MAPPING EDINBURGH'S SOCIAL HISTORY (MESH): A CAPITAL DIGITAL RESOURCE

Lead Research Organisation: University of Edinburgh
Department Name: Sch of History, Classics and Archaeology

Abstract

The MESH project will provide, and facilitate, new visions of historical space. Based on outstanding documentary and cartographic resources in Edinburgh, the project team will deploy digital technologies to develop new types of historical maps based on social, cultural, political, religious, military, environmental, architectural and economic information. The project will be structured around the emergent themes of the city's spatial evolution, and guided by the operating principles of cartographic projects eg administrative areas, cadastral plans, and jurisdictions.

The Edinburgh Atlas (E-ATLAS) will provide a new digital atlas of Edinburgh structured around six temporal periods: the early city; medieval city c.1300-1550; the early modern city 1550-1680; Enlightenment Edinburgh, 1680-1820; the 'modern' city, c.1820-1914; the capital city, 1914-2000. The changing nature and structure of the city will form the basis to 30 interpretive essays organised around key themes with analytical emphasis on the processes of change in a spatial context. The E-ATLAS will provide a world-leading innovative intellectual product.

The web-based e-atlas provides an internationally innovative research facility. The emphasis will be on customisable maps based on the NLS' 500 digitised Edinburgh maps. As demonstrated by the highly successful and publicly acclaimed open-source tools piloted by the AHRC-funded Visualising Urban Geographies Knolwedge Transfer Project (PI Rodger) (see Attachments for Impact of VUG) users' historical data will be plotted on historical maps appropriate to the period, and saved in personal accounts accessible either by individuals or groups. This customisable web-based delivery will be suitable for researchers at all levels; it will be available to the general public, and by extending the historical frame will have far reaching consequences for scholars and the public.

This provision of an e-atlas facility is a central objective based on a key principle of the project: public accessibility and scholarly additionality (and is consistent with the AHRC 2011-15 strategic emphasis on the Digital Economy and Creative Hubs). By facilitating the publication of newly-created maps of Edinburgh on a variety of topics, the project will demonstrate the utility of spatial analysis for different disciplines. It will assist the development of linkages between acadenic and non-academic users.

The MESH project connects with two other AHRC objectives. First, MESH provides a stimulus to public history by facilitating spatial analysis in a historical setting through the use of user-friendly mapping tools. The project will bring spatial analysis firmly within the grasp of local history societies and voluntary organisations by means of Knowledge Transfer both in a technical environment of web-based mapping, and by providing examples of best practice from experienced historians. Second, the project provides civic authorities, museum curators, and planners with mapping tools (e-atlas) designed which will assist their professional work as they seek to understand the way Scotland's capital evolved.

Public interest in the MESH project is significant and widespread. Representatives of Edinburgh's World Heritage Trust, City Council, RCAHMS, Edinburgh Central Library, and local historical societies have expressed strong support. Graduate and undergraduate students have much to gain from the spatial approach to historical analysis.' In addition to history and geosciences, scholars in several humanities and social sciences disciplines - divinity, literature, archaeology, architecture, criminology - and in biological sciences have expressed considerable interest in the project.

In sum, MESH will stimulate and provide a new research resource (E-ATLAS); advance research capacity (e-atlas); develop an online research facility; and enhance user engagement and inter-institutional collaboration within and beyond Scotland's capital.

Planned Impact

The project will have considerable impact for (i) the general public (ii) the cultural sector of museums and galleries (iii) public sector policy makers, particularly those in local government and (iv) private interests.

(i) General Public. By providing a multi-authored Atlas and a complementary electronic resource with interactive elements, the general public, and local historical societies in particular will be able to explore the historical aspects of their neighbourhoods and communities by generating their own maps on a variety of topics eg population, places of historical interest, architectural features, green space, archaeological sites. This engagement with their locality will enrich communities and contribute to the social capital of the town, village or suburb. Shared community interests have long been favoured by local and central governments as a means of developing place identity and building social responsibility. Websites provide an ideal way of doing this, and the shared knowledge and development of IT skills further contributes to an enrichment of localities. There are active local historical societies throughout the UK who will be beneficiaries. (See Attachments for VUG project outputs and the range of public interests in historical mapping.)

(ii) Cultural Sector - Museums and Galleries. The ability to create maps will enable curators themselves to build in visual and spatial perspectives to their displays eg the location of objects, distribution of activities. Curators will be less dependent on external skills. Since almost all small towns have rich artefacts but too little labour or resources to present these, the ability to produce maps of their locality, and the historical resources in it, will be a considerable advantage.

(iii) Local Government. Where public consultation exercises are involved MESH's historical maps will provide the context for policy-makers and a useful visual tool for 'active citizenship', as envisaged under the recent Localism Act for English and Welsh communities and the Community Empowerment Action Plan in Scotland. Spatial and historical knowledge embeds the citizen in a particular locality, and so enriches civil society. Identifying and mapping listed buildings, considering planning proposals, developments in conservation areas, and regeneration plans are just a few of the ways in which the MESH tools and approaches will inform local agencies.

MESH also offers the educational sector - schools, FE, HE and U3A - real potential to embed projects more deeply in the locality. Such an awareness forms part of the active citizenship agenda (see above). Historical mapping will achieve this in the short term as pilot studies with Edinburgh University undergraduates have demonstrated.

A sense of place - or place-attachment as it is sometimes described - and a better sense of the changes to place, is one of the major outputs of the MESH project.

(iv) Private Interests. Knowing the past and being able to represent it spatially assists commerce. For example, building or engineering firms could locate places of environmental contamination from address-based and mapped historical data, and tender for remediation. Mapping specific business types based on Post Office directories could produce work for a firm. The PI has been working with EDINA to develop the JISC funded project to automate such geo-coding. See http://addressinghistory.blogs.edina.ac.uk/

Historical mapping of the type proposed will enhance the skill base of project staff as well as that of citizens, curators and public officials, and employment options expanded accordingly. Spatial awareness will be increased across a wide range of users; and significant knowledge transfer benefits will accrue from the project.

Overall: thematic and address-based historical mapping will contribute to advances in the sense of place-making and place identity. Some benefits would accrue within 3 years.

Publications


10 25 50
Rodger R (2016) Leicester: A Modern History
Rodger Richard (2016) Leicester: A Modern History
 
Title Fesitval of Architecture: Pop-up Cities Expo 
Description Four video segments explained the nature, extent and objectives of the MESH project to the general public. MESH was one of four elements in the Edinburgh pavilion; other European cities were also represented (Rotterdam, Bergen, Vilnius). The invitation to participate came from the City of Edinburgh Council, and according to their estimates over 30,000 people visited the site which was prpominently situated at the Mound, on Princes Street, in Edinburgh. The stand provided an opportunity to explain the MESH project to visitors, and to readh a wider general public. 
Type Of Art Artistic/Creative Exhibition 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact Participation in the event raised the MESH profile with the City of Edinburgh Council and has resulted in a closer dialogue with the Planning Department. The PI then provided a presentation, training and information regarding OpenSource mapping and tools to 12 members of the CEC Planning Department. 
URL https://www.foa2016.com/events/2016-june-21-pop-up-cities-expo
 
Title Lost Edinburgh 
Description 'Lost Edinburgh' is a Facebook site. It is managed by DM. With his permission and assistance some 2000 photographic images on the site were downloaded to an image database. The MESH team then added considerable amount of meta data - locations, neighbourhoods, orientation, provenance, period, and other categories. This searchable database also provided many angles - that is, an identification of where the photograph was taken from and what the target included. This is also a crowd sourced database so there are areas of the city for which few images exist, or have survived, and for that reason this is a valuable resource. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact The images and the descriptions associated can be viewed in quick succession. Where therre are many images of an area this amounts to jerky video of a neighbourhood. It is certainly akin to an online photographic exhibition with some dynamic elements. 
 
Description What were the most significant achievements from the award?
There have been a number of significant achievements.

1. The completion of OpenStreetMap (OSM) for Edinburgh.
The map involved the development of the most comprehensive, free to use, city map in the UK, accurate to 1.5 metres (see https://www.openstreetmap.org/#map=17/55.93832/-3.21719 ). This infrastructural research investment provides the key to the mapping precision.
The process involved:
(i) fieldwork surveys (100,000 buildings, 83,000 addresses, 18,000 road segments and 14,500 points of interest) - over 90% of all such items in Edinburgh.
(ii) transferring all details to OSM as nodes, lines and polygons of residential property entrances, shops and commercial activities, and other amenities (green space, leisure facilities, historic sites, institutions, etc.). This was achieved in conjunction with out-of-copyright maps (digitised, geo-referenced by the National Library of Scotland), Open Source software (QGIS), and Bing imagery. Over 1 million nodes exist in for the OSM Edinburgh, permitting a fine grain of mapping based on the metadata and tags.
This enables subtle interrogation of the map using a tool, Turbo Overpass, supplied in association with OSM and enabling hundreds of data points to be identified in seconds. It is therefore possible to search for, say, all pharmacies, or all pharmacies with evening opening hours.

2. Boundaries.
Developing a suite of bounded areas (parishes, wards, registration districts, city limits, constituencies, sanitary districts, etc.) consistent with various administrative units was central to the collection and analysis of historical data. 'Edinburgh' itself meant different things at different times and the MESH team considered many Edinburghs from geological time to the Roman to the medieval and to early modern and through to the contemporary. These boundaries were also drawn on the OSM, as were known lines such as the Town Walls, ceremonial routes e.g. Ridings, and the core road network.
This forensic historical analysis when combined with detailed mapping has revealed much about the functioning of the burgh. Archaeological excavations, documentary texts, and data mining of contemporary materials have in every period provided new facets to understand spatial, functional and organisational aspects of the town and city. Most importantly, the identification of administrative boundaries is a significant achievement and durable legacy of the MESH project. Like the development of a spatial framework the investment in research capacity has significance for users elsewhere.

3. Open Source tools: Geocoder
With a mapping framework and boundaries in place, the analysis of historical (and contemporary) data is facilitated by OpenSource tools developed by MESH, most notably a Geocoder. That is, behind the scenes is a powerful engine to process hundreds, even thousands, of data items and map them in seconds. This is a key development. It liberates historians and others from the tyranny of the proprietary provider, always subjected to their terms and conditions, and specifically with Google, where licensing and copyright are restrictive.
To oversimplify: a spreadsheet file (Excel) can be selected from a list of files, just as a user would with an e mail attachment, and the instruction then given to 'map the data'. To work best, the spreadsheet should be 'clean' i.e. the addresses rendered in a standardised format. This is exactly what was sought at the proposal stage of the MESH project. Once 'cleaned' the results are immediate - and accurate, because the mapping is. Even where streets are renamed or houses renumbered a glossary of streets is used to point the geocoder to the appropriate data. In addition, because the historical maps are geo-referenced the geocoder tool can be used to obtain latitude and longitude by automatically clicking on a site and inserting the coordinates in a spreadsheet. Thus textual materials can be geocoded so long as they reveal the approximate position, for example, 'opposite the Tolbooth'; 'at the head of the close', etc. This provides a spatial dimension before street numbering was common i.e. before c.1790.

4. Data Model: Post Office Directories
A highly significant achievement, both technical and in terms historical understanding, has been to develop Open Source code and a data model that automates the searching and cleaning of Post Office Directories - perhaps one of the most important sources of address, occupational and related historical data. In Edinburgh there are 180 volumes which run from 1773-1963 with very few gaps. There are 2770 entries in 1773; 36,000 entries in 1910. Once cleaned, the data matching links one Directory to the one for the next year. All the women, or all the 'esquires' or and occupational group can be identified, linked to an address which has been manually georeferenced, and mapped. This is a finding that should be developed further.

5. Knowledge Exchange and Public Engagement
Public bodies and private individuals have increasingly recognised the MESH contributions to spatial analysis. Lothian Buses, some City Council departments (e.g Planning), Historic Environment Scotland; Visit Scotland; National Library of Scotland; Scottish Government (statistics); Police Scotland; community organisations e.g. Greener Leith. The MESH produced OpenStreetMap underpins the APP maps.me widely used by tourists. MESH assists public bodies to meet at least two empowerment agendas:
(i) engaging citizens and local communities (ii) open data.
MESH mapping also provides businesses with a location that includes a url, phone number, website and an immediate presence in the market. These are highly significant, and according to the Danish government, open addresses delivers significant net gain when a cost-benefit analysis is conducted. [See Danish Enterprise and Construction Authority, The Value of Danish Address Data, 2010] Using this Danish data the net benefit to the Edinburgh economy is at least £350,000 per annum.
As the number of presentations and workshops show, MESH has had a very wide exposure with the general public. Over 2100 individuals have attended almost 50 events which MESH has either organised or attended. The responses have been invariably positive.

To what extent were the award objectives met?
The award objectives were exceeded. The extent of engagement and the changing institutional culture towards OpenData, though conservative, helped MESH to achieve the project objectives. MESH itself contributed to this process, taking part in Open Knowledge events and promoting OpenStreetMap locally, nationally and internationally. Efficiency gains have been demonstrated to organisations and a way forward charted. The fact that so many national institutions such as Historic Environment Scotland and the National Library of Scotland have embraced the potential identified by MESH, and that tourists and the public use the contemporary maps through the maps.me APP shows is in no small part due to MESH initiatives, demonstrations and meetings with officials in these organisations.

How might the findings be taken forward and by whom?
There are a number of follow-on possibilities. Three of the most important are identified below.
1. The methodology and symbology of OSM has been clearly demonstrated to be robust on a city-wide scale. This should now be extended to selected smaller places - geographically dispersed to generate local interest. The choices might be Elgin, Galashiels and Ayr to represent north, south and west of Scotland. Leadership would include community participation and crowd-sourcing managed and coordinated by a technical officer very familiar with the standards and processes established by MESH. Arguably other Scottish agencies might become more involved too - Historic Environment Scotland have as good as said so.
There is no reason why this could not be rolled out in English boroughs, too, though there is momentum in Scotland through the MESH project and that will facilitate community engagement and successful delivery.

2. The Post Office Directories has two potential developmental stages: (i) to complete the cleaning of the Edinburgh PO Directories and to apply the data model established by MESH to do that; (ii) to apply the data matching and cleaning model to some of the 400+ Directories in the rest of Scotland. To achieve (i) would be to add arguably the greatest single historical data source by a non-governmental institution that readily comes to mind, and would do so in a searchable - and because of MESH's linkage of address to maps - and mappable form. To achieve (ii) would offer a very important corrective to the scholarship that relies on data garnered from large places and would bring generate the kind of administrative and business benefits identified by the Danish Government (see above) since OpenStreetMap be developed in parallel with the local Directories.

3. 3D modelling of Edinburgh has been an important, unexpected spin-off from MESH. Because the OSM provides boundaries of properties it is possible to generate a 3D simulation of the entire city. There is no UK equivalent. Some enhancements are required and these would provide improved functionality. It is likely that the computer gaming industry would derive benefits from this, and because of the transferability of Open Source code, tools and mapping this would increase interest in other UK places if and when OSM is extended in the same level of detail as in Edinburgh.


What were the most significant achievements from the award?
There have been a number of significant achievements.
1. The completion of OpenStreetMap (OSM) for Edinburgh.
The map involved the development of the most comprehensive, free to use, city map in the UK, accurate to 1.5 metres (see https://www.openstreetmap.org/#map=17/55.93832/-3.21719 ). This infrastructural research investment provides the key to the mapping precision.
The process involved:
(i) fieldwork surveys (100,000 buildings, 83,000 addresses, 18,000 road segments and 14,500 points of interest) - over 90% of all such items in Edinburgh.
(ii) transferring all details to OSM as nodes, lines and polygons of residential property entrances, shops and commercial activities, and other amenities (green space, leisure facilities, historic sites, institutions, etc.). This was achieved in conjunction with out-of-copyright maps (digitised, geo-referenced by the National Library of Scotland), Open Source software (QGIS), and Bing imagery. Over 1 million nodes exist in for the OSM Edinburgh, permitting a fine grain of mapping based on the metadata and tags.
This enables subtle interrogation of the map using a tool, Turbo Overpass, supplied in association with OSM and enabling hundreds of data points to be identified in seconds. It is therefore possible to search for, say, all pharmacies, or all pharmacies with evening opening hours.

2. Boundaries.
Developing a suite of bounded areas (parishes, wards, registration districts, city limits, constituencies, sanitary districts, etc.) consistent with various administrative units was central to the collection and analysis of historical data. 'Edinburgh' itself meant different things at different times and the MESH team considered many Edinburghs from geological time to the Roman to the medieval and to early modern and through to the contemporary. These boundaries were also drawn on the OSM, as were known lines such as the Town Walls, ceremonial routes e.g. Ridings, and the core road network.
This forensic historical analysis when combined with detailed mapping has revealed much about the functioning of the burgh. Archaeological excavations, documentary texts, and data mining of contemporary materials have in every period provided new facets to understand spatial, functional and organisational aspects of the town and city. Most importantly, the identification of administrative boundaries is a significant achievement and durable legacy of the MESH project. Like the development of a spatial framework the investment in research capacity has significance for users elsewhere.

3. Open Source tools: Geocoder
With a mapping framework and boundaries in place, the analysis of historical (and contemporary) data is facilitated by OpenSource tools developed by MESH, most notably a Geocoder. That is, behind the scenes is a powerful engine to process hundreds, even thousands, of data items and map them in seconds. This is a key development. It liberates historians and others from the tyranny of the proprietary provider, always subjected to their terms and conditions, and specifically with Google, where licensing and copyright are restrictive.
To oversimplify: a spreadsheet file (Excel) can be selected from a list of files, just as a user would with an e mail attachment, and the instruction then given to 'map the data'. To work best, the spreadsheet should be 'clean' i.e. the addresses rendered in a standardised format. This is exactly what was sought at the proposal stage of the MESH project. Once 'cleaned' the results are immediate - and accurate, because the mapping is. Even where streets are renamed or houses renumbered a glossary of streets is used to point the geocoder to the appropriate data. In addition, because the historical maps are geo-referenced the geocoder tool can be used to obtain latitude and longitude by automatically clicking on a site and inserting the coordinates in a spreadsheet. Thus textual materials can be geocoded so long as they reveal the approximate position, for example, 'opposite the Tolbooth'; 'at the head of the close', etc. This provides a spatial dimension before street numbering was common i.e. before c.1790.

4. Data Model: Post Office Directories
A highly significant achievement, both technical and in terms historical understanding, has been to develop Open Source code and a data model that automates the searching and cleaning of Post Office Directories - perhaps one of the most important sources of address, occupational and related historical data. In Edinburgh there are 180 volumes which run from 1773-1963 with very few gaps. There are 2770 entries in 1773; 36,000 entries in 1910. Once cleaned, the data matching links one Directory to the one for the next year. All the women, or all the 'esquires' or and occupational group can be identified, linked to an address which has been manually georeferenced, and mapped. This is a finding that should be developed further.

5. Knowledge Exchange and Public Engagement
Public bodies and private individuals have increasingly recognised the MESH contributions to spatial analysis. Lothian Buses, some City Council departments (e.g Planning), Historic Environment Scotland; Visit Scotland; National Library of Scotland; Scottish Government (statistics); Police Scotland; community organisations e.g. Greener Leith. The MESH produced OpenStreetMap underpins the APP maps.me widely used by tourists. MESH assists public bodies to meet at least two empowerment agendas: (i) engaging citizens and local communities (ii) open data.
MESH mapping also provides businesses with a location that includes a url, phone number, website and an immediate presence in the market. These are highly significant, and according to the Danish government, open addresses delivers significant net gain when a cost-benefit analysis is conducted. [See Danish Enterprise and Construction Authority, The Value of Danish Address Data, 2010]
Using this Danish data the net benefit to the Edinburgh economy is at least £350,000 per annum.
As the number of presentations and workshops show, MESH has had a very wide exposure with the general public. Over 2100 individuals have attended almost 50 events which MESH has either organised or attended. The responses have been invariably positive.


To what extent were the award objectives met?
The objectives of the award were exceeded. The extent of engagement and the changing institutional culture towards OpenData, though conservative, helped MESH to achieve the project objectives. MESH itself contributed to this process, taking part in Open Knowledge events and promoting OpenStreetMap locally, nationally and internationally. Efficiency gains have been demonstrated to organisations and a way forward charted. The fact that so many national institutions such as Historic Environment Scotland and the National Library of Scotland have embraced the potential identified by MESH, and that tourists and the public use the contemporary maps through the maps.me APP shows is in no small part due to MESH initiatives, demonstrations and meetings with officials in these organisations.

How might the findings be taken forward and by whom?
There are a number of follow-on possibilities. Three of the most important are identified below.
1. The methodology and symbology of OSM has been clearly demonstrated to be robust on a city-wide scale. This should now be extended to selected smaller places - geographically dispersed to generate local interest. The choices might be Elgin, Galashiels and Ayr to represent north, south and west of Scotland. Leadership would include community participation and crowd-sourcing managed and coordinated by a technical officer very familiar with the standards and processes established by MESH. Arguably other Scottish agencies might become more involved too - Historic Environment Scotland have as good as said so.
There is no reason why this could not be rolled out in English boroughs, too, though there is momentum in Scotland through the MESH project and that will facilitate community engagement and successful delivery.

2. The Post Office Directories has two potential developmental stages: (i) to complete the cleaning of the Edinburgh PO Directories and to apply the data model established by MESH to do that; (ii) to apply the data matching and cleaning model to some of the 400+ Directories in the rest of Scotland. To achieve (i) would be to add arguably the greatest single historical data source by a non-governmental institution that readily comes to mind, and would do so in a searchable - and because of MESH's linkage of address to maps - and mappable form. To achieve (ii) would offer a very important corrective to the scholarship that relies on data garnered from large places and would bring generate the kind of administrative and business benefits identified by the Danish Government (see above) since OpenStreetMap be developed in parallel with the local Directories.

3. 3D modelling of Edinburgh has been an important, unexpected spin-off from MESH. Because the OSM provides boundaries of properties it is possible to generate a 3D simulation of the entire city. There is no UK equivalent. Some enhancements are required and these would provide improved functionality. It is likely that the computer gaming industry would derive benefits from this, and because of the transferability of Open Source code, tools and mapping this would increase interest in other UK places if and when OSM is extended in the same level of detail as in Edinburgh.
Exploitation Route Already there are many known uses of MESH findings and products. There are many more and a selection of those developed or under consideration provides some indication of future potential.

1. Emergency services. Exact location of entrances to buildings and up-to-date map of the city - updated overnight, unlike Ordnance survey (twice per year);
2. Emergency services. Location of defibrillators; lifebelts etc.
3. Public engagement: fault reporting to Edinburgh City Council. Using OSM, public are more actively involved in identifiying defects in services (lighting, potholes etc); also improves dialogue with City Council and sense of responsiveness. City Council can use OSM to inform public online and with a map of forthcoming developments - planning, traffic disruption etc;
4. City Council can achieve administrative efficiencies - all departments using a single spatial database rather than the multitude of maps and datasets asat the moment;
5. City Council can involve public by issuing data as spreadsheets rather than as pdf files. Public can therefore be more engaged in civil society;
6. Strengthening civil society. Clubs, societies and organisations can map memberships, identify gaps, and recruit;
7. Supporting business performance. SMEs able to map debtor, suppliers, customers and identify gaps, weaknesses, strategies without incurring expenses of an Ordnance survey subscription;
8. Educational contribution: raising awareness of spatial dimension for school children by making mapping available on smart phones;
9. Educational contribution: developing materials for geography, urban studies and similar courses using maps, and physical features;
10. Dynamic mapping: for wayfinding, features, historic sites, leisure interests. Google known to identify only the most popular features and this discriminates against minority interests, small businesses, by focussing attention on places with the most hits. The OSM turbo pass wizard provides ALL of the restaurants, all ofthe chemists and thus improves consumer convenience and choice.
11. Environmental protection: use Directories to discover where chemical and other contaminants have existed;
12. Redefine boundaries: at present wards, educational districts and a number of other adminstrative areas are defined for the colection of data and public administration. However 'natural neighbourhoods' can be developed using OSM because addresses can be combined in user-defined ways. Often a major thoroughfare is a boundary but actually both sides of the road constitutes the same neighbourhood;
13. Tourists find the OSM very helpful, and this could be improved by better publicity by visitor and information offices pointing tourists to the dynamic mapping available in OSM;
14. Planning applications can be idenitifed in the immediate area surrounding a person;s home, say within 500 metres, to show all live applications. Thi would engage with the public and reduce the sense of disempowerment over planning developments;
14. Community Councils: as the unit of local government funding becoes further eroded Community Councils can use mapping and citizen engagement to respond to the needs of their area.
15. Maintenance: the City Council in conjunction with the OpenStreetMap community need to forge a partnership to maintain the accuracy and currnecy of OSM. This is a substantial asset, and one that achieves most when maintained.

These are a selection of ways in which the MESH products and findings can be take forward. Some already are, but an improved public and business engagement with spatial issues would deliver efficiency gains and qualitative improvements to inhabitants.
Sectors Chemicals,Communities and Social Services/Policy,Construction,Creative Economy,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Energy,Environment,Financial Services, and Management Consultancy,Healthcare,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Government, Democracy and Justice,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections,Retail,Transport,Other
 
Description 1 Emerging economic and societal impact Details of emerging economic and societal impact arising from the award have been evident manly through the investment in OpenStreetMapping in conjunction with analytical spatial tools such as a geocoder that provides a visualisation of concentration or dispersion. Organisations such as the Old Town Association, and the Cockburn Association (Civic Trust) have approached MESH to discover where their memberships are either weak and strong in various localities. This approach to dispersion/concentration was also used to identify whether Nimbyism existed amongst objectors to some highly visible planning proposals in the city. In this sense civil society has been quite sophisticated in attempting to understand where strengths and weaknesses existed in their activities. Public bodies have used MESH approaches and findings to improve their own activities. Historic Environment Scotland sought to use MESH mapping and tools to refine their information on listed buildings and other historic sites in Edinburgh. That cooperation continues and will be rolled out more widely in Scotland. Similarly, the National Library of Scotland approached MESH to improve the functionality of some of their online mapping tools, now available on line. In many instances, copyright and licensing issues have been the central concern of organisations, including the University of Edinburgh, and members of the MESH project have sought at every stage to maintain the maximum possible openness in all aspects of the project. 'Tutorials' on licensing and copyright have formed elements of MESH workshops, reminding those attending that there are real limitations as materials which in any way are derived from Google or Ordnance Survey sources. A powerpoint slide captured this effectively comparing Google, Ordnance Survey and OpenStreetMap in a grid or table using headings that included (i) type of data (raster/vector) (ii) open licence? (iii) data redistribution (iv) vector quality/accuracy (v) searchability (vi) tools, APIs. Each of the three mapping formats Google/OS/OSM were evaluated on each of the criteria. This was a powerful powerpoint slide and assisted many in the general audiences and user groups, as well as to public bodies. The use of historical mapping has been very stimulating to the general public, and to local history society members especially. Specialist groups - cyclists and environmentalists for example - have welcomed the opportunity to record aspects of their interests in the OpenStreetMap. Businesses can themselves update their details (website, phone and other contact details, change of ownership, function etc). There is an impatience to be able to access the full functionality of the data, and the tools, most obviously from genealogists. In another aspect of the MESH project the development of an image database of Edinburgh drawn from the Facebook 'Lost Edinburgh' site with the permission of the site owners, produced extraordinary insights into localities within Edinburgh and provided a condensed history of the neighbourhoods, sourced from local people. 'Lost Edinburgh' has over 120,000 followers. This initiative provided an antidote to the 'high culture' and exclusivity of some prime city centre sites. The spatial database was another instance of proof of concept, showing that the underlying OSM was essential to the fine grain of locations identified by local respondents. 2 How the findings from your award are impacting the public, private or third/voluntary sectors, and elsewhere. The overall impact is to provide a significant cultural asset. Public, private and third sectors each have an interest in dispersion and concentration. The public's visual sense is highly developed. Materials mapped are easily absorbed, recognised; their significance is often self-evident. The conclusions drawn from a distribution of points, like other pictures, may be worth a 1000 words. At all organisational levels there is a readiness to accept that the map and the points on it provide a powerful basis for analysis and policy, and that this transcends the elitist nature of language and educational attainment. The key features of MESH findings and outputs can be summarised as follows: convenient, accurate, detailed, up-to-date, interoperability, re-usable, free and fair. These features treat users as equals. No subscriptions, no steep learning curves, suitable for a multitude of uses and users, OSM and the MESH tools and the coding that underpins them all work in the background. The presumption throughout the project has been for openness - and this impacts favourably on the public. Governmental agencies are also becoming more heavily involved as a result. The City Council can no longer deny its Open Data responsibilities and so MESH assists them in delivering it by showing how datasets can be made more user friendly. Similarly, with Historic Environment Scotland, who more readily than most are disposed to making their cultural assets available to the public. MESH programming advice has assisted that process by plotting listed buildings on OSM and comparing this to HES' mapping platform. The disparity convinced HES that a switch to OSM was desirable and MESH and HES are currently cooperating to that end. MESH explored licensing issues relating to Post Office Directories with the National Library of Scotland, showed how restrictive this was and, after a two year dialogue, the NLS became more relaxed about the interpretation. So complex MESH programming and laborious data cleaning, both automated and on-scree, has produced searchable Directories and added a path-breaking historical asset which will be available to the public. To search, as is now possible, the 2770 entries in the 1773 street Directory for Edinburgh and map, say, the bakers or widows or lawyers - or all of them together! - in seconds is revolutionary. To do so for 1910 with 36,000 entries is just amazing. To provide a continuous series would provide a level of social, economic, business, administrative and other insights impossible anywhere at the moment. Understanding past urban development has just changed. At all levels - public, private and third sector - MESH has worked extremely hard to illustrate the efficiency gains and wider benefits to stakeholders. 3 Challenges overcome to achieve impact Institutional rigidities are powerful. The accumulated investment of years of involvement with doing things a particular way is hard to breakdown - even from within the powerful position of a chief executive. Licensing concerns influenced the NLS; funding shortfalls were a convenient cover for the City of Edinburgh Council; and the University of Edinburgh is not exempt either from presenting its buildings, its visitor information and outward facing websites with fixed images of maps of the city. To reverse such institutional fixity was and remains difficult - and to do so within the time frame of an AHRC grant even more so. Funding limitations. The project was under-funded. The methodology changed for reasons associated with technical advances to an embrace of OpenStreetMap in the time between proposal and award. This meant a truly massive amount of background work on the part of the MESH Team (a part time PI, a full time technical developer, a full time clerical assistant, and a part time RA quickly casualised with AHRC approval to a series of short term contracts to undertake mapping surveys.) So the outward facing part of the project - diplomacy with the stakeholders such as the City Council, presentations and workshops in the University and in the City; academic presentation locally, nationally and internationally - took a heavy toll. The fact that the AHRC took some 9 months to find a poorly informed third referee for a Follow-on-Fund application and almost 12 months to inform the MESH team that funding was not forthcoming was a difficult blow - and an unfair one as any of our partners, collaborators and colleagues would now agree.
First Year Of Impact 2013
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Communities and Social Services/Policy,Construction,Creative Economy,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Energy,Environment,Financial Services, and Management Consultancy,Healthcare,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Government, Democracy and Justice,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections,Retail,Transport,Other
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Economic,Policy & public services
 
Description Edinburgh City Planning Department: What MESH can do for you
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact The impact has been (i) a recognition by the City of Edinburgh Council of the impotance of OpenData and open access to that data; (ii) an wider adoption of MESH improved OpenStreetMap by CEC (ii) better contacts between MESH and the City of Edinburgh Council In practice some CEC departments - transport, planning, administration have made some improvements to their systems and adopted MESH mapping. There is still a long way to go regarding Open DAta and Open ACcess however.
 
Description Informing the Public
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Examples: Widespread use of OpenStreetMap has affected • GreenerLeith - an environmental organisation - MESH contribution has resulted in precise identification of where plantings should best take place. • City of Edinburgh Council adopted the MESH improved OSM for its Transport portal. Lothian buses use OSM. In both cases greater accuracy of mapping identified by public bodies resulted in better information delivered to the public; • to assist visitors and inform owners of listed buildings Historic Environment Scotland adopted OSM as developed by MESH and is in continuing discussion about how to convert the HES' CANMORE database using OSM; • CEC more receptive to environmental issues given improved mapping of pedestrian areas, cycleways and bicycle racks; • MESH contributions to OpenKnowledgeNetwork has reinforced the message of Open Data and Open Access in the public arena;
 
Description Practical Arcahology MSc students University of Edinburgh
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Practical Archaeology:
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Cultural Engagement Fund
Amount £15,409 (GBP)
Organisation Arts & Humanities Research Council (AHRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 02/2016 
End 04/2016
 
Title 200 socio-economic historical data sets for Edinburgh 
Description The datasets have been accumulated by the MESH team and chronolocially straddle the archaeological excavations from the iron age to the present. They have been acquired from a variety of sources and rendered into a form that can be mapped using either geo-referenced (latitude/longitude) points, or property number street addresses, or area based data collected for administrative purposes. These datasets form the basis of the Atlas of Edinburgh - both hard and e copies - and illustrate innovative approaches to understanding space and spatial relationships. The provenance of the data is acknowledged, and meta data recorded. The data sets will be available to the public and researchers as OpenData, and will require citations to that effect, while also acknowledging the original source and depositor. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The data model allows individual or multiple series to be mapped using the MESH developed geo-coder. This empowers individuals since there is in effect a 'click and select' approach to mapping once the data has been cleaned. It is possible to select datasets from disparate files and thus from disparate depositors. 
 
Title Boundaries, jurisdiction and areas 
Description In order to render historical data that is collected and recorded in an areal form - ward, parish, constituency, data zone, registration or other district - that can be mapped, boundaries based on jurisdictions need to be identified and drawn using OpenStreetMap. OSM gives precise polygons to which the historical data can be attributed, and then mapped and dsiplayed using a map of the appropriate period. So the collection of these bounded areas is critical and MESH team members have laboured to obtain these from texts, historical maps and other sources. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The result of the work to develop boundaries defining of adminstrative control has produced new perpsectives on urban development, and the work relating to the early modern period (specifically 16th and 17th centuries) has resulted in re-visiting and reivising the history of Edinburgh. While this might be considered a local history, in fact the methodolgy suggests that the approach would be extremely fertile for other places and for understanding urban development generally. 
 
Title Data model and matching: Directories 
Description Historical Directories - often known as Post Office directories - were produced from the late 18th C and in the case of Edinburgh, from 1773-74. They decayed somewhat in the late 1950s and by 1963 were only partial as telephone books superceded them. Historical Directories are full of valuable information: name; address; gender; marital status (women) and other status eg sir, esquire etc; occupation/s; address businesses; professional qualifications; telephone and telegarm numbers, and a variety of miscellaneous information. These one or two columned pages have a fairly standard, but not entirely consistent format, either internally or between volumes, and raster images produced resulting from a Libararies project spearheaded by the National Library of Scotland are not suited to interrogation. The MESH data model involves: -converting the raster images to text images; -using bounding boxes to identify page /column widths; -separating individual entries; -cleaning for consistency, removing noise such as blemishes on the page; -identifying discrete fields - not all entries have all fields; -dealing with old typographic conventions ie 'f' in place of 's' where there are 2 'ss' ie 'drefses' where it should be 'dresses' - and other idiosyncracies; -identifying defunct street names; -cleaning the entries to render names and other details consistent; part automated, part manual Writing code to achieve a data model for automated extraction of Directory entries is a major advance. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The results have been impresive, as presented to professional practitioners and users generally. For example, the 1773-74 Directory (2770 entries) can be searched for any occupation and be mapped in seconds. All women, all married women, all bakers, all titled gentlemen - indeed a variety of several variables can be mapped by this means. The productivity, accuracy, speed suggests entirely new ways of interrogating directories and of informing historical analysis and understanding as a result. The data model and delivery of associated mapping has been described as 'world leading' and MESH has had a remarkable success in this arena. It is to be expected that genealogists will be particularly interested in this development. 
 
Title Geocoder 
Description The geocoder transforms addresses into points on a map. Many propietary versions are available, but mostly these are only accurate at the level of the street, unless specific addresses are heavily used and the geocoder then adapts to pinpoint those rather better. Some Geocoders eg Google can only handle a few data points (about 150) and/or limit the number of passes per day. the MESH geocoder probably has limits but testing has shown it can handle thousands of Edinburgh addresses in seconds, and do so at the level of the individual property since the mapping undertaken by the MESH team is accurate to within 1.5 metres, and because house numbers have been assigned individually to properties. 
Type Of Material Data handling & control 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The capacity to accurately locate data points spatially is a powerful research tool. Concentrations, or the lack of them, suggest lines for research enquiry across the humanities and social sciences. Or, hypotheses can be tested using a measure of proximity to confirm or reject an associational relationship between variables. The model has been used to explore whether the locations of original shareholders in the Edinburgh and GLasgow Railway were co-located with those who received compensation for slavery in the 1830s. But there really is no limit to the exploration of spatial relationships. 
 
Title Mapping comparisons 
Description This takes two forms: (1) a model to compare 2 or 4 or 6 zoomable historical maps of Edinburgh at various time periods; (2) a 'slider' that shows how particular areas of a city are transformed between two historical dates. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Comparing dynamic, zoomable maps by inspection provides important clues to urban change over time. Demoliton and construction can be observed in considerable detail - certainly at the level of individual buildings. Expansion of areas of the city, the impact of slum clearances on historic buildings, and the expanding role of the civic authorities and their colonisation of spaces can be identified with ease. These tools have considerable teaching potential, as well as for researchers. 
 
Title OpenStreetMap - (OSM) Edinburgh 
Description The underpinning of all spatially based research depends heavily on the quality of the underlying map. THe MESH project, for reasons associated with licensing, copyright, usability focussed on OpenStreetMap. By developing the most accurate, on line, free map of any city in the UK the MESH project created an impressive spatial database with immense contemporary potential (policy, economic and business,, public engagement etc) as well as an ougtstanding resource to map and anaylse historical spatial data. The project could not rely on any other providers eg City Council since they were locked into licensing and copyright arrangements with the Ordnance Survey. MESH Enhancements to OSM Buildings 100,000 Address 83,000 Road Segments 18,000 Points of interest 14,500 MESH contributions to the OSM mapping of Edinburgh (%) Buildings 91 Address 98 Road Segments 60 Points of interest 98 The strenghts of the database are: Convenient Accurate Detailed - Amenities Up to date - as of yesterday Interoperability Reusable, re-purposeable, customisable Free Fair 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The power of the MESH based database is evident from the uptake of the OSM by numerous agencies and individuals in the city, and by the widespread recognition within the space based research community of the integriy, coverage and explanatory power of the MESH research - the map is accurate to 1.5 metres. Who is using it? Edinburgh City Council - various departments Lothian Buses Police Scotland Visit Scotland Historic Environment Scotland National Library of Scotland Edinburgh World Heritage tourists and the general public community organisations educational sector 
URL https://www.openstreetmap.org/#map=17/55.93832/-3.21720
 
Description Space and Spatial Relationships: Historical Perspectives 
Organisation University of Erfurt
Country Germany, Federal Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Rodger acting as co-editor for a multi-media issue of a journal on this topic of Space and Spatial Relationships. This arises out of discussions at a conference session, and will realise up to 10 contributions to the topic. Revisions to the papers is underway. Agreement in principle with journal editors for 2017 submission.
Collaborator Contribution Each of the 10 partners will contribute original 8000 word essays with up to 5 maps detailing innovations in the way analysis of historial materials enables new and re-interpretations of historical issues to be developed.
Impact Pending
Start Year 2016
 
Title OpenStreetMap 
Description MESH has enhanced Open Source elements - OpenStreetMap as delivered by Swedish mapping - and uses Open Source tools, software, and data. Acknowledgement is to © OpenStreetMap contributors and the mapping tiles acknowledge the National Library of Scotland. 
IP Reference  
Protection Protection not required
Year Protection Granted
Licensed Yes
Impact Notable impacts include a powerful Geocoder to map address based data on georeferenced maps. This is particularly accurate for Edinburgh because of the precision and completeness of the address database developed by the MESH project members. The project has generated immense research capacity as it relates to Edinburgh, and demonstrates, as proof of concept, that this has equivalent potential in other urban settings in the UK and indeed elsewhere. Though it has been common to map information according to areas to produce choropleth mapping, the methodology pursued by MESH liberates data from the restrictive boundaries in which it was first collected. That is: the address-based data can be recombined in polygons defined by thte user. The 'natural neighbourhoods' ie the way communities actually function within the larger urban areas can be mapped without reference to the wards, parishes, or other bounded administrative areas.
 
Description Abbeyhill Colony of Artists 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Project presentation given to local artists group by Prof Richard Rodger on 13th September 2015, audience number 55. This presentation provided a stron spatial dimension to the assembled members of the group, showing how housing types in the neighbourhood could be identified elsewhere and represented on a map to provide additional explanation and understanding of the phenomenon.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Big History Event - Water Aid 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This was a presentation based around the theme of WAter in the City - and relying on the MESH project as a contribution by Professor Richard Rodger to the Big History Event on 21st February 2015, audience number 35. Like some other talks the theme of the organisers, or their local neighbourhood or area, provided an opportunity to display the MESh approach to spatial historical analysis using topics particularly well known to the audience. In addition, this demonstrates the flexibility of the applications of MESH tools and the mapping investment,
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Broughton History Society by Prof Richard Rodger 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Using health - and insanitary - data Rodger explored the various spatial aspects of mid-19th C data in a presentation called Insanitary City: Health and Wealth, 7th October 2013, audience number 55. This informed the MESH project, as was explained, since the spatial nature of information about water contamination, air quality, occupational health, and related public health topics was important and added to explanations of death rates and morbidity. Members of the Broughton History Society showed considerable interest in the possibility that they might themselves be able to use tools to this effect.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description COST Action ISO904: European Architecture Beyond Europe 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation on Use of GIS in Historical Studies: From Theory to Practice by Eric Grosso on 27th-28th January 2014, audience number 30. An expert panel on the the use of Historical GIS.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Colinton History Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation on the project to local history society by Prof Richard Rodger on 17th November 2014, audience number 62. MESH tools and techniques used to complement a presentation on the historical development of an aspect of Edinburgh's development and to relate these to the neighbourhood and interests of the membership present.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Conference paper: 'MESH: Mapping Edinburgh's Social History', State of the Map Scotland Conference 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Eric Grosso delivered a conference paper entitled 'MESH: Mapping Edinburgh's Social History' at the State of the Map Scotland Conference 2015, on 2/10/15. The slides are available at https://speakerdeck.com/mesh/mesh-and-openstreetmap-state-of-the-map-scotland-2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/State_of_the_Map_Scotland_2015/Day_3#Schedule
 
Description Conference paper: 'MESH: Mapping Edinburgh's Social History', Urban History/Urban Presence, Leeds Beckett University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Prof. Richard Rodger delivered a paper entitled 'MESH: Mapping Edinburgh's Social History' at the Urban History/Urban Presence conference, Leeds Beckett University, on 21/07/2015.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Currie and Balerno Local History society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact MESH project presentation by Prof Richard Rodger to local history society on 16th February 2015, audience number 80. MESH tools and techniques used to complement a presentation on the historical development of an aspect of Edinburgh's development - the health of the city and its insanitary nature and locations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Dealing with Data conference, University of Edinburgh 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Project presentation by the MESH team on 26th August 2014, audience number 45. Members of the MESH collaborated in a general meeting for those in the University interested in developing a stronger interest in the mapping the address and areal based data they had collected.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Digital Humanities Network workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Practical workshop with University of Edinburgh members of the Digital Humanities network given by the MESH team on Open Data Challenges on 4th November 2015, 12 attendees.
The presentation attempted to identify areas in which historical analysis could be strengthened, including copyright and licensing issues. There remains a considerable amount of ignorance about these issues and the MESH team used their experience in relation to public and third sectors to explain why it was important open Data and licensing is important for research purposes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Digital Mapping Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Digital Mapping workshop given by Sophie McCallum at the University of Leicester on 12th September 2015, number of attendees 25. This talk to the Centre for Urban History sponsored workshop was an opportunity to address a new generation of graduate student in what is the leading UK centre for the historical study of towns and cities. The MESH principles and approaches were shown with illustrartions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Doors Open Day: Glasite Meeting Hall 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation on MESH contribution by Prof Richard Rodger as part of Doors Open Day local programming on 25th September 2015, audience number 55. This took the form of a presentation on the theme of Food and Drink, and showed how this could be treated historically using Directories underpinned by OpenStreetMap. The ability to represent trades and occupations from 150 years ago provided consisderable interest from the audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Economic History Seminar at Glasgow University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Seminar given on project findings by Prof Richard Rodger at the University of Glasgow to members of social science faculty on 12th November 2015, 30 audience members. This has subsequent lead to further discussion with senior staff members of Policy Scotland and shortly, with staff from the Big Data Centre at the University of Glasgow.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Edinburgh CityScope 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation and workshop given on MESH and Lost Edinburgh on 3rd May 2016 by Professor Richard Rodger and the MESH team, 45 attendees. This event, sponsored by the University of Edinburgh attempted to show a variety of different spatial approaches to the city. Though it is difficult to argue that MESH made a major impact the overall impression those attending conveyed was that MESH was making substantive contributions by means of both investment in a research infrastucture and spatial tools that had real potential to offer new approaches to understanding the city.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Edinburgh Doors Open Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation on MESH as part of Edinburgh Doors Open Day on 22nd September 2016, 65 audience members.

Part of a city-wide event this provided an opportunity to engage with a wide range of individuals interested in the historical development of Edinburgh. The tools and techniques associated with MESH were explained and numerous questions indicated a high level of interest and engagement. Subsequent follow up resulted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description European Association of Urban Historians 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The event was organised by the European Association of Urban Historians, Helsinki 24th - 27th August 2016, 60 audience members, and took place during a 4 hour panel discussion let jointly by Professor Richard Rodger and Professor Susanne Rau (Erfurt University). The MESH Project formed part of the expert presentations on Spatial Relations in a historical setting and it is expected that this will lead to an online journal article - currently in preparation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description European Historical Population Samples Network presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Project presentation given by Eric Grosso to European Historical Population Samples Network on 2nd July 2015, audience number 25. This expert group were addressed by the technical developer and new apporaches to historical demography using spatial databases were evaluated,
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Innovative Learning week workshops 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Student workshop on mapping at the University of Edinburgh by the project team, 20 attendees. This workshop focussed on how undergraduates might incorporate spatial data of various kinds into their studies. In addition, the merits of OpenData were discussed, and in connection with that topic, attention was paid to copyright issues and licensing restrictions so that students knew how data might be obtained, used and re-used, and stored.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Label of Excellence - Dynamite Summer School 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Project presentation given by Eric Grosso to summer school in France on 22nd September 2015, audience number 50. This was an opportunity to reveal mapping as a means of understanding historical development. A number of technical issues discussed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Lecture: "Overview of spatial, historical, free datasets: practices, tools and on-line uploading", LabEx Dynamite 2015 Summer School 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Eric Gross delivered a paper entitled "Overview of spatial, historical, free datas: practices, tools and on-line uploading" at the LabEx Dynamite 2015 Summer School. The 2015 theme was "Geographical Information in the Humanities and Social Sciences: Data Management and Modelling".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://labex-dynamite.com/en/labex-events/summer-schools/summer-school-2015/summer-school-2015-provi...
 
Description Local History Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Introduction on the project to Local History group by the MESH team on 26th February 2014, audience number of 27. This event, held in conjunction with one of the project partners (National Library of Scotland) was set up to bring the objectives of the MESh project to members of all the Local History clubs/Societies in the city. There was a very strong representation as a result and a great deal of enthusiasm from the secretaries and presidents of almost 20 organisations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description MESH Mapping Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact MESH project presentation in Nottingham on 25th June 2014, audience number 40.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description MESH mapping exhibition at the Edinburgh pavilion 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Exhibition held in conjunction with City of Edinburgh Council from 15th June - 15th July 2016 on MESH mapping project using videos. Edinburgh Council figures suggested 30,000 attendees over the period of the exhibition. Professor Richard Rodger in attendance on selected days to explain and explore MESH, OpenStreetMap, and other features of the project to the constant stream of visitors to the exhibition which was located at the Mound - bery prominent position midway along the main Princes Street throgouhfare.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description National Library of Scotland Lecture Series 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation on Littlejohn and the Spatial Contours of Health by Professor Richard Rodger on 13th February 2014, audience number 90. The relationship between areas - sanitary areas, registration districts and wards - was presented in a historical context and the analytical problems of the Medical Officer of Health presented. This was generalised to consider the spatial character of data more generally, and there were many questions on the topic. As this was at a fairly early stage of MESH further updates were requested.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Old Town Association 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation by Dr Aaron Allen (UoE) to the Old Town Association on Old Town Closes and MESH, on 14th April 2014, audience number of 60.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Old Town Association, Project presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Invited back to the Old Town Association to present on the MESH project on 12th November 2014, audience number 38. MESH tools and techniques to provide a contect for the OTA and its interests in planning, conservation and heritage related policy. Genuine interest that the MESH tools could birng a stronger focus on the heritage interersts of the OTA and in historical understanding of the development of this part of the city.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Open Knowledge Edinburgh 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation and discussion by Professor Richard Rodger and Eric Grosso on Mapping Edinburgh: the MESH project on 5th May , 20 attendees. This was an opportunity to speak to policy makers and professionals, as well as those engaged with the cultural sector, to demonstrate the merits of Open Access to data sources and to explore the significance with various stakeholders. Audience include Council employees, individuals from creative industries, and software developers in business on their own account.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Open Knowledge Network 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation, MESH on 31st January 2017 by Prof Richard Rodger, 50 audience members.

Day meeting to share methods, explore tools, and examine ways for future collaborations. Principles of mapping, spatial database, and merits of OpenSource tools, data and mappping presented. Licensing and copyright issues presented.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Open Street Map State of the Map Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Project presentation by Eric Grosso at this Open Street Map conference on 2nd October 2015, audience number 45. This event enabled the technical developer to explore and explain the importance of Open Data and associated licensing and copyright issues. General interest was considerable, and the event was a spur to engagement with OpenData issues within the institution
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Practical work and advice session: 'MESH: Mapping Edinburgh's Social History', Digital Humanities Network, University of Edinburgh 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The project team ran a practical work and advice session entitled 'MESH: Mapping Edinburgh's Social History', as part of the Digital Humanities Network, University of Edinburgh, on 4/11/15. This was welcomed and further advice sought. Partly the MESH concern is to raise awareness of spatial data, its uses and limitations, and to present users with 'best practice' guidance where possible.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Project discussion with Edinburgh City Council staff 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation/discussion with executive staff of Edinburgh City Council (CEC) with Prof Richard Rodger and Eric Grosso, 5 attendees.

MESH provided a demonstration of how the utility or OpenStreetMap could substantially improve CEC services, enhance public engagement, and create adinstrative efficiencies.
MESH indicated the other types of institutions that found MESH skills and spatial databases helpful.

CEC gradually beomcing convinced, if not at an institutional level but within departments as they begin to use OSM in favour of Ordnance Survey.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Public talk: 'Auld Reekie: Slums, Sewers and Shitscapes', Big History Event - Water Aid 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Prof. Richard Rodger delivered a public talk e entitled 'Auld Reekie: Slums, Sewers and Shitscapes' at the Big History Event - Water Aid on 21/02/2015.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6kuZF-ygXw4&feature=youtu.be
 
Description Public talk: 'MESH: Mapping Edinburgh's Social History', Currie and District Local History Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Prof. Richard Rodger delivered a public talk entitled 'MESH: Mapping Edinburgh's Social History' at the Currie and District Local History Society on 16/02/2015.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Public talk: 'MESH: Mapping Edinburgh's Social History', Scottish Arts Club 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Prof. Richard Rodger delivered a public talk entitled 'MESH: Mapping Edinburgh's Social History' at the Scottish Arts Club on 23/02/2015.

OUTCOMES
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Public talk: 'Meat, Drink and be Merry in Victorian Edinburgh', Edinburgh Doors Open Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 'Meat, Drink and be Merry in Victorian Edinburgh' at the Edinburgh Doors Open Day on 25/09/2015 was an effort by Richard Rodger to provide live mapping links between live historical datasets and mapping the information. Using the information about butchers, bakers and spirit merchants and plotting these in front ofthe audience using a geocoder developed by MESH brought the drama of spatial data to the attention of many ilocal hisorians.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.cockburnassociation.org.uk/uploads/downloads/DoD/Edinburgh%20Doors%20Open%20Day%202015%20...
 
Description Public talk: 'The Foundation and Significance of Edinburgh's Colonies', Colony of Artists 10th Annual Exhibition, Abbeyhill Primary School 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This talk, delivered by Prof. Richard Rodger on 13/09/2015, explored the why, when and how over 2000 'Colony' houses were built in Edinburgh, why they were successful, and still highly desirable. The talk considered the character of 19th Century housing in Edinburgh and the efforts made by Edinburgh's first Medical Officer of Health to improve living conditions. Rodger included some of the latest research findings in his talk.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.colony-of-artists.com/
 
Description Scottish Arts Club 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Presentation by Prof Richard Rodger on Industrial Edinburgh on 15th February 2014, audience number 35. MESH aims and objectives were set out and some examples provided how spatial data might inform interpretation. This was related to a variety of historical examples of interest to the membership. Interest ewas expressed and it was agreed that further information wold be provided.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Scottish Arts Club MESH follow up 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Invited back to update on the MESH project, presentation given by Professor Richard Rodger on 23rd February 2015, audience number 40. This was an opportunity to introduce the latest developments in the MESH project using historical examples, specifically spatial aspects of industrial performance in Edinburgh.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Scottish Association of Geography Teachers Conference 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Prof. Richard Rodger participated in 'Hot Spots' forum - 10 minute discussions covering a variety of topics to allow for the sharing of professional practice at the Scottish Association of Geography Teachers Conference on 31/10/2015. Rodger showcased mapping and OSM as part of the MESH project. There were 148 registered attendees for the conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.sagteach.org/conference.html
 
Description Scottish Association of Geography Teachers conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Presentation by Professor RIchard Rodger to the Scottish Association of Geography Teachers at their annual conference in Perth on 31st October 2015, audience number 148. Various facets of the Geography Curriculum for Excellence in Scottish SChools has a sgtrong urban element and the PI showed groups of teachers how this might be addressed using OpenStreetMap. Subsequently a teacher in the western highlands indicated that she has adopted the method in a survey of Aviemore.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Scottish Ecological Design Association 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact From Colonies to Waterfront: Year of Architecture Event by Professor Richard Rodger. Walking tour using MESH map on 8th May 2016, 65 attendees. This was an opportunity to show how a spatial dimension such as overcrowding, the disposition of streets, and other indicators explained the historical development of the built environment,
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Scottish History Festival: Edinburgh's Secret History by Prof Richard Rodger 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation on making your own map in 20 minutes on 16th November 2013, audience number 200. Rather ambitiously titled, as it happens, the aim of MESH was ideintified as trying to get a spatial understanding of data, quickly, as a means to test hypotheses and generate research questions. This was intended for the general public, and to enrich the level of local historical interest in due course. As it turns out, and nearing the end of the MESH project, the "20 minute" effort can be realised because MESH"d infrastructural investment in mapping and in mapping tools renders this possible.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Southsiders: Portrait of a Community by Prof Richard Rodger 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This presentation on Mapping the Southside, audience number 65, on 4th October 2013 was part of a neighbourhood festival. There were related activities, including an event in which photographic portraits of people who lived, worked (Rodger) and socialised in the area were made, and presented in a local publication with a brief biography. There was also an event to launch the brochure, display the photographs, and listen to reminiscences and poetry about the area immediately east of the University. The event and the initiative generally was covered by a special issue of the local newspaper. At the public event, Rodger presented the area in maps from different periods and explained that MESH was a vehicle for just such public events.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description UoE Web Content Network 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation on OSM in the MESH project to UoE Web Content Network members on 5th July 2016, 8 attendees. This was a meeting at which MESH explored and explained the nature of the OpenStreetMap, OpenSource tools and OpenDAta, and how crucial these were to improve data analysis and open government, citizen engagement and related matters.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Urban History Group Annual Conference - Plenary Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This lecture is an opportunity, on the official last day of the MESH project, to show - show off? - the achievements of MESH and its significance for wider historical community. The lecture focusses not just on the scale of MESH's achievements, but will relate these to addressing fundamental problems of historical analysis relating to boundaries. In addition, attention is directed to the imperative of greater openness of datasets for the benefit of future accounts of historical development. The lecture also addresses with the need to invest in research capacity, rather than to use and reuse data often derived without quality control. The lecture finishes with 'a call to arms' imploring urban historians to be more conscious of spatial aspects of historical pheonomena.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Urban History/Urban Presence at Leeds Beckett University 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation given by Richard Rodger on 21st July 2015, audience number 30. A group of academics, local history and museums staff were the specialist audience all with an interest in how to present their materials, and collections. The PI, Rodger, presented the project, explained the principles and practical aspects of the project and commented on the need for a strong degree of spatial knowledge when presenting historical materials.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Urban History: State of the Discipline Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation on the project by Professor Richard Rodger on 4th July 2016, 50 audience members at the Institue for historical REsearch University of London. This concluding lecture provided an opportunity to review methodological approaches and to showcase MESH as a way forward for historical research on city development. Considerable interest in the potential of MESH approach indicated.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Workshop participation: 'Digital Mapping', Digital Mapping Workshop, University of Leicester 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Sophie McCallum delivered a paper entitled 'Digital Mapping' at the Digital Mapping Workshop, University of Leicester, on 12/09/2015.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Workshop participation: 'MESH: Mapping Edinburgh's Social History', Workshop of Working Group 9, European Historical Population Samples Network 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Eric Grosso delivered a presentation entitled 'MESH: Mapping Edinburgh's Social History' at the Workshop of Working Group 9, European Historical Population Samples Network, on 02/07/2015.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015