Atlantic Europe in the Metal Ages (AEMA): questions of shared language

Lead Research Organisation: University of Wales
Department Name: Centre for Adv. Welsh and Celtic Studies

Abstract

The project considers language in Atlantic Europe ('AE'=Britain, Ireland, northwest France, western Iberia) from first metallurgy (c. 2900 BC) to Latin's arrival (Cádiz 206 BC, Ireland c. AD 400).
CONTEXT. Many still believe that 'the Celts' spread from Iron Age central Europe (c. 750-100 BC) bringing Hallstatt and La Tène material culture and Celtic speech; so earlier eras further west are non-Celtic by definition. A previous AHRC project showed the inadequacy of this model to explain Hispano-Celtic. Cunliffe's work on maritime networks and Koch's on AE's first written language, Tartessian, led to a shared conclusion: Celtic probably evolved from Indo-European in AE during the Bronze Age.
Data bearing on this problem has expanded explosively in recent years, but key research is divided by specialisms and languages (French, German, Portuguese, Spanish). A gulf separates archaeologists and linguists (who use effectively different languages even when speaking the same). Most researchers focus on one period and modern nation.
There are compelling reasons to view Metal Age Atlantic Europe as a whole. When AE's pre-Roman languages come into view, most are Indo-European, the majority specifically Celtic. Shared types of prestige metalwork used similarly across AE define the Atlantic Bronze Age (c. 1250-750 BC): complex cultural packages (using exotic raw materials), ideas and technology spread and evolved along Atlantic routes from the 3rd millennium BC onwards.
AIM: In an innovative initiative, a team of linguists and archaeologists will collaborate closely, sharing detailed evidence and methodologies, to overcome chronic barriers in Celtic Studies. The team will assemble a large body of archaeological and linguistic data bearing on the question of how, when, and where Proto-Celtic emerged from Indo-European. The evidence will in the first instance be compiled as an extensive GIS (Geographic Information Systems) project, combining: 1) pre-Roman language evidence in , contextualizing Celtic names and inscriptions in long temporal archaeological contexts; 2) evidence implying overseas contacts: a) international metalwork and ceramic types and their sites (burials, hoards, settlements, ritual sites); b) scientific evidence for mobility/geographic origin of materials and people; 3) 14C dates, isotope analysis, and ancient DNA.
OUTPUTS. We will share the GIS project with partners. The National Library of Wales will host an online version from 2013 (to include Iron Age data from the earlier project), maintained to 2019. International archaeologists and linguists will meet in a workshop in 2013 and conferences in 2014 and 2015. Cunliffe and Koch will edit books based on these events to follow Celtic from the West (2010; 2012). Monograph topics will include: Copper- and Bronze-Age western Iberia by UW RF Gibson (2013); Hispano-Celtic (2015) and Proto-Celtic (2016) by Koch and UW RF Fernández; later Irish prehistory by AHRC RF1. A resource on 14C dates and Bronze Age metal sourcing will be created by AHRC RF2 Bray (2016). The team will co-author a popular illustrated 'Palaeo-Atlantic World' and Welsh version (2015).
BENEFITS. Researchers habitually isolated by subject, discipline, and language will cross borders. The GIS project will provide a valuable multidisciplinary, multi-national resource, with open access in the website. We will use data and skills from private-sector archaeology, which in turn will benefit from innovative analysis by academics. Combining philology, heritage, academic and rescue archaeology will promote a rounded approach to the past, widening public access and opening career paths for specialists. Rethinking the history of the Celtic languages will challenge old ideas in the devolved regions. Celtic Studies is popular, but mass Celticism is haunted by passé Romanticism and imagined nations. A fresh approach as 'Palaeo-Atlantic studies' will spur interest and foster constructive new directions.

Planned Impact

The project will cross boundaries between disciplines and countries, building competitive international expertise in UK universities, with unprecedented networking and career-development opportunities. As well as seeking to overcome intellectual isolation of researchers working on facets of Atlantic Europe in the Metal Ages (c. 2900 BC-AD 400), our method will work against career barriers and require diverse specialists to share skills.

Outside universities the project will benefit three sectors: commercial archaeology, heritage and language policy (Welsh, Scottish Gaelic, Irish). An online bulletin (2013-16) will target international policy makers in heritage and language, curators, commercial-archaeology managers, and university researchers. It will provide primary information (with Portuguese, Spanish, French, and German summaries), as a gateway to the project's GIS database, website, conferences, and print publications.

The proliferation of recent data from commercial archaeology will be a principal source for information forming the project's GIS research core. The return will be an interactive resource of comparable data embracing AE over the 3rd-1st millennia BC. The interaction of commercial archaeologists and university-based researchers will help to fill an interpretative gap that has held back developer-led archaeology to date. Multiple modes of interrogation will be possible, including two approaches to archaeology and language: 1) identifying finds implying long-range mobility and shared cultural information; 2) extended analysis of the archaeological contexts of ancient evidence for indigenous languages.

With focuses on metal and ceramic artefacts and inscriptions on stone, the project's GIS database, website, and publications will be sources of up-to-date and internationally standardized information for thousands of objects held in provincial and national museums across Europe, as well as new interpretative modes to suggest how the material can (and cannot) be related to language and literature.

The partnerships with the National Museum and Royal Commission represent substantial synergies and sharing of agendas with the heritage sector, including interpretation of new and extant finds within an international context and their innovative presentation to the public. The project's focus on international artefact types and inscriptions in multi-period landscapes will offer new impetus and perspectives to initiatives of the Commission, such as the surveying of prehistoric monuments, uplands archaeology, and 'the Welsh Way of Death' (funerary traditions).

For the survival of indigenous languages in the devolved regions, numbers of speakers are symptomatic, but the central challenge is the relevance of Welsh, etc., to 21st-century life. Long claiming antiquity as 'Celtic', the relevance of these languages to later prehistory, in Europe, the UK, and their own national regions, is now at risk: Celticity is a disputed concept and widely held to exclude the Bronze and Megalithic Ages. The project offers a new approach, relating ancient Atlantic Europe directly to its indigenous languages without recourse to 18th-century Romanticism or a detour to the Iron Age Alpine Zone. Language policy makers (who are among our target audience) will benefit from links to heritage credibly based on current research and freed from Celticism's obsolete constructs. The work of the project and PI Koch featured this year in the BBC Story of Wales series (with Huw Edwards) and subsidiary television and radio programmes. We shall highlight potential for drawing Welsh and Gaelic into cultural tourism, expanding their established literary and folk-life domains. A Welsh version of a book on ancient Atlantic Europe (including pros and cons of the Atlantic Origins hypothesis as illuminated by the project) will be launched at the National Eisteddfod in 2015.
 
Description The thousands of detailed entries put into the AEMA database permit a much fuller understanding of the sharing of ideas, values, and complex information in regions along Europe's Atlantic Façade (Britain, Ireland, north-west France, and the western Iberian Peninsula) during the Copper Age and Bronze Age (c. 2800-800 BC). This fuller picture strengthens the case for cultural unity and continuity across this region at the stage before closely related Ancient Celtic languages were first attested in all parts of it. During the subsequent Iron Age (c. 800 BC to Roman times), Europe's Atlantic Façade is more culturally fragmented, with the Iberian Peninsula never fully participating in the Hallstatt and La Tène material culture characteristic of western Europe north of the Pyrenees. Therefore, the hypothesis that the Celtic languages of the region reflect a shared cultural legacy from the Bronze Age continues to look strong on the basis of the evidence collected and placed within a comparative framework. The research has also illuminated aspects of continuity in metalwork and burial practice between the Beaker phenomenon of Atlantic region in the 3rd millennium BC and the Atlantic Late Bronze Age of c. 1300-800 BC.
The compiled evidence also demonstrates continuity over several centuries of prehistoric anthropomorphic stelae in south-western Europe forming the background for the earliest indigenous written language in the region beginning in the Early Iron Age (by the 7th century BC).
Exploitation Route The findings of the AHRC-funded AEMA Project can be seen as favouring circumstantially the hypothesis we were testing, i.e. that Proto-Indo-European reached first reached Atlantic Europe and that the Celtic then emerged in the west before the Bronze-Iron Transition. During the period of the research (2013-2016) exciting breakthroughs have occurred in the study of Ancient DNA. We expect that it will soon be possible to confirm or modify the Atlantic Celtic hypothesis by comparing the archaeological and linguistic evidence we have compiled with aDNA from the same areas and eras and, in some instances, making use of human remains from the very same sites as now compiled in the AEMA Project's database and open-access website. We are already collaborating with archaeogeneticists in the UK and overseas on new multidisciplinary research.
Another area in which we expect future research to develop from the AEMA Project is in the study of rock art and inscribed stelae of western Europe in later prehistory. Our project focused on the Atlantic Façade, but found close similarities to rock art of Scandinavia dating from the same period. The similarities are close enough to imply direct contact and long-distance mobility, a conclusion also supported by the chemical provenancing of metals undertaken as part of AEMA. There is now considerable interest in promoting a collaborative effort involving researchers from the UK, Scandinavia, Portugal, and Spain. In the past, detailed comparisons of the carved stones have been hindered by their immobility (or near immobility) and the practical limitations imposed by fieldwork and conventional 2-dimensional images. In the near future, however, it will be possible to compare immovable objects separated by great distances in the form of digitized 3D scans downloaded to a single system. Such a project will allow researchers to compare the carved stones in detail as fine as or finer than could be achieved through fieldwork, and making side-by-side comparison of objects that remain in protected settings physically far apart.
Sectors Creative Economy,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
URL http://www.aemap.ac.uk/en/
 
Description Members of the AEMA Project research team have been involved with presenting new ideas about Celtic origins to the public. This work includes consulting with staff members of the British Museum and National Museum of Scotland concerning the Celtic exhibition being shown at those venues in 2015-2016. As part of the same exhibition, Co-I Cunliffe and PI Koch were amongst the panel of six discussing Celtic origins at the BM in October 2015. Cunliffe and Koch also consulted concerning project findings with BBC television concerning a 3-part series on the Celts broadcast in 2015, for which Koch was filmed on location in Portugal for the first programme. The project research figures in the BBC Celts series book (Alice Roberts, Celts: Search for a Civilization). Koch discussed the research of the AEMA Project on a segment of the Making History on BBC Radio 3. Koch consulted with the producers of the DNA Cymru series for Welsh-language concerning the AEMA Project's research on Beaker-period networks along the Atlantic seaways; he was filmed on location at a prehistoric copper mine in West Wales. Led by Co-I Cunliffe, the research team are presently completing a book concerning Celtic origins aimed at a non-specialist readership.
First Year Of Impact 2013
Sector Creative Economy,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
Impact Types Cultural
 
Description New methodologies in archaeological fieldwork for recovering human remains for ancient DNA analysis
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact It is only recently that ancient DNA analysis has been employed in archaeological research. Collecting ancient DNA can be fraught with challenges which includes contamination with modern DNA. By informing and advising archaeological companies about the best fieldwork practices to adopt when recovering and processing ancient human remains is having a significant impact in improving the quality and quantity of data available for future analysis. Ancient DNA analysis has the potential to provide a wealth of information about genetic changes, the origins and spread of disease, and human susceptibility and immunity. Educating archaeologists to undertake more controlled field practices will help provide a valuable uncontaminated resource for this important field of study.
 
Title AEMA database 
Description The AHRC-funded Atlantic Europe in the Metal Ages (AEMA) project has an online database: www.aemap.ac.uk. It will continue to grow over the life of the project. It contains searchable archaeological and historical linguistic evidence from the Atlantic region: Britain, Ireland, Armorica, Portugal, and western Spain. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Impact We expect more in the coming months and years. Non-specialist participants at conferences have mentioned it. 
URL http://www.aemap.ac.uk
 
Title Database: European chemical analyses from Antiquity 
Description A comprehensive database of chemical composition data, collected over the last 100 years from prehistoric European copper-alloy artefacts 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Continued collaboration with a wide range of international researchers 
 
Title GIS Database 
Description GIS Database of (1) Bronze Age burials and hoards, mainly in Britain, Ireland, northwest France and western Iberia and (2) ogam inscriptions in Ireland and Britain. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Impact Facilitates spatial and chronological mapping with a detailed searchable capacity. Used to inform conference presentations and papers. 
 
Title HISPANO-CELTIC VOCABULARY 
Description Multiple-search database with GIS georreference 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Impact Better search and classification of material 
 
Title New database for Atlantic Europe and the Metal Ages 
Description New multi-stranded open-source GIS driven database for collating large quantities of 'themed' data sets pertaining to the Atlantic Bronze and Iron Ages and later periods (c. 2800BC-AD500). Brings together disparate datasets (archaeological, linguistic and historical) to facilitate querying at many levels, both temporal and spatial. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Once updated and all data for the project has been entered, this open-source database will be freely accessible to all interested academic researchers in archaeology and palaeo-linguistics. It will also be available to non-academics and general-interest groups through the project website and ADS, and thus will exist long beyond the lifespan of the project. It brings together large disparate datasets for the first time and allows analysis of data that are rarely considered together. It will also provide a model for future databases and will thus help promote consistency in further data collation and subsequent analysis. 
URL https://aema-stg.dighum.kcl.ac.uk/admin/
 
Title New model for interpreting metal flow in antiquity 
Description New data analysis and archaeological model for understanding metal exchange, reuse, and recycling in antiquity. A universal model which considers copper source, alloying, technology and social context 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Series of conference presentations, papers, and discussions. Future funding applications to National and trans-national bodies are planned. 
 
Title New model for linking lead isotope ratios and chemical composition with technological interpretations 
Description As part of the AEMA project, this model is an new approach to linking lead isotope ratios datasets with chemical composition data. This new data analysis approach allows clearer and more plausible interpretations of copper-allloy metal use, exchange and production. This has implications for scientific approaches to metal use from all archaeological periods and regions. 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This research has been published in the peer reviewed journal 'Archaeometry' and has been discussed at a series of international and national conferences. Discussions are ongoing about further collaborations to further develop this model. 
 
Title Personal names from Celtic Inscribed Artefacts of the British Isles in the Early Medieval Period 
Description Georreferenced database, multiple search 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Impact Collection and analysis of material 
 
Description Cross-collaboration on ambitious aDNA projects 
Organisation University of Huddersfield
Department Department of Chemical and Biological Sciences
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I have helped to establish networks of interaction and advise on the archaeological potential of ancient human and animal remains from Late Neolithic and Bronze Age sites in Britain and Iberia
Collaborator Contribution By combining resources (archaeology, isotope analysis and ancient DNA) a much fuller understanding of the nature of past interaction and movement of the past. At present, much of the aDNA analysis is on-going but they will have a significant impact on this research in the future
Impact Conference presentations (EAAS Glasgow, AEMA forums in Aberystwyth and Cardiff). Contributions to AEMA project book publications
Start Year 2012
 
Description Atlantic Europe in the Metal Ages conference 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results Paper titled 'No bones about it: An Atlantic European context for some emerging patterns in Irish Bronze Age burials', presented at the Atlantic Europe in the Metal Ages conference in Cardiff.
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2014
 
Description BBC 2 "The Celts: Blood, Iron and Sacrifice" series 
Form Of Dissemination A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results The work of the AHRC funded project figures in the first episode of the 3-part series and the associated book (The Celts: Search for a Civilization) by Alice Roberts.
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2015
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b06h7x5f
 
Description BBC Radio 4 Making History programme, broadcast 28/01/2014 
Form Of Dissemination A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results Barry Cunliffe and I discussed the ideas motivating the AHRC-funded project with the presenters of the Making History radio programme on Radio 4. Barry Cunliffe was interviewed in London. I was interviewed on a prehistoric fortification in Gwynedd, North Wales.
Impact Barry Cunliffe and I have subsequently been advising on 3-part television series on the Celts being developed for BBC1 television.
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2014
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b03s70yb
 
Description Beaker People, Archaeogenetics, and Celtic Origins conference 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results Paper titled 'Beaker to Early Bronze Age burial in Atlantic Europe: questions of shared ideologies?' presented with colleague C. Gibson at 'Beaker People, Archaeogenetics, and Celtic Origins' conference in Aberystwyth.
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2015
 
Description British Museum panel discussion 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results This was a panel discussion chaired by Sir Barry Cunliffe entitled 'In search of the Celts: beyond art, language and genetics' organized to coincide with the British Museum's exhibition on "The Celts."
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2015
URL https://www.academia.edu/20532179/In_search_of_the_Celts_beyond_art_language_and_genetics
 
Description Bronze Age Archaeology Conference (Exeter) 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results This was a joint paper (with Dr Kerri Cleary) discussing results from the Atlantic Europe and the Metal Ages project to the wider European Bronze Age community. We presented a paper on 'Competing or complementary burial practices in Beaker- Early Bronze Age Atlantic Europe?'. We also formally launched the project database which contains tens of thousands of data that can be queried thematically through an open-source GIS platform (Django/Mezzanine).
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2015
 
Description Bronze Age Forum conference 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results Paper titled 'Competing or complementary burial rites in Beaker to Early Bronze Age Atlantic Europe? ' presented with colleague, C. Gibson at the Bronze Age Forum in Exeter. AEMA project GIS database also demonstrated to conference participants during presentation and conference tea/coffee breaks.
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2015
 
Description Bronze Age Forum, Queen's University Belfast 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results Professional archaeologists (some from the Continent and North America), scientists, and interested members of the public from the UK and Irish Republic attended.
Impact A paper describing the AHRC-funded project will be published in the conference proceedings. Contacts were established with commercial archaeologists and amateur archaeological societies.
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2013
URL http://www.prehistoricsociety.org/events/event/bronze_age_forum1/
 
Description Bronze Age seminar (Gothenburg, Sweden) 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results This was a discussion of my publications and the AHRC research project I lead with research staff and PhD students at the University Gothenburg.
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2015
 
Description Celtic Congress Glasgow 
Form Of Dissemination Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results The Celtic Congress was attended by hundreds of researchers from Europe and the New World, as well as students and interested members of the public.
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2015
URL http://www.celticstudiescongress.org/index.php/home/
 
Description Celtic Congress talk (Glasgow) 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results Sharing current research with leaders in Celtic studies from around the world.
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2015
URL https://www.academia.edu/14176791/Phoenicians_in_the_West_and_the_Break-up_of_the_Atlantic_Bronze_Ag...
 
Description Celto-Slavica keynote talk (Bangor) 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results The series of Celto-Slavica conferences moves between countries and is attended by professionals researchers from eastern Europe interested in Celtic studies and researchers from the West interested in international research in the field.
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2014
URL https://www.academia.edu/8299894/Indo-European_from_the_east_and_Celtic_from_the_west_reconciling_mo...
 
Description Co-organisation of a session at the European Association of Archaeologists (Glasgow) 
Form Of Dissemination Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results This session on mobility and identifying different scales of movement in the archaeological record was aimed at challenging our current interpretations on connectivity and interaction in the past. It sparked a great deal of debate and will result in a publication of the papers in an edited volume.
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2015
URL http://eaaglasgow2015.com/session/lost-in-space-or-the-inbetweeners-theorising-movement-meshworks-an...
 
Description Conference Presentation: Ancient Britain and the Atlantic Zone (Aberystwyth 2012) 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results Talk informed public and other researchers in the same field.
Impact Papers from this conference have been prepared for publication in an edited volume.
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2012
 
Description Conference Presentation: Archaeological Questions: Isotopic Answers? (Leiden, The Netherlands) 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results Conference session attended by approximately 150 people, with associated discussions and debates.
Impact Discussions with doctoral students about including isotopy research in their doctoral projects
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2014
 
Description Conference Presentation: Atlantic Europe in the Metal Ages (One-day Forum, Cardiff) 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results Conference session relating to the AHRC-funded project Atlantic Europe and the Metal Ages. New methodolgies, data sets and ideas put forward and imparted to wider academic and non-academic community
Impact Wider dissemination of the work of this project which will be published in an edited volume in 2015
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2014
URL http://www.aemap.ac.uk
 
Description Conference Presentation: Atlantic Europe in the Metal Ages 2014 (Cardiff, UK) 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results Conference session attended by approximately 200 people, with associated discussions and debates.
Impact Continued discussion and debate with colleagues and peers
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2014
 
Description Conference Presentation: BUMA VIII (Nara, Japan) 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results Conference session attended by approximately 500 people, with associated discussions and debates.
Impact Continued networking and debates with colleagues and peers
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2013
 
Description Conference Presentation: Bronze Age Forum 2013 (Belfast, UK) 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results Conference session attended by approximately 200 people, with associated discussions and debates.
Impact Continued debates and discussions with collaborators and peers
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2013
 
Description Conference Presentation: Bronze Age Forum 2013 (Belfast, UK) 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results Joint paper presentation interested researchers and created discussion afterward.s
Impact The paper resulting from this presentation has been written up for publication and will be published in an edited volume in 2015.
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2013
 
Description Conference Presentation: Computing and Statistical Applications in Archaeology (CAA 2014, Oxford, UK) 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results Conference session attended by approximately 200 people, with associated discussions and debates.
Impact Continued discussions and debated with colleagues and peers
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2014
 
Description Conference Presentation: Creativity in the Bronze Age (CINBA, Cambridge) 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results Conference session attended by approximately 200 people, with associated discussions and debates.
Impact Ongoing networking and collaboration with academic peers
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2013
 
Description Conference Presentation: European Association of Archaeologists (Istanbul) 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results Conference session that tackled new under-explored research avenues and resulted in much debate and exchange of information afterwards
Impact Collaborative networks were forged and proposals to publish the conference session were raised
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2014
URL http://howardwilliamsblog.wordpress.com/2013/11/10/dead-ends-funerary-flops-and-monumental-failures-...
 
Description Conference Presentation: Graduate Archaeology at Oxford Conference 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results An talk to a PostGraduate conference of archaeologists, on our ongoing AEMA project. Leading to further discussions and supervision of University projects.
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2015
 
Description Conference Presentation: National Library of Wales and Aberystwyth University 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results As part of the AEMA project's annual conference I presented on linking the chemical datasets of Bronze Age copper alloys, gold work and Geographcial Information Systems analysis. This lead to further debate and closer collaboration within the workgroup
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2015
 
Description Conference Presentation: Society for American Archaeology Meeting, San Francisco 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results A presentation as part of a conference session on new approaches to investigating prehistoric technology, in which I talked about the AEMA project. This lead to further discussion and collaboration.
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2015
 
Description Conference Session Organised: Social implications of recycling: European Association of Archaeologists meeting, Glasgow 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results With colleagues from the Universities of Leicester, Leuven, and Bordeux I organised a session at the annual international EAA conference. Within this session, which I chaired, I also presented results from the AEMA project. Overall, the main result was changing people's views on this topic, along with several requests for further information and collaboration
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2015
 
Description Conference presentation at European Association of Archaeologists (Glasgow) 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results Presentation of a paper on mobility and using theory, data and GIS modelling to offer new ways to interpret concepts of movement in the past. Between 50 and 100 people attended the session and it led to much discussion and debate and future developments including publication of the papers in the session
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2015
URL http://eaaglasgow2015.com/session/lost-in-space-or-the-inbetweeners-theorising-movement-meshworks-an...
 
Description Conference presentation for Atlantic Europe and the Metal Ages Forum 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results Forum organised as part of the Atlantic Europe and Metal Ages project on 'Beaker People, Archaeogenetics and Celtic Origins' ; part of a multi-disciplinary programme to explore connections between archaeology, philology and genetics
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2015
URL http://www.aemap.ac.uk/en/news-and-events/beaker-people-archaeogenetics-celtic-origins/
 
Description Conference presentation: Atlantic Europe in the Metal Ages 2014 (Cardiff, UK) 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results Conference attended by approximately 200 people, with associated discussions and debates.
Impact Continued discussion and debate with colleagues and peers
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2014
 
Description Conference presentation: European Association of Archaeologists 2013 (Plzen, Czech Republic) 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results All-day session at conference with associated discussion, attended by approximately 100 people.
Impact Requested contribution to publication based on presentations; paper was submit for peer review in 2014
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2013
 
Description Dei Tomos interview (Radio Cymru) 
Form Of Dissemination A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results I was interviewed for Welsh-language radio as part of a programme on the 30th anniversay of the founding the Centre for Advanced Welsh and Celtic Studies, discussing my research areas including the AHRC-funded AEMA project.
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2015
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b007rkss
 
Description European Association of Archaeologists conference 
Form Of Dissemination Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results Paper titled 'A walk on the wild side: off-site occupation during the Irish Bronze Age', presented at the 21st Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists in Glasgow. Also presented a poster 'Fusing burial traditions: Ireland from the Chalcolithic to the Early Bronze Age' and co-organised two sessions; 'Lost in Space, or The Inbetweeners: Theorising Movement, Meshworks and Materialities in the Past' with Dr C. Gibson (CAWCS, University of Wales) and Dr C. J. Frieman (Australian National University) and 'Identities in Construction: Reconsidering the Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age Transition in Western Europe' with Dr N. Carlin (University College Dublin), Dr A. Jorge (University of Aberdeen) and Dr L. Salanova (CNRS, Maison de l'archéologie et de l'ethnologie).
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2015
 
Description Examen comparativo de la onomástica personal celta de Hispania y Britannia 
Form Of Dissemination A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results Paper, discussion, questions
Impact further collaboration
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2014
URL http://www.racv.es/es/content/xxx-seminario-de-lenguas-y-de-epigrafia-antiguas-%E2%80%9Cd-fletcher-v...
 
Description F.E.R.CAN Workshop (Lampeter) 
Form Of Dissemination A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results Experts on ancient religions from several European countries attended and discussed recent work.
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2014
URL https://www.facebook.com/fercan14
 
Description FERCAn talk (Lampeter) 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results Talk given by J. Koch and Fernando Fernández at Lampeter as part of the FERCAn workshop on ancient Celtic religion(s).
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2014
URL https://www.facebook.com/fercan14
 
Description Guest Lecture: Aberystwyth University 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results An invited evening seminar to talk to colleagues and other professionals on our ongoing AEMA project. Leading to further discussion and collaboration.
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2015
 
Description Guest Lecture: Goethe University Frankfurt 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results An invited evening lecture to talk to colleagues and other professionals on our ongoing AEMA project and the use of chemical analysis in archaeology. This has lead to further discussion, requests for information and collaboration.
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2015
 
Description Iberian Peninsula South-West script, Celtiberian vocabulary and ogham personal names: the adventures of a Spaniarg at CAWCS 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results Seminar
Impact Better understanding of my research by other colleagues
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2014
 
Description International Celtic Studies Conference (Glasgow) 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results Conference presentation at the International Celtic Studies Congress in Glasgow. This was part of an inter-disciplinary Congress on Celtic Studies, Linguistics and Archaeology. The paper tile was on 'Across the Seas: assessing archaeological evidence for connectivity along the Atlantic façade during the late second and early first millennia BC'.
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2015
 
Description International Congress of Celtic Studies conference 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results Paper (written in conjunction with C. Gibson) titled 'Across the seas: assessing archaeological evidence for connectivity along the Atlantic façade during the late second and early first millennium BC', presented at the 15th International Congress of Celtic Studies in Glasgow.
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2015
 
Description International Virtual Heritage School 2013 2nd International Virtual Heritage School 9th - 13th December 2013 - See more at: http://www.v-must.net/schools/international-virtual-heritage-school-2013#sthash.v68SvCj0.dpuf 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results Discussion followed.
Impact AEMA featured strongly as an example of a "distributed research platform".
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2013
URL http://www.v-must.net/schools/international-virtual-heritage-school-2013
 
Description Iron Age Diasporas 
Form Of Dissemination A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results It has not been held yet. The scope of the programme involves adequate periods of discussion between experts from different fields.
Impact Too soon to tell.
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2014
URL http://www.le.ac.uk/ebulletin-archive/ebulletin/news/press-releases/2010-2019/2010/09/nparticle.2010...
 
Description Language and archaeology in Atlantic Europe. Discussion panel 
Form Of Dissemination A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results Dialogue, discussion
Impact Further links with other colleagues
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2014
 
Description Lecture at AEMA Forum (Aberystwyth 2015) 
Form Of Dissemination Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results Illustrated lecture given at forum BEAKER PEOPLE, ARCHAEOGENETICS & CELTIC ORIGINS: an multisciplinary (archaeology, historical linguistics, genetics) day conference open to the public, combining talks by leading experts from the UK, Germany, Sweden, held at the National Library of Wales John T. Koch & Fernando Fernández Palacios (CAWCS) Some third-millennium questions: PIE > PC - where? when? how?
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2015
URL http://www.wales.ac.uk/Resources/Documents/Centre/2015/rhaglen-ysgafn-ddwyieithog-2015.pdf
 
Description Max Planck Institute workshop (Jena, Germany) 
Form Of Dissemination A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results This workshop discussed recent pioneering genetics work, bringing in the perspectives of archaeologists and historical linguists from around the world.
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2015
URL http://www.shh.mpg.de/105110/lag_conference
 
Description Open day at Meillionydd Excavations season 4, 2013 
Form Of Dissemination Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results Open day visitors asked numerous questions, considerable amounts of discussion ensued, several invitations to give presentations at various venues were extended to our team, and several of the visitors decided to volunteer either later in this excavation season or in the following season
Impact several invitations to give presentations to local historical societies etc. were extended, and several visitors decided to volunteer during this or the following excavation season
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2013
URL https://www.facebook.com/meillionydddig
 
Description Open day at Meillionydd Excavations season 5, 2014 
Form Of Dissemination Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results As with 2013 Meillionydd excavation open days
Impact As with 2013 Meillionydd excavation open day
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2014
URL https://www.facebook.com/meillionydddig
 
Description Paper for Corwen Archaeology Society; on "Excavations at Moel Fodig Late Bronze and Iron Age Hillfort" 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards
Impact requests for further information received
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2014
 
Description Paper for Neuheiden Stammtisch Wien, Austria; on "Hausfrieden im bronze- und eisenzeitlichen Europa" 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results Talk sparked questions and discussions afterwards, was broadcast on 'Neopagan' webradio in Vienna, Austria, and resulted in participation of one Austrian volunteer (who had attended this talk) in Meillionydd excavations 2014
Impact one person who attended this talk decided to participate in the Meillionydd excavations 2014 (in Wales) based on the interest in the archaeological process that the talk had sparked. Several more are considering participation in future excavation seasons or have started to volunteer in Austrian archaeological excavations
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2013
URL http://cba.fro.at/265662
 
Description Papers at Menter y Felin Uchaf near Rhiw, on "Excavations in a Late Bronze and Iron Age Double Ringwork Enclosure at Meillionydd, North West Wales" 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards
Impact several follow-up requests for information were received
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2013,2014
URL https://www.facebook.com/meillionydddig
 
Description S4C DNA Cymru 
Form Of Dissemination A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results With work based on the AHRC-funded project, I was involved in consulting with the Welsh-language television series "DNA Cymru" and I took part in filming on-site at a Bronze Age copper mine.
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2015
URL http://www.s4c.cymru/cymrudnawales/e_index.shtml
 
Description Seminar 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results Presentation about my role in the project to fellow staff
Impact Raising awareness of the aims of the project.
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2013
 
Description Short note (Questions of shared language) introducing the project 
Form Of Dissemination A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results Announcing the project in Ireland, resulting in greater access to grey literature
Impact The National Roads Authority (Ireland) requested a more detailed report on the project results for inclusion in their 2015 publication.
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2013
URL http://www.nra.ie/archaeology/seanda-the-nra-archaeology-magazine/Seanda_8_English_interactive.pdf
 
Description Societas Celto-Slavica 7ed Colociwm, Prifysgol Bangor, 4-6 Medi 2014 7th Colloquium, Bangor University, 4-6 September 2014 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results The audience included academics and professionals in government and finance from Russia and other eastern European countries, as well as academics and interested generalists from Ireland Wales.
Impact Further collaborations are planned. The series of proceedings may henceforth be published and printed in Wales.
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2014
URL http://arts.ulster.ac.uk/icsri/category/conferences/celto-slavica/
 
Description Talk to like-minded researchers on a fieldtrip 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results Talk to peers during a field trip sparked debate and collaboration.
Impact This resulted in international cross-collaboration and future sharing of data sets.
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2014
 
Description The AEMA Project. Discussion panel 
Form Of Dissemination A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results Questions, discussion, dialogue
Impact Improvements
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2014
 
Description Twitter account for project 
Form Of Dissemination A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results Advertising the project to the general public and professional colleagues
Impact Expanding the networks of interaction
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2013,2014
URL https://twitter.com/AEMAP_UoW
 
Description Workshop 
Form Of Dissemination Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results One-day workshop of leading experts sharing ideas in four themed discussion panels, resulting in associated discussions and debates.
Impact Continued discussion and debate with colleagues and peers. Collaboration with participants at future conferences.
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2014
 
Description Workshop day: Sheffield-Oxford knowledge exchange 
Form Of Dissemination A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results As part of an ongoing series of discussions between the archaeology departments of Sheffield and Oxford I presented on our ongoing research interests.
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2015
 
Description Workshop on material recycling in Later Prehistory, University of Leicester 
Form Of Dissemination A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results I was invited to take part in a small workshop and discussion day on identifying recycling in high temperature materials in later prehistory. This was a useful and detailed debate with senior colleagues, which has lead to a number of ongoing collaborations and the organisation of conference sessions
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2015
 
Description Workshop on using chemistry in Iron Age coinage systems, British Museum 
Form Of Dissemination A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results Participation in a small workshop discussion on the use of chemistry to investigate coinage, economic and social value in later prehistoric societies. I discussed the AEMA project and this has lead to further requests for information and collaboration.
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2015
 
Description formal seminar (Gothenburg, Sweden) 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results This was a lecture for advanced researchers on Bronze Age archaeology and the origin and spread of the Indo-European languages and formation of Proto-Celtic,
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2015
 
Description public lecture (Gothenburg, Sweden) 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results This was a lecture presenting a new theory on the origins of the Celtic languages aimed at a generalist Scandinavian audience.
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2015
URL https://www.academia.edu/19895000/Celtic_from_the_West
 
Description talk in Irun (2014) 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results This was a talk given as part of a conference on Basque studies held in the Basque country (in Spain) and attended by over 400 people. Conference title: FROM THE PRE-ROMAN VASCONES TO THE KINGDOM OF NAVARRE. Talk was entitled: " Indo-European and non-Indo-European in Atlantic Europe in later prehistory and the emergence of Celtic ".
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2014
URL http://www.jauzarrea.com/en/pre-roman-vascones-kingdom-navarre
 
Description talk in Irun (2015) 
Form Of Dissemination A talk or presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results A talk given to a multidisciplinary conference in the Basque country, open to the public and attended by 400+ people. Conference title: THE BASQUES FROM THE 16th CENTURY UNTIL THE EARLY 21st CENTURY. Paper title: The emergence of the Celtic language in Atlantic Europe in later prehistory and its relationship with Proto Basque
Year(s) Of Dissemination 2015
URL http://www.jauzarrea.com/en/basques-16th-century-until-early-21st-century