From Thebes to Mycenae: exploring divergent vitreous industries in Mycenaean Greece

Lead Research Organisation: University of Nottingham
Department Name: Archaeology

Abstract

The proposed project is an interdisciplinary investigation of glass and allied vitreous materials in the Mycenaean World, c. 1600-1050 BC. By focusing on the vitreous industries at the palaces of Mycenae and Thebes this study principally aims to provide models for the structure and operation of the vitreous industries and compare technological and economic aspects of their production.

The technological origins and evolution of glass as an independent material in the Old World are only vaguely known. The mid-second millennium BC sees the appearance of fully-fledged glass industries in the Middle East and Egypt, which has always been associated with the making of glass vessels due to their large scale production. Nevertheless, the Mycenaean glass industry is set apart from its contemporary glass-producing centres due to the almost exclusive manufacture of glass ornaments. Mycenaean glass is mainly found in dark blue and turquoise colour and its forms fall into the iconographic repertoire of the typical Mycenaean jewellery.

Despite evidence of interaction amongst crafts and industries through diverse cultural encounters, the archaeological and to an extent, analytical evidence, has demonstrated an independent operation of glass industries. To date there is little understanding as to whether the Mycenaean glass industry involved primary production.

To help answer this question, scientific analyses of glass from the Palaces of Mycenae and Thebes will be used to explore the evolutionary stages of Mycenaean glass technology. To allow further comparison the acropolis of Midea in the vicinity of Mycenae and sites in the northern periphery of the Mycenaean dominion, Phokis and Lokris, the Ionian islands, and Cyprus in the far east of the Mycenaean World will also be included. These regions have been selected due to the abundance and diversity of vitreous objects and their involvement in a dynamic trade of goods in the Late Bronze Age.

Chemical and microstructural characterisation in conjunction with targeted trace element analysis will be used as a means of characterising raw materials of the widest collection of well-dated glass artefacts across the Mycenaean World. By identifying trace element discriminants in glass raw materials, and linking these to their geological sources, the degree of independence of vitreous industries can be identified. Procurement of raw materials, raw glass, finished glass objects will be examined within the trade networks of vitreous industries in the Near East, Mediterranean and Europe. By tracing the broader cultural contacts amongst Mycenaean palatial states and urban centres in the Aegean, the degree of independence of the Mycenaean glass industry will be defined. This will further elucidate the puzzling infrequence of Mycenaean glass in sites of the Mycenaean periphery or outside the Mycenaean dominion. In addition, patterns of glass exchange will be illustrated, technology transfer and the extent of industrial interaction amongst glass-producing centres will be highlighted and ultimately, an outline of possible monopolies in glass production and circulation will be provided within the economic and administration systems of Mediterranean and Europe in the Late Bronze Age.

This powerful methodology can delineate specific technological characteristics of concurrent vitreous industries and thus define clear-cut production zones. The research will discriminate amongst industries with similar technological traditions but with divergent practices arising from local environments, diverse cultural contexts, functional needs, ideas and beliefs. Given the absence of securely defined remains of glass workshops in the Old World the research is of crucial significance in Mycenaean and prehistoric studies as well as in ancient glass studies.

Planned Impact

The proposed research will enable a greater understanding of the production and trade of vitreous objects in the Mycenaean period. The research will be conducted in collaboration with a range of museums and archaeological organisations, as well as scientific facilities such as the British Geological Survey at Keyworth (Notts, UK).

The outcomes of the research will include two articles in key journals used by both academics and museum curators from the museums whose collections are represented in the research sample; a book chapter, a conference paper for the workshop and a single-authored monograph. An edited volume from the workshop (with participants from beyond the academic world) will be completed following the completion of the fellowship. The publications will make previously unpublished data available and will update analysis dating back to the 19th and early 20th centuries, providing a new research resource for museum and conservation professionals dealing with Mycenaean artefacts. The findings will be of great relevance to the interpretation of artefacts within museums holding Mycenaean and Late Bronze Age glass from Meditarranean collections (for example the British Museum, the Petrie Museum in London and the Ashmolean in Oxford) and will have a direct impact on the rearrangement of the permanent exhibition of glass artefacts in the New Archaeological Museum of Thebes.

The research will also establish a published reference framework for future chemical characterisation and provenancing of vitreous artefacts and is of potential use to non-academic geologists, mineralogists, archaeologists, material specialists and new creative practitioners working with vitreous materials, for example beads.

Publications


10 25 50
 
Description A. The use of a thorough sampling strategy (based on a good number of samples classified on well-grounded criteria such as context, typology, style and date) permitted the identification of the early stages of glass technology in Mycenaean Greece and its high peak during the principal Mycenaean times on the basis of scientific means. At the palace of Thebes, alongside the importation of finished glass beads and ready-made glass for re-melting and shaping into relief beads, experimentations and innovations were also detected. Specifically, cobalt blue moulded glass plaques, similar in chemical composition to their contemporary Egyptian glasses, were made out of raw glass or raw materials imported from Egypt. Given the range of context dates for the Greek samples (15th -12th centuries BC) it is evident that the glass trade routes between Egypt and Greece must have persisted for several centuries, even if some of the glass was stored in palace workshops for long periods of time. After the collapse of the Mycenaean palaces, glass jewellery was mostly kept as heirlooms and only occasionally used.
B. The chemical characterisation of this selection of Mycenaean glasses supports the hypothesis that glass making occurred in Mycenaean Greece. Compositional analyses from glass-working areas at the palace of Mycenaean Thebes allowed identification of major and minor components, and their associated impurities. Mycenaean glasses belong to the ancient glass type known as soda-lime-silica. Silica is the network former in the chemistry of glass, namely the major glass constituent ranging between 60-65 weight percent. Silica is found in the form of quartzite pebbles or very pure quartzite sand, and this indicates that access to silica may not have been a major problem for the Mycenaean glassmaker, although purification processing may have been necessary for producing glass of a good quality.
C. The radiogenic isotopes of neodymium in conjunction with the isotopic ratios of strontium have shown that the Mycenaean Greek and Egyptian glasses form a single isotopic field of data, which are distinctively lower in neodymium and with more restricted strontium whilst their variable neodymium and strontium concentrations are correlated. Mycenaean Greek and Egyptian glass are distinct from their contemporary Mesopotamian ones. Based on a comparison of the neodymium isotope compositions of the glass with possible quartz sources, it is likely that glass found at Amarna was made in Egypt. The isotopic and chemical similarities between the Mycenaean Greek and the Egyptian glasses raise the question whether these were produced at the same site. Owing to geochemical characteristics of Egyptian sands it seems that inland Egyptian sources (such as those for the broader Wadi el-Natrun region) were employed in the making of the examined Amarna and Mycenaean Greek glasses.
D. The compositional and isotopic similarities of a turquoise glass bead of the Mesopotamian 'Nuzi' type found in Mycenaean Athens, with glasses from Tell Brak, Mesopotamia confirmed that glass was imported to Greece as early as the 15th century BC. On the present isotopic evidence it can be stated that during the Late Bronze Age glass was exported from both Mesopotamia and Egypt to Mycenaean Greece but at different time points throughout the Late Bronze Age (perhaps by following different trade routes). Crucially, given the rarity of cobalt blue colourants in the broad area of the Aegean and the great variability of cobalt sources detected in the chemical composition of Mycenaean glasses, it appears very likely that ready-made glass in the form of ingots was imported from various geographical regions for colouring a locally produced basic form of raw glass. This, in turn, makes it highly likely that a gradual familiarisation with the working of glass, its physical and chemical properties, experimentations with raw materials, later led to the production of glass from its raw materials in the palaces of Mycenaean Greece, a process which can be well traced during the 14th and 13th centuries BC in the palace of Thebes.
Exploitation Route A rigorous selection of Mycenaean glasses was examined using a combination of chemical and isotopic analysis with the explicit aim of establishing the provenance of the silica employed in their making. The rationale for the investigation was the following: by identifying the sources of silica used in Mycenaean glass from chemical analyses and in turn linking these to their isotope signatures, differentiations between primary and secondary production centres could be established and possible technological innovations highlighted. The analyses of Mycenaean examples were also compared to glasses from their contemporary Mesopotamian and Egyptian glass-producing centres, and the results used to achieve a better understanding of the operation of Mycenaean glass industry. The pioneering nature of the research methodology enables crucial archaeological questions to be addressed in a rigorous scientific manner. A great wealth of information has opened new avenues in the study of later prehistory of the eastern Mediterranean, which can illuminate diverse aspects of high-temperature production technologies and their role in early societies.
Sectors Education,Environment,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
 
Description The AHRC award enabled me to expand my research networks and activities in the study of early glass and to include not just the Late Bronze but also the Iron Age and Roman times. The pioneering nature of the research methodology, which enables crucial archaeological questions to be addressed in a rigorous scientific manner, has attracted international awards (British Academy 2011, 2007, 2007-2010, INSTAP 2007-2011, British Council 2009, and Mediterranean Archaeological Trust 2012). A great wealth of information has opened new avenues in the study of later prehistory of the eastern Mediterranean. Since 2010 I have joined the Leverhulme Research Network 'Tracing Networks: Craft Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean and beyond'. In May 2013, I organised an international conference on the theme 'Materials and Industries in the Mycenaean World' funded by the AHRC, which was widely praised by both speakers and participants for its high level of specialist research and exchange within the field of prehistoric materials and productions technologies. Professor Anthony F. Harding from University of Exeter, who chaired the panel on metals congratulated 'on putting together such an interesting programme, and for running the event so well!' Professor John Bennet from the University of Sheffield, who delivered the keynote speech, wrote 'the event went very well and there was a good exchange of views and information among the participants'. The fact that I have been invited to collaborate in major international research and publication schemes in Greece (such as Mycenae-the Artisans' Quarter, Kazarma-the Tholos tomb, Midea-the Acropolis, Kynos-the settlement) demonstrates the rigorous scientific methodology that is being applied towards investigation and interpretation. Seeing archaeological research as a reflective learning process I have been engaging actively my personal research with the wider public. I have led various outreach activities for primary and secondary school pupils by organizing educational days on early arts and crafts (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire). In 2013-2014 I also led two educational workshops for pre-GCSE, GCSE and A-Level pupils at the A. G. Leventis Gallery, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (27 August 2013 and 22 February 2014). The activity was praised by the Cyprus Minister of Education and Culture and the Head of Cyprus Educational Mission at the Hellenic Centre, London (18 May 2014). The importance of incorporating archaeology (in this case Greek archaeology) in a supplementary/community school setting has raised an exceptional interest amongst Greek community members in the UK. The entire educational experience has a significant place in identity construction as it raised and built up students' awareness of their common history, culture and language, which further strengthened bonds amongst the students as members of a contemporary community within the wider context of the UK multicultural society.The talk aimed not only to present the archaeological outreach activity but also to raise debate about the significance of similar events in community context for heritage awareness and identity negotiation. A talk that was delivered in 'Community in Education' (Conference 3 July 2015, London Metropolitan University) was met with great interest by other participants and the whole educational-archaeological activity was highly commended by other supplementary and community schools in the UK.
First Year Of Impact 2013
Sector Education,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
Impact Types Cultural
 
Description International Association for the History of Glass (AIHV) - 20th International Congress of AIHV, Switzerland
Amount SFr. 740 (CHF)
Funding ID N/A 
Organisation International Association for the History of Glass 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country Unknown
Start 09/2015 
End 09/2015
 
Description Mediterranean Archaeological Trust Publications Scheme
Amount £1,500 (GBP)
Organisation Mediterranean Archaeological Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country Unknown
Start 06/2012 
End 05/2013
 
Description Greek-Swedish Excavations at Dendra and Midea in the Argolid 
Organisation Hellenic Ministry of Culture
Country Greece, Hellenic Republic 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I have been studying jewelry and ornaments of glass and vitreous materials from both excavation sectors as a glass and minor finds specialist. I joined the study team in 2005 and I still provide my services to the publication programme. I shall contribute to the final published volume with an extended chapter on the material studied, which is planned for 2018.
Collaborator Contribution My collaborators have provided me with ample material, namely glass and faience artefacts to include to my research and provide them with answers on key questions related to the post-excavation study. This material has been incorporated into my research for further investigation, evaluation and final publication.
Impact 1. I delivered an invited talk at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens ( Nikita, K. 2012. "?????a??? ?a??????a: ?????, ?e??????, St?d?a ???????? ?a? ???t?a ?µp?????" (National Archaeological Museum, Athens, 19th March 2012) - 'The Mycenaean Glass Industry: Materials, Techniques, Evolutionary Stages and Trade Networks' 2. I also prepare an extended chapter on the glass finds of the excavation at Midea Acropolis (1984-2014) for the final volume that will be published by 2018 (volume prepared by K. Demakopolou, N. Divari-Valakou and A.-L. Schallin).
Start Year 2012
 
Description Greek-Swedish Excavations at Dendra and Midea in the Argolid 
Organisation Swedish Institute at Athens
Country Greece, Hellenic Republic 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution I have been studying jewelry and ornaments of glass and vitreous materials from both excavation sectors as a glass and minor finds specialist. I joined the study team in 2005 and I still provide my services to the publication programme. I shall contribute to the final published volume with an extended chapter on the material studied, which is planned for 2018.
Collaborator Contribution My collaborators have provided me with ample material, namely glass and faience artefacts to include to my research and provide them with answers on key questions related to the post-excavation study. This material has been incorporated into my research for further investigation, evaluation and final publication.
Impact 1. I delivered an invited talk at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens ( Nikita, K. 2012. "?????a??? ?a??????a: ?????, ?e??????, St?d?a ???????? ?a? ???t?a ?µp?????" (National Archaeological Museum, Athens, 19th March 2012) - 'The Mycenaean Glass Industry: Materials, Techniques, Evolutionary Stages and Trade Networks' 2. I also prepare an extended chapter on the glass finds of the excavation at Midea Acropolis (1984-2014) for the final volume that will be published by 2018 (volume prepared by K. Demakopolou, N. Divari-Valakou and A.-L. Schallin).
Start Year 2012
 
Description Publication of the Kazarma Tholos tomb, Argolid 
Organisation Hellenic Ministry of Culture
Country Greece, Hellenic Republic 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I joined the team for the 'Publication of the Tholos Tomb at Kazarma, Argolid' in 2012. I have been studying the unique assemblage of great archaeological significance of an Early Mycenaean date systematically. The study of the glass assemblage will be made a really original contribution to the field of Greek prehistory and early glass owing to the outstanding quality and quantity of the glass finds in an early context.
Collaborator Contribution The 'Publication of the Tholos Tomb at Kazarma, Argolid' is led by S. Spyropoulou, S. Keramidas and A. Vasilopoulou (Hellenic Ministry of Culture) is funded by the Institute for Aegean Prehistory. I was invited to join the team as a glass specialist. This collaborators has offered me full access to all material for study and subsequent publication. It is also a further recognition of the significance of the research being undertaken on Mycenaean glass and vitreous materials.
Impact 1. The study will form an extended chapter on artefacts of glass and vitreous materials that will appear in the volume of the tomb publication. 2. A journal article is being prepared for publication - Nikita, K. in preparation (with Spyropoulou, S, Vasilopoulou, A. Keramidas, S). "An Early Mycenaean glass cylinder bead from the tholos tomb at Kazarma, Argolid" (to be submitted to the American Journal of Archaeology).
Start Year 2012
 
Description Study of glass and vitreous materials from the Bronze Age site of Mitrou 
Organisation Hellenic Ministry of Culture
Country Greece, Hellenic Republic 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaborative study that was set up in summer 2016 among Kalliopi Nikita (Hellenic Ministry of Culture), Professor Aleydis Van de Moortel (University of Tennessee), Eleni Zachou (Hellenic Ministry of Culture) and Kerill O'Neill (Corby College). Initial inspection of the material was undertaken by Kalliopi Nikita in the storerooms of the Mitrou excavations in Phthiotis, Greece. A preliminary report to the field directors was presented to the field directors for further authorization to a systematic study, sampling and material analysis in summer 2017.
Collaborator Contribution Aleydis Van de Moortel (University of Tennessee) deals with the overall archaeological context of the site and the objects included in the study of glass. Kerill O'Neill (Corby College) focuses on the study of ornaments from an archaeological and typological perspective.
Impact There are not any outputs produced yet. This collaboration was set up in summer 2016.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Study of glass and vitreous materials from the Bronze Age site of Mitrou 
Organisation University of Tennessee
Country United States of America 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaborative study that was set up in summer 2016 among Kalliopi Nikita (Hellenic Ministry of Culture), Professor Aleydis Van de Moortel (University of Tennessee), Eleni Zachou (Hellenic Ministry of Culture) and Kerill O'Neill (Corby College). Initial inspection of the material was undertaken by Kalliopi Nikita in the storerooms of the Mitrou excavations in Phthiotis, Greece. A preliminary report to the field directors was presented to the field directors for further authorization to a systematic study, sampling and material analysis in summer 2017.
Collaborator Contribution Aleydis Van de Moortel (University of Tennessee) deals with the overall archaeological context of the site and the objects included in the study of glass. Kerill O'Neill (Corby College) focuses on the study of ornaments from an archaeological and typological perspective.
Impact There are not any outputs produced yet. This collaboration was set up in summer 2016.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Tracing Networks: Craft traditions in the ancient Mediterranean and beyond (Leverhulme Trust Network) 
Organisation University of Exeter
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution There has been important research exchange amongst all parties. My contribution was on specific aspects of high-temperature technologies and luxury material industries, such as glass and allied vitreous materials. I joined their reading and discussion groups at Leicester on the theory of practice of early industries and the networks of craft interactions.
Collaborator Contribution My partners provided me with useful contacts as regards to research in Southern Italy, namely Sardinia and Italy. This opened new avenues to my research in the Old Mediterranean World
Impact I delivered invited talks at the University of Leicester (June 2010) and at the University of Cagliari, Sardinia (May 2011). Nikita, K. 2011. "Glass in the Late Bronze Age Mediterranean: tracing the networks of exchange" (Tracing Networks: Craft Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean and Beyond, Cagliari, Sardinia, 14th May 2011) Nikita, K. 2010. "The Glass Industry of Mycenaean Greece: technology, production and economy" (Tracing Networks: Craft Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean and Beyond, University of Leicester, Leicester, 16th June 2010)
Start Year 2010
 
Description Tracing Networks: Craft traditions in the ancient Mediterranean and beyond (Leverhulme Trust Network) 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Department Department of Archaeology
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution There has been important research exchange amongst all parties. My contribution was on specific aspects of high-temperature technologies and luxury material industries, such as glass and allied vitreous materials. I joined their reading and discussion groups at Leicester on the theory of practice of early industries and the networks of craft interactions.
Collaborator Contribution My partners provided me with useful contacts as regards to research in Southern Italy, namely Sardinia and Italy. This opened new avenues to my research in the Old Mediterranean World
Impact I delivered invited talks at the University of Leicester (June 2010) and at the University of Cagliari, Sardinia (May 2011). Nikita, K. 2011. "Glass in the Late Bronze Age Mediterranean: tracing the networks of exchange" (Tracing Networks: Craft Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean and Beyond, Cagliari, Sardinia, 14th May 2011) Nikita, K. 2010. "The Glass Industry of Mycenaean Greece: technology, production and economy" (Tracing Networks: Craft Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean and Beyond, University of Leicester, Leicester, 16th June 2010)
Start Year 2010
 
Description Tracing Networks: Craft traditions in the ancient Mediterranean and beyond (Leverhulme Trust Network) 
Organisation University of Leicester
Department School of Archaeology and Ancient History
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution There has been important research exchange amongst all parties. My contribution was on specific aspects of high-temperature technologies and luxury material industries, such as glass and allied vitreous materials. I joined their reading and discussion groups at Leicester on the theory of practice of early industries and the networks of craft interactions.
Collaborator Contribution My partners provided me with useful contacts as regards to research in Southern Italy, namely Sardinia and Italy. This opened new avenues to my research in the Old Mediterranean World
Impact I delivered invited talks at the University of Leicester (June 2010) and at the University of Cagliari, Sardinia (May 2011). Nikita, K. 2011. "Glass in the Late Bronze Age Mediterranean: tracing the networks of exchange" (Tracing Networks: Craft Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean and Beyond, Cagliari, Sardinia, 14th May 2011) Nikita, K. 2010. "The Glass Industry of Mycenaean Greece: technology, production and economy" (Tracing Networks: Craft Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean and Beyond, University of Leicester, Leicester, 16th June 2010)
Start Year 2010
 
Description "?ß?a t?!" (=I found it): The significance of heritage education for developing citizenship and identities of young students of the Greek Diaspora" (with O. Karaiosif at the 3rd International Conference in Heritage Management Education and Heritage: Dynamic Tools for Communicating Heritage Values, 30 September - 2 October 2016, Elefsina, Greece) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Karaiosif, O. and Nikita, K. 2016. "?ß?a t?!" (=I found it): The significance of heritage education for developing citizenship and identities of young students of the Greek Diaspora", 3rd International Conference in Heritage Management, Education and Heritage: Dynamic Tools for Communicating Heritage Values, 30 September - 2 October 2016, Elefsina, Greece. - This talk at the 3rd International Conference in Heritage Management was based on the educational project of the Greek Supplementary School of Mansfield and the visit to the British Museum in 21 June 2015.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description "Supplementary schools and museums as spaces for identity negotiation: integrating archaeology and drama within an educational framework, (with O. Karaiosif at the Community in Education Conference, 3 June 2015, London, Metropolitan University) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The activity was a presentation of the outreach activities that took place in the Greek Supplementary School of Mansfield, UK and the A. G. Leventis Gallery, Ashmolean, Museum, Oxford in August 2013 and February 2014. This activity was the result of the previous engaging activities on arts and crafts of prehistoric Cyprus. The talk aimed not only to present the archaeological outreach activity but also to raise debate about the significance of similar events in community context for heritage awareness and identity negotiation. The talk was met with great interest by other participants and the whole educational-archaeological activity was highly praised by other supplementary and community schools.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Materials and Industries in the Mycenaean World, 9-10 May 2013, Nottingham 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Our workshop fostered debate and exchange between diverse and competing methodological approaches in archaeology by exploring the various ways in which recent advances in the study of Mycenaean materials and industries enable the development of future research agendas in Archaeology. The international event brought together a wide range of hitherto largely isolated initiatives in the archaeology of Mycenaean materials and industries, and our primary endeavour was to answer important questions on Mycenaean materials and industries, whilst also showcasing emerging research approaches to the prehistory of Greece and of the broader Mediterranean.
It was our goal to deepen our understanding of technological development in prehistoric societies by examining the degree to which Mycenaean technology contributed to the inheritance received from earlier production technologies, as well as whether these provided a strong basis for its genesis and growth. Mycenaean industries and use of materials reflected a legacy inherited from the Early and Middle Bronze Ages of the broader Aegean, as well as being exposed to foreign influences through trade and exchange. Whether the material technologies of the Mycenaean world, which came to form an integral segment of the increasingly interconnected Late Bronze Age Mediterranean and to extend its contact into other parts of Europe, became influential within contemporary and subsequent cultural contexts is also worthy of investigation. Our approaches rely principally on a wide range of methods for analysing materials and industries, in attempting to trace the evolutionary processes of production technologies against an overall cross-cultural background. This will enable us to determine whether the seemingly slow progress observable in prehistoric technologies was the result of strongly conservative attitudes, or reflects control and patronage by a central administration. In turn, this will help us to investigate further the intentions, choices, limitations, and experimentations of prehistoric craftspeople, and how these were subject to varied technological and cultural influences. Moreover, by identifying the beneficiaries of material production technologies, i.e.those who received their products, we will be in a better position to understand the wider role and use of those products in a prehistoric society. Ultimately, we hope to provide further insights into the relationships between technology experts and/or leaders and beneficiaries in early societies, especially in societies that were pre-monetary, had obscure writing systems, and have preserved fragmentary written records.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/archaeology/research/conferences/ahrc-intro.aspx
 
Description The Greek Community at the A. G. Leventis Gallery, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, with the camera of Doros Partasides of CyBC, 27 August 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Participation in the filming of Greek and Cypriot antiquities at the A. G. Leventis Gallery, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford for the weekly show on the CyBC 'Our Community' with the camera of Doros Partasides (27 August 013). The aim of the visit and filming was to present to the Greek-Cypriots of Cyprus and the Diaspora the significance of the gallery and to raise heritage awareness amongst the wider community. My role was to talk about materials, arts and crafts of prehistoric Cyprus and about the importance of incorporating their teaching and learning in supplementary school education and adult community education. The event led to an organized visit to the Ashmolean by young students of the supplementary school of Mansfield and by adult community members, 22 February 2014.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description The Greek Supplementary School of Mansfield Visits the British Museum, Greek Antiquities, 21 June 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The Greek Supplementary School of Mansfield (Debyshire) organized a Visit to the British Museum, Greek Antiquities (21 June 2015). This educational and cultural event was organized by Kalliopi Nikita. Sixty eight participants (pupils - from year 1 to Pre-GCSE, GCSE and A Level, accompanying adults, teachers and teaching assistants attended the event). The visit aimed to engage the young adult learners of Greek language and culture in the Greek community of Mansfield with Greek archaeology form the Mycenaean era to the Classical times. Apart from learning about ancient Greek jewellery, ornaments and clothing (where glass and vitreous materials had a significant position) the participants had a unique opportunity to learn about other aspects of early Greek art, culture, crafts and technology. This educational event was held in three stages that involved a) a set of activites at school prior to the visit, b) activities during the museum visit and c) post-museum-visit activities at school. The event was met with great success and it was also covered by the Greek-Cypriot press in the UK, in Greece and in Cyprus.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description The Greek Supplementary School of Mansfield visits the Cypriot and Greek Antiquities at the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, 22 February 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The educational workshop was designed, structured and delivered for pre-GCSE, GCSE and A-Level pupils at the A. G. Leventis Gallery, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (22 February 2014). The event covered a range of early materials (glass, clay, bronze) as well as arts and crafts of prehistoric Cyprus. The educational activity started from the school prior to the museum visit, followed guided tour and activities at the educational studio with final activities at school after the visit. This primary learning process motivated students to expand their archaeological enquiry from school to the museum where they further explored and they finally discovered the authentic museum artefacts as kept in the gallery. The entire educational experience has a significant place in identity construction as it raised and built up students' awareness of their common history, culture and language, which further strengthened bonds amongst the students as members of a contemporary community within the wider context of the UK multicultural society.The entire educational and archaeological event was praised by the Cyprus Minister of Education and Culture and the Head of Cyprus Educational Mission at the Hellenic Centre, London (18 May 2014).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://tanea-london.net/PAROIKIA12/Paroikia14-235.html