Plurality and Media Power: new policy approaches to protecting the public interest in the 21st century

Lead Research Organisation: University of Westminster
Department Name: Faculty of Media Arts and Design

Abstract

In most mature democracies around the world, preserving media plurality has become a major political and regulatory issue. As powerful media enterprises seek to consolidate in a hostile economic environment, governments are struggling to prevent too much media power becoming concentrated in too few hands. At risk is the diversity of voice and editorial output which are the lifeblood of a healthy democracy.

In the UK over the last 2 years, we have seen vivid examples of this accretion of corporate power, the apparent unwillingness (or inability) of policy-makers to intervene, and the failure of existing policy and regulatory regimes to protect the public interest. Evidence to the Leveson Inquiry has provided abundant testimony of the problems being posed.

This project will address these issues at one of the most crucial junctures of policy-making in recent political history. Publication of the Leveson report in Autumn 2012 will be followed by a 2-3 year legislative process which will include major policy debates on a new framework for media plurality. Beyond that, there will be implications for how this framework will operate in the longer term.

The research is designed to promote more effective, more ambitious and more citizen-focussed policies in this area, and therefore to animate and inform current policy thinking as well as the policy and regulatory environment which will follow. The proposed Research Fellow, Prof Steven Barnett, has conducted research in this area for over 20 years, and has advised ministers and Parliamentary committees. Because of his immersion in the policy process, he is well acquainted at the highest levels with all the key political, industrial and regulatory figures.

Through a series of interviews, seminars and events aimed at key stakeholders, including groups who are not traditionally part of the policy conversation, this project will generate new and innovative ideas and will contribute to a broadening agenda around media plurality which will feed into the legislative process.

The key objectives are threefold. First, to assess different approaches to defining and measuring plurality, and the challenges posed by new and convergent media; second, to examine the drawbacks of the current policy regime, and to propose ideas for a more robust policy framework; third, to evaluate new and existing ideas for structural initiatives or solutions which might exploit new media opportunities to promote plurality.

Research will be conducted in three ways. First, it will analyse the wealth of valuable information and ideas in written and oral submissions to the Leveson Inquiry. Second, interviews will be held with 12 leading political, regulatory and industry figures involved in recent policy debates around plurality and the public interest. Third, a series of six seminars will be convened, including one in Scotland, one in Wales, and one including European experts in the area. In each one, a group of around 20 academics, regulators, politicians, policy-makers and representatives of civil society will address the key research questions and respond to ideas generated during the first two stages.

Results of the research will be disseminated through a planned series of networking events as well as through two books, conferences and a dedicated website. Events will be directed at key politicians and policy-makers such as special advisers, senior civil servants and regulators; media industry executives and umbrella groups; civil society groups; and academics from media, law and politics.

As well as proceeds from the seminars and networking events, outputs will include an 80,000 word monograph (already commissioned), conference papers, and an edited collection of essays. The project will involve a part-time post-doctoral Research Assistant who will be fully involved in the seminars and networking events, will co-author conference papers, and will assist in producing the edited collection.

Planned Impact

An integral part of this project is that it should reach beyond the academic community and engage with a number of key stakeholder groups involved in developing or responding to policy and regulatory issues around media ownership. Traditionally, this area has been dominated by industry and business arguments, while other stakeholder groups (particularly politicians) have lacked the confidence, knowledge or opportunity to think imaginatively and act collaboratively. This research is designed to inform and feed into the process of developing a new, robust legislative and regulatory framework which will promote a more democratic media while being economically sustainable.

These stakeholder groups will therefore benefit first from having access to a thorough analysis of relevant testimony to the Leveson Inquiry; second, being exposed to a number of different and innovative ideas - including international and European approaches - around measuring, legislating for and promoting media plurality in the longer term; and third, having the opportunity to debate new public interest policy and regulatory initiatives with other stakeholders, experts and interested parties in different fora.

The following groups will benefit:

- Politicians, particularly those involved in creating or responding to legislation around media power. This includes ministers, shadow ministers, and relevant select committee members in both Houses as well as MPs and Peers who have taken an active interest in media plurality debates over the last ten years.
- Policy analysts and policy advisers, particularly those currently working for MPs and ministers in developing policy ideas around media plurality and the public interest. This will include relevant advisers at Downing Street as well as independent industry analysts.
- Think tanks such as IPPR, Institute of Economic Affairs, Adam Smith Institute, CentreForum, Demos and Reform which have all shown a keen interest in developing and sharing new ideas and creative thinking in this area.
- Senior civil servants at DCMS and DBIS who have previously been responsible for media policy or are currently in the process of developing ideas and initiatives for the new Communications Bill.
- Senior individuals involved in the key regulatory agencies, in particular Ofcom, the Competition Commission and the Office of Fair Trading. Through their direct involvement in recent investigations involving News Corp and BSkyB (as well as BSkyB and ITV in 2006-8), they have been working within and interpreting current statutory requirements, and will play a crucial role in implementing new policy initiatives on media plurality.
- Civil Society Groups and NGOs such as Voice of the Listener and Viewer, Campaign for Press and Broadcasting Freedom, Media Standards Trust, and the Community Media Association, which have traditionally supported citizen-based initiatives but have had neither the resources nor the influence to make a significant impact on media ownership policy.
- Relevant charities and Trusts such as the Journalism Foundation and the Bureau of Investigative Journalism which are developing new models for funding new journalism enterprises and projects.
- Policy-makers specifically in the nations of Scotland and Wales, where some policy-making is devolved and where different issues arise around media power and sustainable media enterprises.
- Industry executives in the private sector, including the main privately owned broadcasters, all the major newspaper groups, and the major online social media players such as Google, AOL and Facebook.
- Senior executives from the BBC and Channel 4 where arguments about media power are interwoven with issues around impartiality, internal plurality, and editorial accountability. They will also benefit from involvement in discussions about how the public sector can work in partnership with the private to promote new and diverse small media enterprises.

Publications


10 25 50
 
Description New ideas and new approaches to policy making on media plurality which have emphasised "bottom up" approaches to fostering new media enterprises at local and national level, as well as new thinking about approaches to measurement and the political decision-making process around media power and media consolidation. These have been developed through collaborations with relevant institutions and organisations, and through discussions and seminars with policy makers, regulators, industry representatives and academics. They have been successfully fed into the policy making process through meetings with politicians and political advisers.
Exploitation Route In the short term, political parties can integrate some of the ideas generated into next year's election manifestos. In the longer term, policy makers, regulators and political advisers can take some of the thinking forward to create new policy frameworks which will promote media plurality at both local and national level. Moreover, there is now a body of newly created evidence around the democratic and journalistic contribution of the hyperlocal sector which can be exploited by other scholars.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Creative Economy,Government, Democracy and Justice,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
URL http://www.mediaplurality.com/
 
Description They have informed the work of other organisations such as the Media Standards Trust and the Reuters Institute, the work of other scholars in the field of communications and journalism, and have either been adopted by or informed the thinking of policy advisers in both the Labour and Liberal Democrat parties in developing their policy thinking on media plurality in advance of the next election. The Liberal Democrat 2015 manifesto commitment to "Protecting the space for democratic debate" was drafted in part by Prof Barnett, and heavily influenced by this research project - in particular the recommendations for supporting local and hyperlocal media (p139): https://d3n8a8pro7vhmx.cloudfront.net/libdems/pages/8907/attachments/original/1429028133/Liberal_Democrat_General_Election_Manifesto_2015.pdf?1429028133 In addition, the BBC has announced a "local reporter" partnership scheme with the local press, precisely the kind of industry partnership which we were advocating as part of our policy conclusions for fostering plurality in the local media.
First Year Of Impact 2013
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Creative Economy,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
Impact Types Cultural
 
Description Drafted passage on media plurality and policy commitments for Liberal Democrat manifesto
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
URL https://d3n8a8pro7vhmx.cloudfront.net/libdems/pages/8907/attachments/original/1429028133/Liberal_Dem...
 
Description Policy adviser on media plurality and culture issues to Liberal Democrats
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
 
Description Recommendations on plurality to House of Lords Communications Committee
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
URL http://www.mediaplurality.com/2013/12/23/recommendations-on-plurality-to-the-house-of-lords-select-c...
 
Description Response to DCMS consultation on Media Ownership and Plurality
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
URL http://www.scribd.com/doc/179589287/Response-to-DCMS-on-Plurality-October-2013-Professor-Steven-Barn...
 
Description Written and oral evidence to House of Commons Culture select committee on Future of the BBC
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
URL http://data.parliament.uk/writtenevidence/committeeevidence.svc/evidencedocument/culture-media-and-s...
 
Description Written and oral evidence to House of Lords select committee on media plurality
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
URL http://www.parliament.uk/documents/lords-committees/communications/Mediaplurality/MediaPluralityEvid...
 
Description Collaboration with City University on one-day conference 
Organisation City, University of London
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Working with the Centre for Law, Justice and Journalism (CLJJ) based at City University to run a major conference on the main strands of the project, open to a broad range of industry, policy, third sector and academic participants.
Collaborator Contribution Joining forces with CLJJ allowed us both to make generous use of their conference organisers and facilities, and to generate interest through their extensive electronic list of potential delegates reaching well beyond the academy to industry, politcs and the third sector.
Impact Over 150 people signed up to the event, with others contributing to the discussion online. Over 100 people attended on the day.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Collaboration with law firm specialising in charity law 
Organisation Stone King Solicitors LLP (Bath)
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Working with charity law specialists, a significant strand of the project has been to develop detailed discussions and potential policy initiatives around charitable funding for journalism, which can then be conveyed to policy makers as potential policy changes.
Collaborator Contribution Questions of whether journalism enterprises could or should attract charitable status have become a key issue in trying to promote plurality at the local level. This collaboration has enabled us to obtain expert advice from one of the country's leading charity lawyers with a view to establishing a dialogue with the Charity Commission (CC) and then with interested policy makers and parliamentarians.
Impact We held a closed half-day seminar involving around 30 participants from law, journalism, the Charity Commission and policy making on 23 June 2014.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Collaboration with network of media ownership and plurality experts for edited collection. 
Organisation University of Manchester
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have co-ordinated and will co-edit a collection of chapters by leading academic experts on media plurality, to be published by Palgrave Macmillan in June 2015.
Collaborator Contribution Academic contributors have shared ideas, and drafted abstracts for the collection.
Impact Edited book will be published in 2015.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Cross-posting collaboration with LSE Media Policy Project 
Organisation London School of Economics and Political Science (University of London)
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We established an agreement with the Media Policy Project, an online resource based in the LSE's Media and Communications dept, to share contributions on media policy issues relevant to plurality and media ownership. Allows both institutions to maximise dissemination of relevant policy-related information and reach a broader audience of policy makers, industry figures and politicians.
Collaborator Contribution Blog contributions commissioned by or written for either site are automatically cross-posted to the other.
Impact Articles included: Media Plurality Series: Is Ofcom's 'Share of References' scheme fit for measuring media power? - Steven Barnett; Media Plurality Series: Fixed ownership limits proposed for transparency and accountability - Justin Schlosberg; Media Plurality Series: European level inertia is not justified - Petros Iosifidis; Media Plurality Series: The transparency of media ownership - Mark Thompson; Media Plurality Series: The impact of a 20% ownership cap is not so 'minor' - Rob Kenny.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Development, implementation and reporting of research survey of UK hyperlocal sites 
Organisation Birmingham City University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution A collaboration with Dr Andy Williams of Cardiff University, Dave Harte of Birmingham City University, and William Perrin and Michael Rawlins from Talk About Local to construct the first comprehensive survey of UK hyperlocal sites. It was designed to establish the size, nature, funding and sustainability of these sites, as well as their contributions to local journalism and diversity.
Collaborator Contribution Talk About Local (TAL) are effectively the only umbrella group acting on behalf of the various (and variegated) hyperlocal sites, have a close working relationship and with and knowledge of many of these enterprises, and have the only list which is close to being comprehensive. They provided access to their list, and provided their own invaluable advice in designing and then administering the questionnaire. Cardiff and BCU each provided inputs to questionnaire design based on qualitative work which they had conducted. Cardiff contributed half the cost of producing a decent quality hard copy report (200 copies) for circulation to relevant scholars and stakeholders.
Impact Completed survey-based empirical research, involving over 180 hyperlocal publishers. Published results in open access report online, and also an analysis in a peer-reviewed journal. Print copies distributed to stakeholders.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Development, implementation and reporting of research survey of UK hyperlocal sites 
Organisation Cardiff University
Department Cardiff School of Journalism, Media & Cultural Studies
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution A collaboration with Dr Andy Williams of Cardiff University, Dave Harte of Birmingham City University, and William Perrin and Michael Rawlins from Talk About Local to construct the first comprehensive survey of UK hyperlocal sites. It was designed to establish the size, nature, funding and sustainability of these sites, as well as their contributions to local journalism and diversity.
Collaborator Contribution Talk About Local (TAL) are effectively the only umbrella group acting on behalf of the various (and variegated) hyperlocal sites, have a close working relationship and with and knowledge of many of these enterprises, and have the only list which is close to being comprehensive. They provided access to their list, and provided their own invaluable advice in designing and then administering the questionnaire. Cardiff and BCU each provided inputs to questionnaire design based on qualitative work which they had conducted. Cardiff contributed half the cost of producing a decent quality hard copy report (200 copies) for circulation to relevant scholars and stakeholders.
Impact Completed survey-based empirical research, involving over 180 hyperlocal publishers. Published results in open access report online, and also an analysis in a peer-reviewed journal. Print copies distributed to stakeholders.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Development, implementation and reporting of research survey of UK hyperlocal sites 
Organisation Talk About Local
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution A collaboration with Dr Andy Williams of Cardiff University, Dave Harte of Birmingham City University, and William Perrin and Michael Rawlins from Talk About Local to construct the first comprehensive survey of UK hyperlocal sites. It was designed to establish the size, nature, funding and sustainability of these sites, as well as their contributions to local journalism and diversity.
Collaborator Contribution Talk About Local (TAL) are effectively the only umbrella group acting on behalf of the various (and variegated) hyperlocal sites, have a close working relationship and with and knowledge of many of these enterprises, and have the only list which is close to being comprehensive. They provided access to their list, and provided their own invaluable advice in designing and then administering the questionnaire. Cardiff and BCU each provided inputs to questionnaire design based on qualitative work which they had conducted. Cardiff contributed half the cost of producing a decent quality hard copy report (200 copies) for circulation to relevant scholars and stakeholders.
Impact Completed survey-based empirical research, involving over 180 hyperlocal publishers. Published results in open access report online, and also an analysis in a peer-reviewed journal. Print copies distributed to stakeholders.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Presentation of data from media pluralism study 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provided a forum within the context of this project for RISJ to present results of their research, provide feedback, and facilitate debate.
Collaborator Contribution RISJ conducted a study on risks to media pluralism in the UK as part of the Media Pluralism Monitor developed for the European Commission. Similar studies are being conducted in 7 other EU member states. They asked to have an opportunity to present their data within the context of this project.
Impact Presentation and subsequent debate took place on 21 October 2014 at the university's Regent Street campus.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Working with Media Standards Trust in report on "positive plurality" 
Organisation Media Standards Trust
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Provided details of research on hyperlocals, contributed to and commented on policy ideas in MST report, facilitated meetings with relevant policy makers.
Collaborator Contribution Through MST funding and resources, completed a systematic appraisal of the "democratic deficit" in local journalism and policy ideas for regeneration.
Impact Report by MST, published in October 2014.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Presentation to ECREA workshop: The politics of plurality: new policy approaches to media ownership in a convergent media environment 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact This paper, to a conference of European scholars, presented a case study of the rationale behind deregulatory media ownership changes in the 2003 Communications Act, and presented some policy options and opportunities for more positive interventions in the future.

Made contacts with other academic researchers on plurality.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.ecrea.eu/news/article/id/212
 
Description Attendance at Ofcom roundtable on measuring online news consumption 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This was an expert roundtable bringing together policymakers, regulators, industry representatives and academics to examine the complex issues of news audience measurement. I was able to ensure that discussion was centred on the policy implications of news plurality, in particular when discussing the regulator's statutory duty in media mergers and acquisitions (such as the attempted acquisition by News Corp of 100% of BSkyB in 2011 or the successful takeover of Channel5 by Viacom in 2014).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Briefing meeting on plurality policy with invited parliamentarians at House of Lords 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/parliamentarians
Results and Impact Five members of the House of Lords (and one representative) and one MP attended small meeting on possible avenues for development of media plurality related policy initiatives.

One member of the House of Lords who attended the meeting raised a question in Parliament about the intended schedule for a government response to the House of Lords communications committee report on media plurality.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Co-edited blog series with LSE Media Policy Project 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact We have established an agreement with the Media Policy Project, an online resource based in the LSE's Media and Communications dept, to share contributions on media policy issues relevant to plurality and media ownership. Blog contributions commissioned by or written for either site is automatically cross-posted to the other.

Encouraged discussions online and offline with other academic researchers and policy consultants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014
URL http://www.mediaplurality.com/category/media-plurality-series/
 
Description Dedicated Twitter account 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact At the same time as the website, the project established its own Twitter account designed to connect both nationally and internationally to relevant events, outputs, policy initiatives etc. Currently has just under 300 followers.

Encouraged academics to contact the project and engage in discussions etc. Allowed dissemination of project outputs such as research papers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014
URL http://twitter.com/mediaplurality
 
Description Development of website 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Website created specifically for the project, to provide a forum for blogs, discussion, resources, links to relevant material and policy documents in other countries, and as a space for project outputs (e.g. record of seminar discussions, conference papers etc.). These outputs, with links to relevant documents, can be found under a dedicated heading under http://www.mediaplurality.com/about-the-project/project-output/

Interest from academics and practitioners following visits to the website. Over 40 people have signed up for email updates from the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014
URL http://mediaplurality.com
 
Description Invited panelist at Film and Media 2014 (Judith Townend) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact A small group of academics and practitioners attended a special panel on media plurality and ownership. Judith Townend, research associate, presented a paper on 'Plurality - from the national to hyperlocal'.

Contact building; discussion of future policy development.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.thelondonfilmandmediaconference.com/film-and-media-2014-conference-programme/
 
Description Invited speaker at symposium on Media plurality and the public interest in the 21st century: regulation, funding, creativity 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Paper to City University symposium on Global Media Policy, analysing lack of meaningful policy recommendations on plurality in the Leveson report, and exploring ideas for intervention and new policy initiatives.

Developed contacts with future contributors to project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.city.ac.uk/events/2013/december/symposium-on-global-media-policy-and-business
 
Description Organised Media Plurality lecture with Rt Hon Harriet Harman 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Invited Harriet Harman, deputy leader of Labour Party and shadow Culture Secretary, to speak on Labour's proposals for media plurality as part of the Westminster/British Journalism Review Charles Wheeler Award.

Speech can be found here: http://www.harrietharman.org/charles-wheeler-lecture-on-media-ownership---130613

This speech created substantial public interest, as the first time that the Labour opposition committed to specific caps on media ownership and to a "fit and proper person" test for media proprietors. Prof Barnett was involved in briefing the shadow minister and her advisers. An example of event reporting: http://www.thedrum.com/news/2013/06/13/harriet-harman-suggests-fit-and-proper-person-test-well-15-cap-media-ownership.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.harrietharman.org/charles-wheeler-lecture-on-media-ownership---130613
 
Description Presentation on philanthropic funding of journalism and measuring impact by Richard Tofel 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Different perspective (from the US) of new funding models for journalism raised many questions during and after presentation.

Prompted discussion with those involved in charitable funding (e.g. Potter Foundation) to advance thinking on how this might be better achieved in the UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://oneworldmedia.org.uk/evening-journalism-and-impact
 
Description Presentation to academic workshop. Media Plurality and Europe: Sound and fury signifying nothing 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact This presentation explored the background to European initiatives on plurality, analysed why historically they had failed, examined more recent reports and recommendations from the EU, and posed a series of critical questions about whether this was likely to result in progress. The seminar was an opportunity for UK and Finnish scholars to exchange ideas about the trajectory of media policy in their respective countries.

Forged new connections with other academics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.mediaplurality.com/2013/11/05/upcoming-event-critical-issues-in-european-and-national-med...
 
Description Seminar on media plurality in Scotland 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 12 participants, a mixture of academics, media practitioners and policymakers, attended workshop on media plurality in Scotland.

Raised important issues about role of the press in referendum debate. Raised issues around allowing joint ownership of regional (STV) and local city TV licences. Underlined importance of looking at region-specific issues around plurality.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.mediaplurality.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/Glasgow_5-March-2014.pdf
 
Description Seminar on media plurality in Wales 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Eleven participants from academic, media and policymaking backgrounds attended seminar on media plurality in Wales.

Led to contact with the National Assembly of Wales; continuance of discussions between University of Cardiff researchers and BBC Wales about future support of hyperlocal sector.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.mediaplurality.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/Cardiff-notes-final.pdf
 
Description Seminar on media plurality policy (UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact 13 participants, including scholars, regulators and policy makers attended seminar on media plurality policy in the UK. It resulted in an agreed set of recommendations (by the academic participants) which were sent to the House of Lords communications committee.

A set of recommendations was agreed (by the academic participants) which were sent to the House of Lords communications committee which was then conducting an inquiry into media plurality.....
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.mediaplurality.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/Seminar-summary-12-12-13.pdf
 
Description Seminar on media policy (Europe) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact 12 academic experts from around Europe gathered to discuss the development of EU and different nation state policies on media plurality and ownership, in particular looking for areas of convergence and divergence.

Agreed that collaboration was needed on a book of contributions around the themes raised.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.mediaplurality.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/Notes_European-plurality-seminar-31-01-14-....
 
Description Two seminars on supporting journalism as a charitable activity 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Two seminars on the possibility of extending charitable status to journalistic activity. First seminar involved six external practitioners; the second was a bigger event, with 25 attendees.

Charitable funding for journalism is now being recognised as a potential policy goal, and there is greater awareness from the Charity Commission about the potential benefits.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014
URL http://www.mediaplurality.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/Charity-seminar-summary-June-2014-final.pdf