Dama International: fallow deer (Dama dama dama) and European society 4000 BC - AD 1600

Lead Research Organisation: University of Nottingham
Department Name: Archaeology

Abstract

Visit any stately home and you will find a herd of European fallow deer (Dama dama dama). These elegant animals are one of natural history's puzzles because, despite their name, they are not of European origin: they are native to Turkey from where people have gradually transported them around the globe. The distribution of fallow deer is thus a direct record of human population movements, trade and ideology with the potential to provide cultural evidence of the highest quality and relevance for a range of disciplines and audiences.

There are many publications devoted to fallow deer but these largely recycle 'received wisdom'. In fact, astonishingly little is known about fallow deer; their history is obfuscated by ambiguous linguistic, textual, iconographic and archaeological evidence. To rectify this situation we carried out a pilot study, The Fallow Deer Project, whose results have challenged established theories about the species' history and provided new insights into Roman, Anglo-Saxon and Norman society. It also highlighted the scarcity of scientific work on fallow deer and demonstrated how a new dataset will enable us to explore some of the highest-profile issues in European archaeology: e.g. the nature and spread of the Neolithic in the eastern Mediterranean and the structure and worldview of societies in the Bronze Age Aegean, Iron Age Greece and Gaul, and the Roman, Byzantine, Islamic and Norman Empires.

To realise this potential, our transdisciplinary team will employ methods proven by our pilot study - e.g. the integration of archaeology, history, geography and anthropology with genetics, stable isotope analysis and osteological research - to answer the following questions:

1) Were fallow deer domesticated?
Domestication is a high-profile topic but it has been overlooked in relation to D. d. dama. Interestingly, unlike cattle, sheep or horses, fallow deer provide no milk, wool or traction to warrant their maintenance, yet most archaeological Dama lived into old age - what prompted different human groups to form close, long-term relationships with this species?

2) Under what circumstances were fallow deer established across Europe?
Fallow deer translocation seemingly began in the Neolithic and by the Bronze Age they were established throughout the Aegean. They appear to have held a magico-religious status that endured into the Iron Age and Roman period, when their bones were traded as holy relics. This trade has confused understanding of Dama biogeography but our research indicates that the Romans established the species across Europe. We now need to clarify how, from where and why these animals/body parts were transported.

3) Did the collapse of the Roman Empire cause extirpation of fallow deer?
Evidence for fallow deer is scarce in early medieval Europe; however, they may have been present but simply not exploited by people. The results of this question will be considered further in questions 4 and 5.

4) Did the Normans reintroduce fallow deer via Islamic influence?
The idea that fallow deer, the Arabic concept of parks and new hunting rituals were exported from the Norman Kingdom of Sicily is based on circumstantial evidence. We will examine all available data from the Islamic and Christian medieval world either to confirm existing beliefs and provide insights into the culture-contact of this period, or to indicate that Roman Dama populations endured in pre-Norman Europe, necessitating a re-assessment of the Norman Conquest's impact.

5) How do human-Dama relationships reveal worldview?
It has been shown repeatedly that the relationship between humans and wild animals reflects a society's structure and beliefs. Certainly wherever fallow deer were translocated, they were incorporated into expressions of socio-cultural identity and ideology. We will explore how different human groups negotiated status, gender, religious and cultural beliefs through interactions with fallow deer.

Planned Impact

Our pilot project highlighted three main non-academic groups with whom we wish to engage: 1) general public, 2) primary school children, 3) those involved with deer management, conservation and legislation

1. General public. Fallow deer are as much a part of Europe's cultural heritage as the more visible monuments of Stonehenge or Fountains Abbey but, because they are abundant and widespread, their cultural significance is overlooked. Yet it is their very familiarity that makes fallow deer engaging cultural and educational resources- they can be accessed by anyone. Our pilot study demonstrated that fallow deer have considerable public appeal: our contributions to the British Deer Society's magazine were very well received by the BDS's 5,300 membership (we were contacted by a large number of members) with one article requested for re-publication in another general interest magazine 'Saxon'. Growing interest in introduced species is reflected by the BBC, who are planning a new series on the history of Britain, told through the stories of animal extinctions and invasions (linked to O'Connor and Sykes 2010 - see Sykes CV). We plan to collaborate with the BBC on this series but are proposing a range of other activities to disseminate our research to the public (see Pathways to Impact)

2. Primary school children. Our project fits well with the English history curriculum, particularly Key Stage 2 (Roman Impact) and Key Stage 3 (Norman Conquest and the Crusades). We will work with education officers from at least three UK museums, providing them with teaching packs/educational resources to complement their existing activities (Pathways to Impact).

3. Deer management, conservation and legislation
Today deer are a serious economic, environmental and political issue with debate surrounding their impact, management and conservation - contentious issues that can all be addressed through studies of the past. This is exemplified by modern British deer legislation: existing laws have their origins in Roman/medieval codes that were established to address issues of the time (e.g. poaching) but bear little relevance to current concerns, e.g. damage to natural heritage sites and deer collisions on our roads. Phillip et al. (2009) have shown how historical analyses of deer numbers, environmental change and the changing legal framework are vital for informing contemporary debate over sustainable deer management. To this end Dama International will work with national organisations (the British Deer Society, the Deer Initiative, RELU and the Forestry Commission are all involved in our Deer and People conference) to offer a long-term perspective on deer management and new ways forward for modern deer legislation.

We will actively collaborate with deer managers, briefing them on the significance of fallow deer and providing information on the origin and diversity of their regional populations - issues key to the development of effective management strategy. They will also be trained in the collection of DNA samples so that they might engage directly in our research.

Importantly, we will address deer conservation; for although domestic Dama have a worldwide distribution, they are almost extinct in the wild. There is just one surviving 'native' population, living free at Termessos National Park in Turkey: the IUCN Red List of threatened species classifies this herd as 'under serious threat' and requiring 'strong anti-poaching measures, recovery management and re-introductions'. Our project will publicise Termessos's conservation efforts and, through the collection of genetic material, help preserve this vulnerable herd, especially by assessing levels of inbreeding and gauging its effective size - both by-products of the broader DNA study (Pathways to Impact).

Phillip et al. 2009. Is legislation a barrier to the sustainable manageme

Publications


10 25 50
Madgwick R (2013) Fallow deer (Dama dama dama) management in Roman South-East Britain in Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences
Miller H Diana and her deer in Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplementary Series
 
Title 30 minute documentary "Dama: the deer that walked the world" 
Description During the course of our project we worked with wildlife film-maker, Luke Saddler, who accompanied us on some of our research trips to document the process, discussions and results of our research. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2015 
Impact The results of our project and a link to the film have been uploaded to the 'Education' section of the British Deer Society http://www.bds.org.uk/index.php/advice-education/species/fallow-deer 
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6aagY-9wdtk
 
Title Exhibition at Dudley Castle Museum 
Description Having analysed some of the fallow deer specimens from Dudley Castle, the curators of the museum were keen to explain to the public about the results of our work. We provided them with 5 magnetic display boards with linked activities, telling the Norman story of the fallow deer. 
Type Of Art Artistic/Creative Exhibition 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact Museums seldom focus their attention on the story of animals, a significant oversight given that the bulk of the archaeological record consists of debris from human-animal relationships. Our exhibition has highlighted to the curator that important cultural stories can be told through animals. The exhibition has only recently opened - its impact will become clearer over the coming months. 
 
Title Fallow Deer Exhibition at Fishbourne Roman Palace 
Description Through our collaboration with Fishbourne Roman Palace we co-organised an exhibition telling the story of the Roman deer, which is on display in the Collections Discovery Centre (free entry). The exhibition consists of 8 magnetic display boards with associated activities, an interactive display unit whereby the collections can be explored, and a touch-screen display with film-clips explaining the methods and interpretation of the scientific analyses conducted upon the Roman fallow deer from Fishbourne 
Type Of Art Artistic/Creative Exhibition 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact Museums seldom focus their attention on the story of animals, a significant oversight given that the bulk of the archaeological record consists of debris from human-animal relationships. Our exhibition has highlighted to the curator that important cultural stories can be told through animals. The exhibition opened on 01/09/14 and by 30/04/15 had received 33,528 visitors. 
 
Title Fallow Deer Project website 
Description Project website 
Type Of Art Artefact (including digital) 
Year Produced 2011 
Impact The website is the project's front face, the mechanism through which people find and contact us. 
URL http://fallow-deer-project.net/home
 
Title Films for the National Trust 
Description The National Trust have several properties around the county that maintain fallow deer herds. They invited us to create a series of property specific films about their deer, in return for access to collections and samples. Some of the footage from these films will be cut together to create the final project film. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2013 
Impact By delivering on these films, we have generated significant goodwill with the National Trust. They have given us privileged access to their properties and collections, as well as acting as hosts for workshops and providing us with skeletal material for our teaching collections. Collaboration with the trust has certainly increased our ability to connect with the public. 
URL https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCTfEwPif_O8YjY15Tnejkug
 
Description At the start of this project, our hypothesis - based on existing literature and research - was that all modern European fallow deer (Dama dama dama) around the world descended from an Anatolian glacial refuge population. By bringing together evidence from the Arts, Humanities and Sciences, our project can now reject this hypothesis with confidence.

The story of the fallow deer's diffusion is far more complex. It involves deer populations that are now extinct due to over-hunting, and it involves culture-contact that was hitherto unknown on the basis of material culture studies.

We have been able to demonstrate that, across time and space, fallow deer have held important, but varied, social and cultural positions. In the Near East and the Balkans they were initially quarry, hunted alongside other wild mammals by the hunter-gatherers of the Mesolithic period. In the Neolithic, it would appear that attempts were made to domesticate fallow deer, with closer relationships being evident between deer and people. As part of this, populations were moved to off-shore Mediterranean islands, which later became the settings for Bronze Age hunting.

It was during the Bronze Age that fallow deer appear to have become religious symbols, being closely aligned with the goddess Artemis, evidenced by the iconography, material culture and the contexts in which fallow deer remains are recovered.

We now believe that it was the association between fallow deer and Artemis (as well as her later incarnation as Roman Diana) that was responsible for the spread of fallow deer across Roman Europe.

This Roman diffusion of fallow deer took the species to Italy, across to western Europe and up through northern Europe to Britain. Whilst the Roman-introduced populations endured in southern and western Europe, we now know that the populations established in Roman Britain went completely extinct when the Empire withdrew.

Our evidence points to a reintroduction in the 11th century AD, most probably from south-east Europe. Previously it was believed that the reintroduction was linked to the Norman Conquest; however, our results would suggest that this may not be the case. The introduction appears to be pre-Conquest, with implications for our understanding of early medieval culture contact, ideology and landscape.

These pre-Conquest deer were taken to Ireland in the Anglo-Norman period (12th/13th century) and were later transported back across the English Channel, becoming established across northern Europe. During the height of the British Empire, fallow deer were taken from England as far afield as the Caribbean, notably to the island of Barbuda where fallow deer are, today, the island's national symbol.

Aside from understanding the cultural heritage of the species, this project has made significant scientific findings concerning the biology, genetic make-up and conservation requirements of global fallow deer populations. We have generated extensive new ancient and modern genetic, isotopic and metric data-sets for the European and Mesopotamian fallow deer. These data are all publicly available and will underpin research for years to come.

This project has highlighted the importance of animal studies (so often over-looked in archaeological research) to understanding the migration patterns, practices and ideologies of past cultures, for rendering these findings relevant to the present and utilizing them to predict future issues of cultural and biological conservation.
Exploitation Route Our findings are significant not only for understanding the ideology and environmental impact of past cultures but also for the present and future. The results of our study are of direct relevance for modern deer management and conservation (neither of these can be considered in isolation from human culture - see Sykes and Putman 2014) but also for issues of food security.

Our results are already being showcased in two museum exhibitions (Fishbourne Roman Palace and Dudley Castle Museum) and have been converted into four short films for National Trust properties, with more to follow. The National Trust's deer managers have been trained in our research and approach to outreach. Several properties are now using the resources we have provided them with to deliver their own educational programmes, concerning the cultural heritage represented by their deer herds but also the benefits of eating their venison.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Creative Economy,Education,Environment,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
URL http://www.fallow-deer-project.net
 
Description From the project's inception we highlighted three main non-academic groups with whom we planned to engage: 1) general public, 2) primary school children, 3) those involved with deer management, conservation and legislation. Over the last few years we have become aware that the most effective impact occurs when all three are merged, which has led to the establishment of 4) the 'Fair Game Initiative'. 1. General public. Fallow deer are as much a part of Europe's cultural heritage as the more visible monuments of Stonehenge or Fountains Abbey but, because they are abundant and widespread, their cultural significance is overlooked. Yet it is their very familiarity that makes fallow deer engaging cultural and educational resources - they can be accessed by anyone. Our contributions to the British Deer Society's (BDS) magazine have been very well received by the BDS's membership, with one article requested for re-publication in another general interest magazine 'Saxon'. We have made all these articles available for download on our project's website. The BDS has altered the education pages of their website to reflect our research findings, including links to our 30 minute documentary about the bio-cultural history of the fallow deer. We have made a number (n=4) of shorter property-specific films for the National Trust (NT) about their fallow deer herds, and we carried out public engagement activities for another NT property. We have installed two major exhibitions at the independent museums of Fishbourne Roman Palace and Dudley Castle Museum. 2. Primary school children. Our project fits with Key Stage 2 (Roman Impact) and Key Stage 3 (Norman Conquest and the Crusades) of the English history curriculum and we are working with the education officers from the historic properties mentioned above to provide teaching packs/educational resources to complement their existing activities. The work we did in collaboration with these museums was also utilized by 'School Science', who created an on-line module about our research, including clips from our documentary film. In addition, we have run activities at the Nottingham University Samworth Academy, which was filmed for the BBC program detailed below. 3. Deer management, conservation and legislation. Deer managers are playing an important role in our research, many of them engaging directly in data collection by providing us with DNA samples from modern populations. In return, we have been briefing them on the significance of fallow deer: we have given talks to deer management groups across the country, providing them with information about the origin and diversity of their regional populations - issues key to the development of effective management strategies. Today deer are a serious economic, environmental and political issue with debate surrounding their impact, management and conservation - contentious issues that can all be addressed through studies of the past. We have working with the British Deer Society, the Deer Initiative, the Ministry of Defence, the Small Woods Association and the National Trust's deer managers to show how the long term perspective provided by our research, and our arts and humanities approach, can be used to make the issue of deer management understandable to the public - recent government papers highlights lack of public understanding to be the main hurdle to sustainable deer management. Importantly, we are addressing deer conservation; for although domestic Dama have a worldwide distribution, they are almost extinct in the wild. There is just one surviving 'native' population, living free at Termessos National Park in Turkey: the IUCN Red List of threatened species classifies this herd as 'under serious threat' and requiring 'strong anti-poaching measures, recovery management and re-introductions'. We are currently involved in authoring the IUCN Red List entry for the European Fallow Deer (forthcoming). As a result of our project it is now clear that the history of Dama dama dama cannot be considered in isolation from that of the Persian fallow deer (Dama dama mesopotamica) and our team members (Drs Baker and Daujat) have recently co-authored the IUCN Red List entry for this endangered species also http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/6232/0 4) Fair Game Initiative. This educational outreach project brings together all the above strands. We use our arts and humanities research to engage the public in the history of fallow deer, their environmental impact and the need for sustainable management. Our approach is hands-on: we take complete fallow deer carcasses to schools, pubs and heritage institutions and, after an introductory lecture, follow medieval texts to butcher and cook the venison. We are working with the National Trust to establish this as part of both their deer management and educational programme. This part of our project is attracting considerable media interest being showcased by Channel 4's Time Team (April 2012), BBC's Great British Food Revival (October 2012) and featured in The Independent (Nov 2012), with many more write-ups in smaller interest journals.
First Year Of Impact 2011
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Creative Economy,Education,Environment,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Economic,Policy & public services
 
Description Authorship of IUCN Red List entry for Dama mesopotamica
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
URL http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/6232/0
 
Description Training National Trust Deer Managers
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact We spent two days training the National Trust (NT) deer managers in the rationale and methods of our research, highlighting the cultural and economic value of the fallow deer on their properties. As a result of this training, we have developed educational resources but also influenced NT policy on the commercialization of the venison on their properties, which is now sold in the cafes and gift shops.
 
Description British Deer Society Research Grant
Amount £2,500 (GBP)
Organisation British Deer Society 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 10/2011 
End 10/2012
 
Description CAS Post-doctoral Bursary
Amount £6,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Nottingham 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 11/2014 
End 05/2015
 
Description Dean's Fund Research Leave
Amount £5,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Nottingham 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 08/2015 
End 01/2016
 
Description Fair Game: Changing the Public Perception of Wild Venison through an Arts and Humanities-based Educational Outreach Campaign.
Amount £3,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Nottingham 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 03/2013 
End 10/2014
 
Description Leverhulm ECF
Amount £76,319 (GBP)
Organisation The Leverhulme Trust 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 11/2015 
End 10/2018
 
Description Refining fallow deer biogeography in Roman and medieval Europe
Amount £4,080 (GBP)
Funding ID NF/2012/2/3 
Organisation University of Oxford 
Department Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit (ORAU)
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 02/2013 
End 07/2014
 
Description The Rise and Fall of Deer Parks from the Roman to Post-Medieval Period
Amount £10,500 (GBP)
Organisation University of Nottingham 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 10/2011 
End 03/2015
 
Description Visual and material representations of fallow deer through time and space
Amount £70,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Nottingham 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 07/2012 
End 07/2016
 
Title Deer Bone Database 
Description On-line freely accessible database containing osteometrics, skeletal representation data and isotope results (carbon, nitrogen, strontium and oxygen) for archaeological and modern fallow deer (European and Persian), red deer, roe deer and reindeer. All data are available for download. The pilot database was developed in 2010 and contained only a small number of metrics for archaeological cervids. As a result of this project, the database is very extensive. To date, it represents the only major on-line database where stable isotope data can be deposited. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2010 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Our Deer Bone database became the model upon which the database for the AHRC-funded Scientific and Cultural Perceptions of Human-Chicken Interactions was based. The isotope component of the database is now held up as an exemplar of good practice. A recently convened stable isotope working group is looking to utilize this database to make the case for developing a national repository for stable isotope data. 
URL http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/zooarchaeology/deer_bone/search.php
 
Description British Deer Society 
Organisation British Deer Society
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Our team has given talks, run events and organised a joint conference with the British Deer Society
Collaborator Contribution Financial support (£2500) for the conference and administrative support to publish articles in the BDS journal, Deer.
Impact 8 magazine articles which can be viewed here http://fallow-deer-project.net/magazine-articles 1 edited volume 'Deer and People' resulting from our joint conference
Start Year 2009
 
Description Fair Game and Film-making with the National Trust 
Organisation National Trust
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Our team has been working closely with NT deer managers to: 1) provide NT deer managers with information concerning the cultural context of the deer in their care 2) conduct scientific analyses of modern/archaeological deer specimens from NT properties 3) make property specific films about their deer herds 4) develop educational and outreach activities/resources for deployment by NT staff
Collaborator Contribution In return the National Trust has: 1) given us access to their properties and collections 2) offered the time and support of their staff 3) provided deer carcasses free of charge in order to carry out unmaking activities. 4) brokered new collaborations with other NT properties via their internal networks
Impact 1) property specific films, 2) teaching resources, 3) data
Start Year 2012
 
Description International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) 
Organisation International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
Country Switzerland, Swiss Confederation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution We were contacted by the IUCN to assess their Red List entries for the European Fallow Deer and the Persian Fallow Deer. Our team members (Dr Karis Baker and Dr Julie Daujat, with sign-off by Sykes) re-drafted the existing document in the light of our project's archaeological and genetic findings. This can be accessed here http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/6232/0 The findings of our project have rendered the Red List entry for European Fallow Deer a matter of contention. The publication of this entry has therefore been delayed and is currently being re-reviewed.
Collaborator Contribution We provided the findings of our research to under-pin the conservation status of these two species of fallow deer.
Impact See URL, where the results of our contribution are published
Start Year 2014
 
Description 'Deer Management: Past, Present and Future' Invited public lecture to St Huberts Club 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Discussion sparked by paper

No notable impacts resulted from this paper
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description 'Deer management in England - Past, Present and (a sustainable) Future' conference paper delivered at Sustainability and heritage: how can the past contribute to a sustainable future? University of the Highlands and Islands Kirkwall 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk sparked considerable interest, particularly from the Barbuda Research Complex team (fallow deer is the national animal of Barbuda)

Following the paper, we began to collaborate with the Barbuda Research Complex team, who sent us fallow deer samples for analysis. Together we began to investigate the origins of the Barbudan fallow deer and presented a paper about the subject at the International Association for Caribbean Archaeology conference July 2013. We are now working to examine sustainable deer management on the island - we have trialled our new dental ageing system on modern assemblages of deer from the island and our preliminary results suggest that current management practices are unsustainable (the deer are potentially being over-hunted).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://www.uhi.ac.uk/en/media/news/orkney-hosts-conference-linking-past-to-future-sustainability
 
Description 'Deer management in England - Past, Present and Future' paper to Defence Deer Management Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Paper was given to the Ministry of Defence's Deer Managers at their annual meeting.

Many of the deer managers offered to help run outreach activities in the future.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description 'Investigating the Biogeography and Management of European Fallow Deer', Research Seminar Cardiff University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Discussion after paper

Not aware of impact
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Animals in Archaeology (community conference and museum engagement day) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This was the conference that was scheduled to be our final public engagement event, run in collaboration with our partner - the Sussex Archaeological Society. The Saturday conference shared our results but also highlighted innovative animal-related work being undertaken by archaeologists and historians nationally.

The Sunday event was designed to launch our Fallow Deer exhibition at Fishbourne Roman Palace.

During the two days, over 200 people engaged with our activities. The success of the event has strengthened our collaboration with the Sussex Archaeological Society. Delegates wrote the session up for the society newsletter.

The Sussex Archaeological Society were the first group to invest in this project's PI (Sykes), providing the initial funding (£700) to radiocarbon date the fallow deer remains from Fishbourne Roman Palace. This small investment, back in 2005, kick-started everything that was to follow. The events we ran over the Saturday and Sunday were designed to 'pay back' the Sussex Archaeological Society and show how this small local society and the funds they offer have directly instigated a large-scale international, interdiscplinary project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://sussexpast.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/Animals-leaflet-FINAL.pdf
 
Description Day school for local historians "From local studies of ancient animals to global natural and cultural history" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Day school about the methods and results of our project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/history/events/events-2016/local-history-seminar-30-jan-16.aspx
 
Description Deer in the foodchain: introduction to bio-isotope analysis in archaeology (Trakya University, Turkey) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This event, which was attended by a range of academics, students and individuals working in the third sector, was to feed-back our Turkish results to those who have supported our research and who will be able to benefit from it as they move forward. There is little tradition of zooarchaeology (and animal-related archaeological science) and therefore this was an important occasion for dissemination and to highlight our open access database, which contains large amounts of scientific data for Turkish fallow deer.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Extinct, Introduced, Invasive: the many faces of fallow deer. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Keynote talk to the British Deer Society AGM. A summary of the talk was written up and published by the British Deer Society in their magazine. I also met with people who are keen to work with us on a follow-on fund application.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Fair Game and Art History at Nottingham University Samworth Academy 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Our team re-ran our deer unmaking activity for two separate groups of students. In addition to the unmaking activity, we were joined by Art Historian, Dr Gaby Neher (University of Nottingham) who taught the pupils about medieval hunting iconography and helped them to create their own versions of the images from the Boke of St Albans (the hunting manual that explains the unmaking rituals).

As before, all of the children took part in the butchery, cooking, eating of the venison but they also created medieval-inspired artworks.

The artworks were digitised by students from the University of Nottingham and turned into a handbook explaining the medieval unmaking procedure. This handbook was created in collaboration with the National Trust for use at NT unmaking events.

As before, the pupils learnt about the need for deer management and the benefits of wild venison consumption. They took pride in the idea that their artworks were being turned into a resource for others.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://fallow-deer-project.net/img/upload/370/documents/The%20Samworth%20Manuscript%2012.pdf
 
Description Fair Game at Attingham Park 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact As part of the 'Attingham Uncovered' weekend our project was invited to come and oversee two days of unmaking events, aimed at highlighting to members of the public the cultural heritage represented by fallow deer, the National Trust's need to manage their herds and the benefits of eating wild venison (now being served by the NT via their shops and cafes).

Following the unmaking that our team oversaw on the Saturday, the Attingham Park were able to run their own unmaking on the second day.

The venison from the unmakings was vac-packed for sale by the NT - this was not common practice before our project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/document-1355801374276/
 
Description Fair Game at Charlecote Park 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our team spent two days training the National Trust's deer managers in our research findings and outreach approach. We filmed our talks, led an 'unmaking' for the deer managers (also filmed) and created a short film about the fallow deer from Charlecote Park. The intention was to highlight the important cultural resource that the NT had in their possession.

Films of the talks and practicals for the National Trust can be viewed here
http://vimeo.com/63075511
http://vimeo.com/63126013

The short film about Charlecote's deer can bee seen here
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A0FuyBYTICA

As a result of this film, we were invited to create similar films for other NT properties (Belton House, Petwork House and Hattfield Forest).

In response to the training days, we were invited to NT's Attingham Park to help them deliver the NT's first unmaking for members of the public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Fair Game at Nottingham University Samworth Academy (School visit x 2) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact We visited NUSA on two separate occasions to run cross-curricular day schools for the pupils. We taught them about the history and archaeology of fallow deer, how their introduction is a legacy of an aristocratic hunting culture (also responsible for the introduction of unusual hunting rituals but also the extermination of top predators), how deer management is a problem in the UK and that there is no market for wild venison.

Following medieval hunting manuals, we worked to 'unmake' (skin and butcher) the deer. The pupils then worked with chefs (one from NUSA and one 'celebrity chef' - Valentine Warner) to cook the venison into a tasty meal for their parents.

One of the days was filmed for the BBCs Great British Food Revival, aired in October 2012. The second day was attended by a reporter from The Independent, who wrote up the project for an article published on 2nd November 2012.

This generated interest and we were asked to write a feature about our work for the University of East Anglia's ThoughtOut project
http://thoughtoutproject.com/history/the-fair-game-initiative/#entry

We were invited back to the school to run a third unmaking.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://fallow-deer-project.net/fair-game-home
 
Description Fair Game for the British Deer Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We have received positive feedback from the membership of the BDS about the article

We have received requests to lead unmakings for local groups.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://fallow-deer-project.net/img/upload/370/documents/Winter%202013-14.pdf
 
Description Fair Game with the British Deer Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Working with the British Deer Society, our team ran a day event, training the BDS membership in our research and showing them how deer can be 'unmade' following medieval rituals. This took place at a pub and, as such, members of the public were drawn to the event and became involved.

The BDS wrote up the day for the British Deer Society magazine.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Invited panel speaker at launch of Julian Baggini's book 'Virtues of the Table', University of London, School of Advanced Studies (Institute of Philosophy). 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Talk about the findings of our project in relation to the food industry
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5qxDuco4A-M
 
Description Research Seminar, University of Durham, The Fallow Deer, 10k BP to Present 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Research seminar about our project findings. MP3 available at the website below.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.dur.ac.uk/archaeology/seminars/archive/
 
Description Research seminar, University of Exeter, The Fallow Deer, 10k BP to Present 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Research seminar about the results of our project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://blogs.exeter.ac.uk/archaeology/2015/12/04/research-seminar-9-the-fallow-deer-10kbp-to-present...
 
Description School Science 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The AHRC funded the development of a 'School Science' project on archaeological science. The researcher considered the fallow deer project to be a particularly engaging example and therefore devoted several pages (2, 3 and 4) of the on-line resource to reporting our results. Some of the pages replicate information that was presented at our exhibitions at Fishbourne Roman Palace and Dudley Castle Museum.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016
URL http://www.schoolscience.co.uk/zooarchpage2
 
Description Sheffield Human Animal Research Centre, University of Sheffield. "Human-animal studies in archaeology" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Research seminar detailing results of our project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Talk for Lincolnshire Deer Group AGM. 'Deer Management: Past, Present and Future' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk about the findings from our project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Talk to the Deer Initiative "From wild to domestic and back again: the story of fallow deer from the 1st to the 21st century" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk about the findings of our research project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.thedeerinitiative.co.uk/news/record.php?id=164
 
Description Talk to the Lyndhurst branch of the British Deer Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The British Deer Society asked me to deliver a talk to their local group. It was a 2 hour talk and conversation continued long after this. As a result of this evening, I was approached to give further talks, particularly by people who had heard about it through word of mouth.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016