funding, as well as international projects in development. The core work in ACCORD integrating statements of contemporary social value with digital records has great potential for direct impact on professional practice. Already, on the basis of ACCORD work with climbers at Dumbarton Rock, we have been invited to contribute a statement of social value for Historic Environment Scotland's Statement of Significance for Dumbarton Castle (which is a Scheduled Ancient Monument and a Property in Care). This provides a model for future application in the heritage management and conservation sector.
Sectors Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
URL https://accordproject.wordpress.com/
 
Description The ACCORD project has, through its direct engagement with multiple community groups, had an immediate impact for non-academics in terms of capacity building (3D recording). Project partners Archaeology Scotland and RCAHMS (now Historic Environment Scotland) are professional organisations developing heritage policy and practice. As discussed in the key finding sections the enthusiasm for the technologies and continued high levels of use by multiple community groups since the end of the project has been unexpectedly extensive. The project has reached far beyond its initial community partners facilitated by a wide range of engagement activities: professional and community conferences; newspaper and magazine articles; blogging; and social media (primarily twitter). The core concepts of co-production and the integration of statements of contemporary social value with new digital records has been widely promoted and new collaborations with non-academic partners have resulted, including the development of further bids for funding nationally and internationally. The ACCORD work with the Castlemilk heritage group (How Old Are Yew?) resulted in a dialogue with the important Scottish artist, Kenny Hunter (who created the King of the Castle Sculpture, which the ACCORD team recorded and modeled with members of HOAY). The ACCORD PDRA has gone on to develop a Creative Scotland bid in collaboration with Kenny Hunter for professional artistic activity based on the technical and community approaches developed by ACCORD. The ACCORD project has been directly incorporated as a good example of heritage photogrammetry use in the promotional section of the Agisoft Photoscan website (the software most frequently used by the project). Another impact is the invitation to contribute a summary of the significance of Dumbarton Rock in Scottish Climbing Heritage for inclusion in Historic Environment Scotland's revised Statement of Cultural Significance for Dumbarton Castle. This impact comes out of the ACCORD work with the climbers and the summary was co-produced by them. It also demonstrates the potential of the ACCORD research model in the heritage conservation sector, as a means of investigating social and communal value. As a result non-academic engagement work ACCORD Co-I's have been invited to contribute to multiple non-academic (or mixed professional and academic) workshops and meetings to promote the ACCORD methodology and outcomes. Co-I Jones now sits on the Archaeology Scotland management board, PI Jeffrey was invited to advise on the Ogham in 3D project (based in Ireland). Both have contributed directly to a RSE Workshop Series on Carved Stones aimed at heritage professional and academic audiences to developing a future strategy for carved stone management, study and recording. The ACCORD project is used as a case study in the resulting RSE project outputs to be incorporated in the Scottish Archaeological Research Framework, which is a document to guide professional as well as academic practice. The ACCORD project has led directly to participation by the PI and CI in further research projects, funded by the AHRC (SCRAP project led by Historic Environment Scotland, 4yrs c900k) started January 2017 and the British Academy funded 'Concrete and Non-Concrete' project scheduled for June 2017 (led by University of Stirling).
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
Impact Types Cultural
 
Description AHRC Open Call
Amount £43,037 (GBP)
Funding ID AH/N00745X/1 
Organisation Arts & Humanities Research Council (AHRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 01/2017 
End 01/2021
 
Title ACCORD Research Data Archive deposited with the Archaeology Data Service 
Description The complete ACCORD archive of co-produced data, (c. 50 GB) including 17 3D models (in multiple formats) and 23 Reflectance Transformation Images. Statements of Contemporary Social Value, Contextual Data (text and images). Several thousand archival images used to generate the RTI and Photogrammetric models and the raw XYZ data from laser scanning activity. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact All data deposited is due for public release April 2016 - under a CC-BY license. 
URL http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
 
Description '3D visualization, community collaboration and the production of social value: the ACCORD Project'. European Association of Archaeologists, Glasgow. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation to European Association of Archaeologists, the association for all professional archaeologists of Europe. This presentation dealt specifically with the Social Value aspects of the project and was very well received. Social Value has been acknowledge by professional practitioners as important for future policy, but its application has been slow to develop. This presentation was warmly received as an example of good practice that would inform future professional activity.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://eaaglasgow2015.com/
 
Description 'ACCORD: archaeology community coproduction of research data'. European Association of Archaeologists, Istanbul, 11th Sept 2014. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Immediate and positive response from the international audience. Q&A following the paper indicated the level of audience engagement with our approach.

Immediate response from peers regarding requests for further information and potential future collaborative activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://www.eaa2014istanbul.org/site
 
Description 3D Visualization, community collaboration and the production of social value: the ACCORD project (ACHS Montreal) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was a presentation to professional practitioners (Heritage & Tourism) as well as academics at Association of Critical Heritage Studies Third biannual Conference, 3rd - 8th June 2016, Montreal, Canada. The presentation was well received, sparked a lively debate, and led to multiple new contacts in the domain.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://achs2016.uqam.ca/en/
 
Description ACCORD - Presentation to Discovery Programme, Ireland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was to inform future research directions for the Discovery Programme (Irish national archaeological research body)

Positively received, sparked discussion on future similar project in Ireland.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description ACCORD National Museums Scotland - Saturday Showcase: Making Stones Speak 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards - particularly with regard to public access to research data held in Universities and Museums

Strong positive response from the public audience, including requests for collaboration in the ACCORD project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.socantscot.org/article.asp?aid=2232&utm_medium=RSS
 
Description ACCORD project blog 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The ACCORD project blog featured project updates from project partners as well as posts solely or co-written by community group members. The blog (and the ACCORD twitter account) have been very well used, over 4000 accesses and 400 followers respectively.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015
URL https://accordproject.wordpress.com/
 
Description ACCORD workshop - Community Archaeology Conference, November 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Intense interest in the ACCORD approaches and techniques followed this workshop.

Multiple requests for information sharing, training and collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.archaeologyscotland.org.uk/news/scotlands-community-heritage-conference-2014
 
Description ACCORD: the future of community heritage in 3D! 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A progress report on the ACCORD project for the Archaeology Scotland magazine.Maxwell, M., Hale, A., Jeffrey, S., Jones, C. & Jones, S. ACCORD: the future of community heritage in 3D! Archaeology Scotland Winter 2014, Issue 21 ISSN: 2041-7039
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.archaeologyscotland.org.uk/publications
 
Description Community Connections Festival, Wester Hailes Edinburgh 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Community Connections Festival (awarded total £5,000 from AHRC connected communities festival funding) Wester Hailes. On 20th June the Castlemilk community, Glasgow (who were engaged in the ACCORD project) travelled across to Wester Hailes, Edinburgh to share stories and skills in photogrammetry. We recorded the Wester Hailes totem pole in 3D and then 3D printed it. Our festival showcased the outputs of a number of previous CC projects and included the launch of the Doing and Evaluating Community Research report from the Valuing Different Perspectives legacy project (in partner with the University of Stirling). The festival with the ACCORD project from Glasgow School of Art and community partners Cassiltoun Housing Association from Glasgow demonstrated photogrammetry and 3D printing for recording local urban heritage as well as providing an opportunity for community partners to share lessons from working with academic partners.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://beta.pararchive.com/stories/188
 
Description Exploraton 15 - National Museums of Scotland 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact This was an general public event aimed a children and schools promoted as "an extravaganza of discovery, debate and entertainment as we celebrate European Researchers' Night across Scotland on Friday 25 September". Explorathon is part of European Researchers Night and is funded by the European Commission and the Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions Programme. ACCORD team members had a drop-in stall showing visual outputs of the project and actively demonstrated techniques, created new models of NMS artifacts along with visitors to the stall, including 3D printing. This proved very popular with attendees.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.explorathon.co.uk/edinburgh/explorathon-afternoon-national-museum-of-scotland
 
Description Newspaper Article - Glasgow Evening Times 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Newspaper article

Enquiries re: ACCORD activities from the public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.eveningtimes.co.uk/news/3d-models-to-be-made-of-historic-sites-144101n.22833600
 
Description Newspaper Article - Highland News and Advertiser - 3D Recordings Reveal Uist archaeology in a new ligh 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Local newspaper article

Profile raising for both ACCORD and the community group involve (Access Archaeology, the Uists)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://issuu.com/islandnewsandadvertiser/docs/sept_2014_low_res__1_
 
Description Newspaper Article - Highland News and Advertiser - North Uist Fly-through in 3D! 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Newspaper article

Raised awareness/profile of both the ACCORD project and the community group (Access Archaeology, the Uists)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Newspaper Article - Sunday Herald 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Newspaper article

Enquiries relating to ACCORD activity
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.heraldscotland.com/search
 
Description Newspaper Article - The Press & Journal - Sept. 14 Digital project could reveal secrets of Highland standing stone 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Newspaper Article

Raised awareness/profile of the ACCORD project and the community group involved (Ardnamurchan Community Archaeology Group)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://www.pressandjournal.co.uk/fp/news/highlands/330226/digital-project-could-reveal-secrets-of-h...
 
Description Stories ACCORDing to Communities - at Built Environment Forum for Scotland, Edinburgh, 11th November 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Very well received paper that sparked meaningful discussion during the forum and via social media.

Multiple contacts with attendees to discuss future projects and collaborative working.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.befs.org.uk/
 
Description The ACCORD project: recording your heritage in 3D 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Magazine article introducing the ACCORD project in the magazine of Archaeology Scotland. Maxwell, M., Hale, A., Jeffrey, S., Jones, C. & Jones, S. The ACCORD project: recording your heritage in 3D. Archaeology Scotland Summer 2014, Issue 20 ISSN: 2041-7039
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.archaeologyscotland.org.uk/publications
 
Description Wester Hailes Community Connections Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Local online newspaper report on "A whole fortnight of activities is planned for the Wester Hailes' Community Connections Festival. Organised by the Our Place in Time partnership with funding support from the Arts and Humanities Research Council, the festival will celebrate community life: past, present and future."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.digitalsentinel.net/2015/06/wester-hailes-community-connections-festival/
 
Description Workshop for launch of Dig It 2015 programme 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Strong public interest in the ACCORD activity and technology

Future participation in Dig It 2015 activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://digit2015.com/