Pictures of Peace and Justice: Documentation, Evidence and Impact of Visual Material in International War Crimes Prosecution

Lead Research Organisation: King's College London
Department Name: War Studies

Abstract

Pictures of Peace and Justice: Evidence and Impact of Visual Material in Internationalised War Crimes Prosecutions

This project builds on three previous projects: an AHRC funded project on War Crimes, a US Institute for Peace funded project on the Special Court for Sierra Leone, and an ESRC project on media and security, which produced research findings on moving images in relation to war crimes and transitional justice. The project is a pilot study to investigate the importance of visual material vis a vis other types of material at three stages of the process of establishing internationalised judicial processes (i.e. international courts and domestic processes with both significant international input and context). The first of these is the context in which these judicial bodies are created. The second is the conduct of trials. The third is the impact beyond the courtroom on issues of peace and security. The project will (i) identify, document, critically appraise and create data sets of examples of visual evidence at each of the three stages identified; (ii) conduct semi-structured interviews with judicial, policy, media and military-security practitioners to investigate knowledge, understanding and judgement on the relative importance of visual material at each of the three stages; (iii) carry out focus group research to investigate beliefs, values and attitudes regarding particular examples of visual evidence, in light of stages (i) and (ii), including generating processes and cases, use as evidence in trials, and impact on post-conflict societies and communities. The pilot project will test the feasibility and potential significance of research in this area for a subsequent larger research funding proposal. Asa pilot project, the scope will be limited to investigation of these issues primarily in relation to the mid-twentieth century cases of Germany and Japan, where established research and resources will be exploited, and the late-twentieth and twenty-first century cases of the former Yugoslavia and Sierra Leone, where the Principal Investigator and Co-Investigator have extensive research experience.
 
Title Exhibition 
Description Ruins of Time, Exhibition, The Crypt Gallery, London, Curated by Milena Michalski, Artwork by Milena Michalski 
Type Of Art Artistic/Creative Exhibition 
Year Produced 2015 
Impact London Munich Exchange formed; further activity in development; funding from City of Munich, Department of Arts and Culture 
URL http://cryptgallery.org/event/187/
 
Title PPJ film 
Description Film about visual material and war crimes 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2011 
Impact Used to inform seminar/training audiences London, Belgrade, New York 
URL http://projects.beyondtext.ac.uk/project_gallery.php?i=43&p=Pictures%20of%20Peace%20and%20Justice%20...
 
Title Restaurant at the End of the Third Reich - and Other Invisible War Crimes Sites 
Description Film about the Restaurant on the site of Hitler's Bunker and other 'invisible' war crimes sites 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2012 
Impact Gave rise to art work and further collaboration with Producer Tony Coll and Associates 
URL http://projects.beyondtext.ac.uk/project_gallery.php?i=43&p=Pictures%20of%20Peace%20and%20Justice%20...
 
Title Screenprints 
Description Set of screenprints relating to invisible war crimes sites 
Type Of Art Artwork 
Year Produced 2011 
Impact The researcher who experimented in doing these went on to study fine art and to become and artist/researcher and to win a Residency at the Southbeach Lookout, Aldeburgh. One screenprint was used as a bookcover. The screenprints have been shown at King's Place, London, Chelsea College of Fine Arts, London; the Southbeach Lookout, Aldeburgh: and Clifford Chance and Partners, London. 
URL http://www.milenamichalski.com
 
Description The research investigated investigated the importance of visual material in relation to war crimes prosecutions. It did so with regard to three broad phases - prior to prosecutions, at trials and beyond the courtroom. We found that visual material was important at each of these stages, but that it was particularly important in the last of these phases, reaching out beyond the courtroom to connect with wider publics and shaping public appreciation and memory of war crimes. This could make some difference in terms of peace and security, where our research confirmed that, otherwise, internationalised judicial intervention has been found wanting by victims and communities it was believed war crimes prosecutions would help. The focused use of visual material, where relevant, in outreach work might well enable international judicial bodies to be more effective in their mission to restore and maintain peace and justice. This research used four main methods. (1) Identification, documentation, critical appraisal and recording of examples of visual material in relation to war crimes in three discrete phases: generating processes and cases; use as evidence in trials; and impact on post-conflict societies and communities. This included survey of secondary sources; survey of accessible visual resources, including You Tube, Sense Agency, the ICTY and other international judicial bodies, material in the Liddell Hart archive and personal collections at King's College London, the Robert H. Jackson Center, the Imperial War Museum, London, commercially available material, and private collections. (2) Semi-structured interviews with judicial, policy, media and military-security practitioners to investigate knowledge, understanding and judgement on the relative importance of visual material at each of the three stages. (3) Critical appraisal of content and visually-related discourse in relation to examples of visual material salient at the three stages identified, or where the absence of visual evidence has been significant or visual evidence has been qualified by other forms of evidence. (4) The core of our research comprised 21 focus group research sessions we conducted to investigate beliefs, values and attitudes and publics in the former Yugoslavia and London regarding images and war crimes, as well as particular examples of visual evidence identified in the research regarding the different phases under investigation.
Exploitation Route Our research has been important outside academia in three ways. First, we have confirmed the great importance of visual material in trials, both as evidence and as a way of shaping the courtroom and the conduct of proceedings. This is of benefit to those engaged in the courtroom and reflexively our work has raised awareness of this among prosecution and defence counsels in the course of our research. Secondly, in the course of our research and research workshop in Belgrade, we brought the issue of visual material and war crimes to the attention of the Legal Consultant to the OSCE Mission to Serbia, who became interested in this area and invited the project to submit questions to a major public opinion survey the Mission was commissioning on the issue of war crimes. These questions were discussed and included in the survey, the results of which are about to be known at the time of completing this report. Thus, our research added a new dimension to the OSCE's own research agenda and helped shaped its research, in practice. We anticipate discussing results with the Mission and contributing to the OSCE's own critical evaluation of findings. Finally, our finding regarding the impact of visual material beyond the courtroom and its potential for connection the work of tribunals with relevant communities has been discussed with the Head of Outreach at the ICTY, who has engaged with us in the course of the research, and with whom we have discussed the possibility follow-on research, in which we will work collaboratively to investigate the ways in which the potential for visual material to make a difference beyond the courtroom can be harnessed in conjunction with other activities and modes of communication.
Sectors Government, Democracy and Justice,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections,Security and Diplomacy,Other
URL http://www.kcl.ac.uk/sspp/departments/warstudies/research/groups/wc/projects.aspx
 
Description 1. The legal projects coordinator in the Belgrade office of the OSCE approached us directly after becoming aware of the research we were conducting. We submitted a selection of questions May 2011, which were subsequently refined and agreed, to be included in the poll. Various circumstances delayed the conducting of this opinion survey. Results are being processed at the time of preparing this report and are not yet available. However, our research will benefit ultimately from this engagement and already had a significant impact with the OSCE, adding a new dimension to its work conceptually and adding questions for its study practically. The legal projects coordinator in the Belgrade office of the OSCE approached us directly after becoming aware of the research we were conducting. We submitted a selection of questions May 2011, which were subsequently refined and agreed, to be included in the poll. Various circumstances delayed the conducting of this opinion survey. However, our research had a significant impact with the OSCE, adding a new dimension to its work conceptually and adding questions for its study practically. 2. Our finding regarding the impact of visual material beyond the courtroom and its potential for connection the work of tribunals with relevant communities was been discussed with the Head of Outreach at the ICTY, who engaged with us in the course of the research, and with whom we discussed the possibility follow-on research, in which we will work collaboratively to investigate the ways in which the potential for visual material to make a difference beyond the courtroom can be harnessed in conjunction with other activities and modes of communication. She was able to commit confidently to commissioning further films relating to the Tribunal's work for outreach. 3. The impact of visual material in the courtroom was discussed with legal practitioners, including defence counsel. They benefited from the research by enhancing awareness of the role of visual material in shaping the courtroom and assisting judges to understand background issues.
First Year Of Impact 2011
Sector Government, Democracy and Justice,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
Impact Types Policy & public services
 
Description Major Research Fellowship
Amount £147,246 (GBP)
Organisation The Leverhulme Trust 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 09/2013 
End 08/2016
 
Description PaCCS Conflict Theme
Amount £795,806 (GBP)
Funding ID AH/P005365/1 
Organisation Arts & Humanities Research Council (AHRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 12/2016 
End 12/2018
 
Description Science and Security
Amount £239,399 (GBP)
Funding ID ES/K011413/1 
Organisation Research Councils UK (RCUK) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 05/2013 
End 11/2014
 
Description IWM Seminar 
Organisation Imperial War Museum
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We arranged two thirds of the programme for a project related seminar on visual material and war crimes. We provided funding for refreshments, speaker travel etc.
Collaborator Contribution IWM hosted the seminar, provided time staff, arranged one third of programme, arranged publicity for a public event.
Impact Conference. Contributed to books - under publications. Disciplines: history, politics, law, visual culture, visual media
Start Year 2010
 
Description Tony Coll 
Organisation Tony Coll and Associates
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Research material used to make films; research team members contribute on screen; assist in scriptwriting
Collaborator Contribution Film production; on screen presentation
Impact Pictures of Peace and Justice (Film under Creative Outputs) The Restaurant at the End of the Third Reich... and Other Invisible War Crimes Sites (Film Under Creative Outputs)
Start Year 2010
 
Description Artistic Exhibition - Crypt Gallery 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Art exhibition organised by Milena Michalski at the Crypt Gallery London, bringing together British and German artists, creating new artwork, creation new organisation London Munich Exchange, funding from City of Munich Department of Arts and Culture
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://cryptgallery.org/event/187/
 
Description BBC A Deadly Warning: Srebrenica Revisted 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Consultant to BBC for TV documentary, working with producer Gillian Bancroft
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b061v968
 
Description BISA CONFERENCE 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Paper and presentation of the use of visual material in the courtroom at the ICTY
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.bisa.ac.uk/files/Conference%20programmes/2016/3__Conference_Programme_2016.pdf
 
Description City of London School 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Talk/presentation on The ICTY, the Mladic and Karadzic Trials and the question of genocide in Bosnia and Hercegovina
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description ISA Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk resulted in discussion and invitation to submit written article for consideration by journal.

Invitation to submit article
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Workshop presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation on innovative technologies and future war crimes
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.kcl.ac.uk/sspp/departments/warstudies/events/eventsrecords/New-Frontiers-in-War-Technolog...