Cultural intermediation: connecting communities in the creative urban economy

Lead Research Organisation: University of Birmingham
Department Name: Sch of Geography, Earth & Env Sciences

Abstract

Cultural intermediation is a process which connects different kinds of communities into the creative economy and wider society. It plays a critical role in raising aspirations, upskilling and building confidence, all of which are vital to allow people to engage with and benefit from one of the most dynamic sectors of the contemporary UK economy.

Individual artists, professional networks, events, festivals, commissioning bodies, creative businesses, arts and cultural organisations both large and small can all play intermediary roles. Some of the most exciting opportunities for research in this area are occurring in the city regions. In part this is because of their size and multiplicity of cultural resources, but also because these areas have large concentrations of communities suffering multiple deprivation who are being left behind by the post-industrial creative economy.

Investigations undertaken as part of developing this research project revealed that those individuals and organisations undertaking cultural intermediation are coming under significant pressure. Public sector funding cuts and a new agenda of localism are changing the relationship that intermediaries have with the state, requiring a reappraisal of their activities. The 'Big Society' agenda places an emphasis on community-led activities at the same time that the institutional support for capacity building in those communities through cultural intermediation is being squeezed. The creative sector is itself highly fragmented with weak connections between different sectors, different communities and policy processes. So-called 'hard-to-reach' communities remain disconnected, suffering multiple deprivation, social disenfranchisement and exclusion.

Acknowledging the importance of cultural intermediation, the research asks to what extent these processes meet the needs of urban communities in the 21st century and how they might operate more effectively. The aim of the research is to discover how the value of cultural intermediation can be captured and how this activity can be enhanced to create more effective connection between communities and the creative economy. The objectives of the research are to: create new ways of measuring value; analyse the historic development of cultural intermediation to inform current practice; examine how intermediation fits within the existing policy landscape and the governance of relations between the different actors; explore the effectiveness of intermediation activity from a community perspective; design new forms of intermediation through a series of practice-based interventions; and reflect on the process of working across and between disciplines and sectors in order to enhance practice.

The research has a number of key applications and wider benefits. In providing a means to capture the value of intermediation, policy makers and practitioners will be able to foster better practice. This is of particular importance given the shifts in the governance and funding landscape, particularly within the public sector. The historical material, will provide a crucial evidence base situating understandings of intermediation, providing lessons to current practitioners. Those creative intermediaries directly involved in the interventions will receive training in research methods in order to analyse and improve their own practice. A subsequent 'how-to' research guide will disseminate these lessons more widely. Academically the research will make a major contribution to debates on: creativity and valuation; the historical evolution of the creative economy; governance and localism; practice-based methods; interdisciplinarity and epistemic communities; and the role of culture in connecting communities.

Planned Impact

The research will have impact across a number of sectors including policymakers, cultural intermediaries, arts practitioners, communities, creative businesses and academics.

The mapping and valuation work (WP1) will be of direct benefit to DCMS as well as regional and local policy makers. DCMS have already commissioned work on modes of valuing the creative economy and a specific analysis of intermediation will be of particular use, feeding into debates on the most effective use of public resources in order to maximise the engagement of communities in the creative economy. This will tie into the analysis of cultural policy and governance at the local scale (WP3) which will produce reports looking at best practice in joining up different activities across the sector in order to produce more effective modes of working. This will benefit not only national and local policymakers (including direct engagement with Manchester and Birmingham City Councils) but also those working within cultural intermediation to enhance integration with policy networks.

The historical work (WP2) and creative interventions (WP5) will produce outputs which will directly benefit Birmingham Museums and Art Galleries, the Library of Birmingham and Manchester International Festival through a series of installations based on multi-touch tables. In the first two cases this will provide content to populate existing investment in this technology as part of the ERDF-funded Digital Demonstrator project at the University of Birmingham. The development of this multiplatform technology (WP6) will also form a significant output in its own right, providing a model for museums/galleries/businesses to scale content across web/mobile/touch-table for a more immersive experience.

The intervention practices (WP5) will be artistic outputs in their own right to be engaged with by a general audience, but they will have significant additional benefits. By providing training to cultural intermediaries to undertake research - and producing a best practice guide for the wider sector - different creative organisations and individual artists will gain skills to undertake critical review of their own practice. Through collaboration with a-n the Artists' Information Company, there is a clear route for disseminating these lessons across a wide community of practitioners. This is complimented by training community researchers (WP4) to examine the ways in which cultural intermediation has impacted on their lives. This will have direct benefit to those trained in terms of upskilling, confidence building and direct engagement in developing new modes of working to improve community engagement in these activities.

By feeding into the research process as stakeholders on the Steering Group, Virtual Panel and local panels, practitioners and policymakers will help to shape the research to address specific areas of need within their areas of interest. In addition, membership of these groups will represent significant networking opportunities and capacity building for participants, particularly in terms of engaging with the HE sector.

The seminar and pamphlet series will ensure that a range of practitioners, policymakers, community groups and academic stakeholders are engaged with the practical and theoretical lessons delivered by the research. A process of reflecting on the research project, its modes of knowledge exchange and epistemic communities will improve the quality of this engagement and provide lessons for improving future practice in interdisciplinary working across and beyond the HE sector.
 
Title Balsall Heath Food Festival 
Description This locally organised festival was arranged to celebrate food culture in Balsall Heath and contribute to a series of events including Christmas parcels for elderly residents. This was undertaken following an allocation of resource from a community cultural commissioning panel operating as part of an intervention exploring cultural budgeting practices. 
Type Of Art Artistic/Creative Exhibition 
Year Produced 2015 
Impact Several hundred people participated in a number of different events during December 2015. 
URL http://www.stpaulstrust.org.uk/latest-news/christmas-events-at-st-pauls/
 
Title Geographies of Co-Production in the Arts: Artists, Communities and the City (RGS, London) 
Description 2014 Warren, S. and Zebracki, M. Geographies of Co-Production in the Arts: Artists, Communities and the City (Royal Geographical Society Annual Confererence) 
Type Of Art Artistic/Creative Exhibition 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact Stimulated discussion among peers 
URL http://www.artinpublicspace.net
 
Title In the path of the tornado 
Description This is an oral and photographic history of the 2005 Balsall Heath tornado, produced for its ten year anniversary. This was undertaken following an allocation of resource from a community cultural commissioning panel operating as part of an intervention exploring cultural budgeting practices. 
Type Of Art Artefact (including digital) 
Year Produced 2015 
Impact This booklet had a local launch event and generated significant local interest among people in the community who remember the tornado. It is available to order through the local history society website. 
URL http://balsallheathhistory.co.uk/access-publications/publications
 
Title Poetic Transect Cardiff 
Description This is a film made from footage recorded as part of the AHRC Connected Communities Festival 2014. Passers-by were asked to contribute scraps of poetry and their feelings about place to weave into a narrative about story and place in Cardiff. The film was hosted by poet Chris Jam who wrote an original composition based on the day of filming - this poem is included at the end of the film 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact The raw material from the day of filming and the poem produced by Chris Jam formed the basis of an article for the leading geography journal 'Area' exploring ideas of poetry, placemaking and atmospheres. This article will be published in 2016. 
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NvzMb1xuNbE
 
Description Cultural forms can play instrumental roles, going beyond being mere aesthetics, to playing an active role in reforming society. This instrumental role has always been present within cultural activity, but over the last 30 years, particularly in western economies, the instrumental value of culture has been increasingly emphasised. Culture has become valued for what it does. Where the instrumental role of culture is discussed in relation to community, there tends to be a focus on issues around social inclusion, or, perhaps more positively, on inspiring individuals to engage with creative practice as a first step toward involvement in the creative economy. Communities that do not engage with these instrumental uses of culture are seen as somehow lacking, problematic and in need of some form of intervention.
This project examined 'cultural intermediation' - the process of connecting communities into the activities of the wider cultural and creative economy. We explored the policy and social frames through which citizens and wider communities are being engaged with culture as a tool to mitigate the effects of social exclusion and deprivation. The study was based on a four-year investigation of those individuals and organisations whose mission is to use culture, instrumentally, to help deprived communities in a variety of different ways. The research was undertaken during a period of quite dramatic change in policy and governance within the UK's cultural sector. These changes were driven by one of the biggest experiments in refiguring the role of the public sector within the UK since 1945, as post-credit crunch governments have responded to the challenges of a struggling global economy by employing the discourse of 'austerity'. What has emerged is a cultural intermediation sector that has refined its practices, adopting new funding models and arenas of activity. Doubtless, the changing funding landscape has done a great deal of damage, with organisations closing and activities being reduced. There are, however, examples of highly innovative practice that have emerged since the financial crisis, from which important lessons should be drawn for the future effectiveness of cultural intermediation as a sector dedicated to improving people's lives through cultural engagement.
The key findings of the project were:
1) Economic activity within the broadly defined cultural intermediation sector is disproportionately concentrated in London. This replicates the well-established concentration of arts/cultural spending and creative economic activity in the capital. As a result the power of cultural intermediation to overcome social exclusion is stymied by reproducing an existing set of geographic inequalities concentrating wealth and opportunity in south-east England. (working paper by De Propris & Mwara, 2013). This can be seen in parallel with work indicating that the creative industries more generally have high social class barriers to entry, meaning that socially excluded communities are much less likely to benefit from engagement with the sector (peer reviewed paper by O'Brien et al. 2016)
2) That intermediation activities have a long history but have been hollowed out by public sector cuts. A case study of documentary photography illustrated historic tensions between the priorities and timescales of the arts-funding sector and capacity for commercialisation. (peer reviewed paper by Grosvenor & Macnab, 2015)
3) That funding structures in the public sector continue to work counter to the rhythms of creative production. New public management in the contemporary public sector has put considerable strain on creative organisations both in terms of how funding is applied for and in reporting requirements of grant-funded activity. The complexity of this audit culture means that the benefit/cost ratio of public funding is tipping increasingly toward organisations curtailing certain activities as too much time is taken up on managing projects rather than actually engaging with communities (peer reviewed paper by Jones & Warren 2016). In parallel, the ways in which policymakers deploy the creative/cultural economy frequently pulls those working in the sector away from their aesthetic/community engagement missions (peer reviewed paper by Symons, 2016).
4) That the intermediation sector continues to play a vital role in engaging communities with cultural activity, but that funding cuts since 2010 have made it increasingly difficult to play that 'big society' role (peer reviewed paper by Perry et al. 2015). Nonetheless, reflection by practitioners shows that there has been considerable innovation in the sector attempting to adapt to the changing funding landscape and priorities (working paper, YV Jones, 2015).
5) That the record and legacy of intermediation activity can be relatively difficult to uncover as time passes. In part this can be as public art projects lose their meanings and/or are damaged or destroyed (paper by Long, 2014). Conventional ethnographic and arts-based techniques can be a productive means of accessing the folk memory of intermediation activity (peer reviewed paper by Jones & Jam, 2016), but there can be problems with certain techniques in some communities. The use of walking interview techniques to explore how communities are engaged with their neighbourhoods can be deeply problematic when used with people who have limited mobility for cultural reasons (peer reviewed paper by Warren, 2016).
6) Processes of handing power down to communities, which has been central to the UK's Localism agenda, is completely reliant on intermediaries facilitating that process. Experiments in community cultural budgeting undertaken as part of the research project demonstrated the crucial role of cultural intermediaries to provide support (both practical and emotional) to community members seeking to realise their vision for cultural activity within the neighbourhood (outputs relating to this are being written at the time of producing this report).
Innovation in the sector is allowing intermediaries to adapt to a changing policy and funding landscape, but creativity and culture cannot be seen as a magic bullet; entrenched problems of structural inequality and social exclusion cannot be solved by the activities of cultural intermediaries alone. Nonetheless, this research has demonstrated that the sector has a valuable role to play in mitigating some of the worst effects of neoliberal abandonment of communities.
Exploitation Route The research raises significant questions about the distribution of public funding around culture and also whether that resource is being spent in the most effective way. The work is of significance to policymakers and practitioners working in the cultural sector.
Sectors Creative Economy
URL http://www.culturalintermediation.org.uk/
 
Description The key impact from the project came via the experiment in community cultural budgeting. A series of cultural intermediaries in both Ordsall (Salford) and Balsall Heath (Birmingham) engaged with this element of the project, in order to explore how their activities could be adapted to produce projects directly responding to community aspirations for cultural activities. Reflections on the Ordsall Method have been published as a policy report by Symonds and Perry (2016). This built on a series of workshops with intermediaries in Salford about the opportunities for engaging communities in developing their own cultural projects and exploring how these collaborative projects might be realised within the current funding structures. Intermediaries have thus been drawn into a series of reflections about their own practices in terms of how their aspirations and those of communities can be aligned and the extent to which collaboration between different intermediaries operating at the neighbourhood scale can be enhanced.
First Year Of Impact 2014
Sector Creative Economy
Impact Types Cultural
 
Title Cultural Intermediation Touchtable 
Description This is a platform for building apps for touchtable computers designed for public display in museums and galleries. The developers, Museum Games, were commissioned to create a platform where non-specialists/non-programmers could upload content relating to a specific project or organisation for display on a large touchtable. The platform is based on CSV tagging of images with particular themes and content which is then used to generate an interactive display around the themes within the data users have inputted into the software. This is a major advance on previous touchtable interfaces which have required the intervention of a programmer whenever new content needs to be added. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact At present this is a demonstrator, though has the potential for further deployment in collaboration with external partners as part of a follow on grant. 
 
Description 6 Presentations to BA and MA Art and Design students (Salford) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact A series of presentations over 2 years to BA and MA students in the Art and Design faculty about the Ideas4Ordsall aspect of the project outlining the research insights from support people to develop their own ideas as well as the benefits of ethnographic methodology. Each presentation was very well received leading to requests from different lecturers to also present to their students.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015
 
Description A festival of ideas? Universities engaged in cultural production (Seminar, Birmingham) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk by Laura Ager 'A festival of ideas? Universities engaged in cultural production' at Birmingham City University as part of a workshop on 'Creative Economy and Cultural Policy' 4/2/15

Stimulated discussion among colleagues
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/040215-creative-economy-and-cultural-policy-tickets-15442508960
 
Description AAG 2015 Creative Ambiances paper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Paper presented by Phil Jones 'Co-constructing creative ambiances with communities' as part of session at the Association of American Geographers Annual Conference, Chicago 21-25 April 2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.aag.org/galleries/conference-files/AAG2015_Program.pdf
 
Description AAG 2015 Doing Creative Economies session 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Conference session co-organised by Saskia Warren (University of Manchester), Phil Jones (University of Birmingham) and Melanie Fasche (University of Toronto) 'Doing Creative Economies'. Held as part of the Association of American Geographers' Annual Conference 21-25 April 2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.aag.org/galleries/conference-files/AAG2015_Program.pdf
 
Description AAG 2015 Micropolitics paper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Paper by Saskia Warren (University of Manchester) 'Reperforming cultural governance: performance-as action, micro-publics, and co-commissioning at the neighbourhood level.' as part of Association of American Geographers Annual Conference, Chicago 21-25 April 2015.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.aag.org/galleries/conference-files/AAG2015_Program.pdf
 
Description Beyond the campus workshop (Birmingham) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Laura Ager 'Soft networks connecting universities, public cinema spaces and communities' presentation at Beyond the Campus Third research workshop: A third space for creative arts & creative industries? The role of Higher education in creative platforms, spaces and networks, 6th November 2013

Stimulated discussion among peers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.creative-campus.org.uk/--third-workshop.html
 
Description Big Data challenge (Salford) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presented provocation at 'big data' workshop for teams to create an alternative 'data portrait' of research area Ordsall which challenged existing stereotypes in the area. The team created several alternatives including showing how the area had relatively less crime than other areas and the decline of accidents since the introduction of traffic calming measures. The resultant blog entry about this workshop was referenced in a number of subsequent discussion with senior officials at Salford City Council
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://culturalintermediation.wordpress.com/2014/07/28/diving-into-big-data-in-salford/
 
Description Community resilience workshop (Newcastle) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Phil Jones 'Community mapping and creative interventions' presented to the second workshop in a series exploring "The role of creative interventions in fostering connectivity and resilience in older people", Newcastle, 8 July 2014

Stimulated discussion with colleagues and service users.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Connected Communities Festival (Cardiff 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Three activities undertaken within the wider Connected Communities Festival. First, a project stand in the public exhibition. Secondly, a panel session led by Beth Perry (with Andy Miles from the Everyday Participation project) drawing on insights from practitioners about issues around creative engagement in an age of austerity. Thirdly, an artistic intervention co-designed by Phil Jones with poet Chris Jam called "poetic transect" which resulted in a short film being produced.

Stimulated discussion among practitioners, the public and colleagues.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLOtmA5CONqRTAAqql2tK2etodP9F15wUa
 
Description Cultural Value workshop (London) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact 'Cultural intermediation' presented to the Cultural Value Project Workshop, Birkbeck College, 28 February 2013

Stimulated discussion among colleagues.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Diversity in the city conference (Lisbon) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact 'Connecting diverse communities into the creative economy? A case study of Balsall Heath, Birmingham', Diversity in the City: Shifting realities and ways forward University of Lisbon, Portugal, June 2014.

Stimulated discussion among colleagues.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://culturalintermediation.wordpress.com/2014/07/07/diversity-in-the-city-university-of-lisbon-co...
 
Description Guest Lecture to BA Human Geography students (Manchester) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation of research findings to 55 BA Human Geography undergraduates at nearby University of Manchester which sparked questions and discussion afterwards and course leader reported increased interest in the use of ethnography as a research method
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Manchester Science Week (Salford) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Workshop at Manchester Science Week encouraging visitors to appreciate research insights of project and asking them to identify what ideas they had for their community. People completed an 'idea flower' of their proposed ideas and had their photo taken in front of a map of Greater Manchester which was then tweeted as #growyouridea from the @ideas4ordsall Twitter account. These tweets were shown on a large screen elsewhere at the event. People took photographs of themselves in front of these screens when their photo and idea were displayed, indicating enthusiasm and interest in the process. The tweets were also retweeted by many participants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://twitter.com/ideas4ordsall
 
Description Ordsall Community Events Group (Salford) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Presented results of Ideas4Ordsall aspect of project to 12 people from Salford Council and third sector organisations who meet regularly to plan events for the local area. This sparked questions and discussion and increased awareness and understanding of the research insights on supporting people to develop their own ideas. Follow up meetings with several people at organisation indicate an increased interest in the project process.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Panel presentation (Amsterdam) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Warren, S. Panel on 'Approaching Creativity and the Cultural Economy', Third European Colloquium on Culture, Creativity and Economy, University of Uppsala/University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, October 2014 .

Discussion among colleagues
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.cind.uu.se/digitalAssets/91/91334_12014---cce---program.pdf
 
Description Panel presentation (Manchester) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Warren, S. O'Brien, D. and Symons, J. 'Connecting Communities: Understanding Power in the Creative Economy', Centre for Research on Socio-Cultural Change annual conference, September 2014, Manchester


Stimulated discussion among peers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Presentation Ordsall Community Forum (Salford) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation to Ordsall Community Forum - formal decision making organisation for ward where project was undertaken - explaining the project and asking for insights and contributions. This process sparked feedback and contacts which embedded project more deeply in the community
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Research, politics and expertise (Bangor) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact May, T. 2014 'Research, Politics and Expertise: The Production and Reception of Urban Knowledge'. Bangor Business School, University of Bangor, Wales.

Stimulated discussion among colleagues.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Seminar presentation (Plymouth) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Phil Jones 'Creatively exploring urban ambiances' invited talk at the School of Architecture, Plymouth University, 23 October 2014

Stimulated discussion among peers/postgraduate students.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://culturetheoryspace.org/phil-jones-creatively-exploring-urban-ambiances-thursday-23rd-october-...
 
Description Thinking about Some Cities (Liverpool) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Dave O'Brien "Thinking about Some Cities" presented as part of 'Art, recognition and social science: rethinking (e)valuation' seminar, Liverpool Library 16 May 2014

Stimulating discussion with colleagues.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Universities, Cities and Transformation, keynote (Manchester) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact May, T . 2014 'Universities, Cities and Transformation: Practices of Engagement and Expectations of Knowledge: Issues in Practice'. Introductory Keynote at 'Universities, Cities and Transformation: Practices of Engagement and Expectations of Knowledge'. International workshop organized by SURF, AHRC Cultural Intermediaries Project and Mistra Urban Futures. International Anthony Burgess Foundation, Manchester. 1 September 2014.

Stimulating discussion among colleagues.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Universities, cities and expectations of knowledge (Bristol) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact May, T. and Perry, B. 2014 'Universities, Cities and the Expectations of Knowledge'. Presentation to 'Future Cities and Education'. Graduate School of Education, University of Bristol, February.

Stimulated discussion among colleagues.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Values and Evaluation (Liverpool) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact May, T. 2014 'Values and Evaluation: Issues in Practice'. Presentation at 'Art, Recognition and Social Science'. Organized by Institute of Culture Capital Liverpool, SURF and AHRC Cultural Intermediaries Project. Liverpool Central Library. 16 May 2014.

Stimulating discussion among colleagues.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Whose culture, whose creative city? (Royal Geographical Society, London) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Long, Paul et al. "Whose Culture, Whose Creative City? Cultural rights between policy, intermediaries and community" Royal Geographical Society Annual Conference, 28 August 2014

Stimulating discussion with colleagues.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://conference.rgs.org/AC2014/181