The role of skull flexibility in feeding - an investigation using advanced computer modelling techniques

Lead Research Organisation: University of Hull
Department Name: Engineering

Abstract

The project examines the role of skull flexibility in lizard feeding, using an advanced computer modelling approach. In a newborn human baby, areas of soft tissue remain between skull bones, allowing flexibility and continued growth. In an adult, the sutures close and the brain is enclosed in a rigid bony shell to which the facial bones are immovably attached. Gape is limited. However, in the skulls of adult lizards, snakes and birds some sutures remain open, allowing movement of the skull parts on one another. This flexibility (=kinesis) can be spectacular, e.g. in a large snake swallowing prey with a body diameter several times that of its own head. Such skulls clearly operate in a very different way to the rigid skulls of mammals, and reflect major differences in biology and lifestyle. Comparative studies between skull types are important in shedding light on normal, pathological and aging skull functions generally. Mammals need a regular supply of food to maintain a constant high body temperature. Their skulls have evolved to maximise the efficiency of oral food processing (chewing) (e.g. differentiated teeth, precise occlusion, hard palate, precise muscle control). Lizards and snakes, in contrast, warm themselves from external sources and can feed opportunistically. A large meal can last a snake for months), and there is usually little oral food processing. Instead, the skull of advanced snakes allows increased gape and aids both food transport through the mouth and swallowing. In lizards, from which snakes evolved, the situation is less clear-cut. Skull movements are more subtle and many of the joints through which they act, or potentially act, are not well understood. Many questions remain unanswered, notably: a) which lizards are really kinetic and to what degree? b) how do the different skull parts move in relation to one another, and by how much (passive adjustments or active linked movements)? c) what is the role of the membrane-cartilage braincase in the adult? Does it aid or limit kinesis? Does observed anatomical variation match the pattern of kinesis? d) what are the consequences of kinesis for skull function and stability, and how does this relate to diet? e) can kinetic ability be predicted by skull shape? To date, most discussion of lizard kinesis has been based on dissection, manipulation of dead or anaesthetised animals, theoretical analyses, and a few experimental studies. As a result, there is a lack of agreement on many points. Advanced computer modelling offers an alternative approach. Our research group is cross-disciplinary (reptile anatomy/evolution; biomechanical engineering; analysis of shape in relation to function). We have a strong track-record and have pioneered an approach that combines the use of 3-D computer simulations (multibody dynamics analysis) and stress analysis (finite element analysis). This yields detailed, anatomically accurate working computer models of animal skulls, including joints and muscles (jaw, neck). Sophisticated software then allows us to relate changing skull shape to skull performance during feeding. Comparisons with living animals (bite force data, records of muscle action and feeding) have shown our models to be biologically realistic, but our U.S collaborators (Ross, Lappin) will collect further comparative data in the new project. Beneficiaries of our work include the academic community (evolutionary biologists, palaeontologists, functional anatomists - data and new methodological approaches), the UK science base in general (through training of young scientists in an interdisciplinary framework, attraction of overseas students and collaborators, engaging young people in science), the wider public (public engagement, media interest) and, potentially, clinicians (perspectives on normal, aging and pathological skull, jaw and tooth function).

Technical Summary

Lizard, snake and bird skulls differ from the rigid skulls of mammals in possessing intracranial flexibility (cranial kinesis). Such skulls offer an alternative perspective on the general factors controlling skull form and function in normal and, potentially, pathological conditions. Kinesis is most spectacular in higher snakes where it contributes to prey capture and increased gape. In lizards, from which snakes arose, the role and distribution of kinesis is more equivocal. Our broad aim in this project is to explore the relationship between skull flexibility and feeding performance, notably: how skull components move relative to one another; the distribution of active kinesis amongst lizards; the effect of kinesis on skull shape and function during feeding; and the role of the cartilage-membrane braincase. These questions have remained largely intractable due to the difficulty of recording subtle, complex movements in small skulls. Advanced computer-based modelling offers a novel approach. Our cross-disciplinary research group has pioneered an approach that combines the use of rigid-body modelling (MDA, multibody dynamics analysis), stress analysis (FEA, finite element analysis), and geometric morphometrics (GMM). Using this methodology, anatomically accurate working 3-D skull models (MDA) are used to predict joint and muscle forces, that are applied to FE models to predict the skull stress/strain under different feeding conditions. Sophisticated shape comparison software (GMM) then allows us to relate changing skull shape to skull performance. Comparisons with living animals have shown our models to be biologically realistic, but our U.S collaborators (Ross, Lappin) will aid validation in the new project (bite force, strain gauge, muscle recording). Ongoing BBSRC funded projects focus mainly on rigid skulls. The new project builds on their success to examine to the more complex skulls of kinetic lizards.

Planned Impact

Who are the beneficiaries of this research; how will they benefit? UK life sciences: The BBSRC stresses the need for interdisciplinary approaches to the 'big' questions in biology. As an interdisciplinary team we promote this between colleagues and in the training environment provided for young scientists. Academic community: Our work is of interest to many disciplines including functional and evolutionary anatomy, palaeontology, systematics, and developmental biology, here and overseas (e.g. China, Japan, USA, Germany). It offers new insights on skull structure, function, and evolution. We have introduced novel methodologies (combined MDA/FEA; new GMM techniques/software; iterative modelling; DGO) that have significantly advanced the field and the new project will further refine these approaches. University UGs/MSc: We are all active university teachers - of science and medical undergraduates and postgraduates - as well as researchers, and our research informs what we teach. We will continue to involve UG and Master's students in research projects. The wider community: Animal structure and function interests the public and media and, as such, is a good mechanism for Public Engagement with Science and for fostering interest in science amongst young people. Ultimately this benefits the UK in the development of scientific literacy. Clinical research: Our results to date have implications for craniofacial medicine (e.g. Fagan and O'Higgins will shortly start a new project investigating craniosynostosis) and dentistry (jaw and tooth function), and our modelling approaches have wider application (e.g. iterative modelling, examining growth changes and aging using GMM regression, use of computer models to examine oral food handling). Fagan is a Royal Society Industry Fellow, working with Smith and Nephew's Research Centre on the modelling of bone, and has many other clinical and industry partnerships. What will be done to ensure that they have the opportunity to benefit from this research? Dissemination of results - academic: we publish in high impact journals (PNAS, Proc. Roy. Soc. [see publications/track record]) and speak at international conferences/ seminars/ workshops in the UK and overseas (palaeontology, vertebrate morphology, herpetology, developmental biology, anatomy). We also maintain web pages and are seeking to extend these to include a database of computer models and other useful data. Dissemination of results - wider participation: we will continue to engage in public-academic dialogue with schools, open days, festivals, museum talks, and by working with the media offices of our relevant institutions and funding bodies (e.g. BBSRC Business October 2008, pg 24). Each of our institutions has Public Engagement programmes in place (UCL is a Beacon) and Evans is participating in the web-based Q&A for BBC's new science programme, 'Bang Goes the Theory'). We are also applying to exhibit in the Royal Society's Summer Exhibition in 2010. We have lab web pages but are requesting funds to develop a comprehensive interactive site for the use of colleagues (see above) and the wider public. Fostering a cross-disciplinary approach: we hold bimonthly meetings of the whole team, to which visitors and research students are also invited, and which provide a forum for discussion and development of interdisciplinary thinking. Our research requires that individual researchers develop a broad knowledge base, are able to network across a range of disciplines, and are not afraid of 'thinking outside the box'. These young scientists will develop interdisciplinary teams of their own as well as bringing this approach to their undergraduate students.

Publications


10 25 50
Porro LB (2014) In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. in The Journal of experimental biology
Ross C (2015) In vivo bone strain and the design of lizard crania. in Integrative and Comparative Biology
 
Description Our primary goal was to understand the extent and role of skull flexibility (kinesis) in the skulls of lizards. To date, kinesis has proved extremely difficult to study in live animals. X-ray cinematography has its limitations as subtle movements between bones are difficult to record and interpret, especially when the head as a whole is moving. Strain gauging is a second approach but only a few points on the skull can be studied simultaneously, frustrating the development of an integrated picture. Computer modelling offers an alternative. Software originally created for mechanical engineers can be used to build anatomically accurate, moving, computer models of animal skulls in order to analyse their behaviour (global patterns of strain) during feeding. The main problem, however, is validation. Do these models represent biological reality? This is difficult to demonstrate with extinct animals but by studying living animals in the same way we can compare in vivo and in silico data from the same animals and assess model accuracy and determine which model attributes (e.g. bone density, muscle attachment) are most sensitive to perturbation. We therefore further developed and applied a sophisticated computational approach that combines the expertise of biomechanical engineers and functional morphologists. It involves the following steps: (1) development of an anatomically accurate 3D computer model of the target skull and neck; (2) inclusion of cranial joints; (3) incorporation of relevant head and neck muscles; (4) development of a moving computer model (MDA, multi-body dynamics model) that replicates jaw movements and muscle actions; (5) validation of the model by comparison with the living animal (where possible); (6) analysis of the model (FEA, Finite Element Analysis) to examine patterns of strain related to feeding and other activities; (7) modification of the skull architecture (adding/removing openings or bars), with repetition of step (6).
Our results showed:
a) Food capture, manipulation and biting put the greatest stress on the skull. In the skull roof, these stress are much greater than those in comparable mammals, supporting the view that the frame-like reptile skull is optimised to withstand feeding forces.
b) The multibody model of the Tupinambis skull yielded bite force estimates that closely match in vivo bites from the same individual, providing a strong validation of the methodology, although it is sensitive to muscle data (e.g. fibre length, intrinsic strength).
d) In our more familiar human skulls, the sutures between individual bones close to create a rigid shell that fully encloses the brain. In lizards, these sutures often remain patent, allowing small but important displacements in reaction to forces acting on the skull. Larger-scale movements may occur at kinetic joints. Incorporation of sutures and kinetic joints to the skull model of Tupinambis increased total strain, a result that seems counterintuitive. However, the sutures help to distribute strain more evenly, reducing peak strains that might damage the skull and ensuring a background level of strain that is probably necessary to maintain bone integrity.
e) The role of other cranial soft tissues requires further investigation. We hypothesise that the cartilaginous braincase (=chondrocranium) might play a role in damping stresses. More work is needed, but its inclusion in the Tupinambis skull model does reduce strains in the facial region.
f) Varanus (Africa, Australia, Asia) and Tupinambis (South America) are large terrestrial lizards with a similar lifestyle. We recorded bites of ~200N in both, greater than that of many comparable mammals. Although Varanus reportedly has the more flexible skull, we found greater mid-skull bending in Tupinambis, but skull strains were higher in the longer snout of Varanus.
Exploitation Route The work sheds further light on the complex subject of cranial biomechanics
Related research continues - with increasing interest in clinical problems.
a) Suture work developed into further projects into craniosynostosis, and cleft lip and palate
b) New approaches to the modelling of biological systems
c) Education and museums
d) Insights in the role of jaw joint feedback in the control of biting (potential for understanding human bite anomalies)
Sectors Healthcare
 
Description The research continues to provide much useful information on the relationship between biomechanical forces and skull geometry, which led directly to two follow-on project to further elucidate: (1) the role of soft tissues in skull biomechanics; and (2) the biomechanics of mandibles, which providing information useful to future dental research. In addition, the work has led to a long-term research project investigating craniosynostosis, a rare clinical condition where premature fusion of the sutures in the skull occurs, and a new project on cleft lip and palate. Both projects include consideration of skull growth, which will have other potential clinical applications.
First Year Of Impact 2014
Sector Healthcare
Impact Types Societal
 
Description RAEng Fellowship for Dr Mehran Moazen
Amount £438,000 (GBP)
Organisation Royal Academy of Engineering 
Sector Learned Society
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 03/2012 
End 02/2017
 
Description Skull evolution and the terrestrialization and radiation of tetrapods
Amount £295,309 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/P013090/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 04/2017 
End 03/2020
 
Description The role of soft tissues in cranial biomechanics - an investigation using advanced computer modelling techniques.
Amount £764,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/M008525/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 06/2015 
End 05/2018
 
Description Three dimensional analysis of maxillofacial growth in patients with cleft lip and palate
Amount £96,401 (GBP)
Organisation The Wellcome Trust Ltd 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 07/2017 
End 06/2019
 
Description Understanding the functional evolution of the mammalian middle ear and jaw joint across the cynodont-mammaliaform transition
Amount £53,398 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/K013831/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 03/2014 
End 02/2017
 
Title Combined MDA and FEA for investigating the biomechanics of skulls 
Description A combined computer modelling technique to predict musculoskeletal loading of skulls. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Better understanding of the role of sutures in skulls. This could lead to a reduction in animal use. 
 
Description Partnership with Dundee Dental School 
Organisation University of Dundee
Department Dental School University of Dundee
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Skull biomechanics. Image processing and visualisation.
Collaborator Contribution Dental expertise.
Impact Wellcome Trust Seed Award gained by early career colleague
Start Year 2016
 
Description Skull modelling group 
Organisation Hull York Medical School
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution FEA and MDA modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Anatomy expertise, geometric morphometrics expertise, in vivo measurement.
Impact • PJ Watson, F Gröning, N Curtis, L Fitton, A Herrel, S McCormack, MJ Fagan. 2014. Multi-body dynamics modelling of the rabbit skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:99, 20140564. • SW McCormack, U Witzel, PJ Watson, MJ Fagan, F Gröning. 2014. The biomechanical function of periodontal ligament fibres in orthodontic tooth movement. PLoS One 9:7 e102387. • Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1983-92. • N Curtis, U Witzel, MJ Fagan. 2014. Development and 3D morphology of the zygomaticotemporal suture in primate skulls. Folia Primatologica 85: 77-87. DOI: 10.1159/000357526 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. 2013. Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:86, 20130442. • F Gröning, MEH Jones, N Curtis, A Herrel, P O'Higgins, SE. Evans, MJ. Fagan. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:84, 20132016. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Comparing the distribution of strains with the distribution of bone tissue in a human mandible: a finite element study. Anatomical Record, 296:1, 9-18, 2013. • P O'Higgins, LC Fitton, R Phillips, JF Shi, J Liu, F Gröning, SN Cobb, MJ Fagan. 2012. Virtual functional morphology: novel approaches to the study of craniofacial form and function. Evolutionary Biology, 39:4, 521-535. • MEH Jones, I Werneburg, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47852, 2012. • J Shi, N Curtis, LC Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310, 21-30, 2012. • MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans, N Curtis. Shearing mechanics and the influence of a flexible symphysis during oral food processing in Sphenodon (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia). Anatomical Record, 295:7, 1075-1091, 2012. • LC Fitton, JF Shi, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study. Journal of Anatomy, 221:1, 55-68, 2012. • F Gröning, JA Bright, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Improving the validation of finite element models with quantitative full-field strain comparisons. Journal of Biomechanics. 45:8, 1498-1506, 2012. • PG Cox, EJ Rayfield, MJ Fagan, A Herrel, TC Pataky, N Jeffery. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS One, 7(4): e36299, 2012. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Modelling the human mandible under masticatory loads. Which input variables are important? Anatomical Record. 295(5):853-63, 2012. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan. Comment on "The effects of modelling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: The alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments" (volume 44, issue 10, pages 1831-1838). Journal of Biomechanics. 45:9, 1749-50. • J Liu, JF Shi, LC Fitton, R Phillips, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 11:1 35-47, 2012 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in diapsid reptiles. PLoS One, 6:12, e29804, 2011. • MJ Higham, T Compton, C Stringer, R Jacobi, B Shapiro, E Trinkaus, B Chandler, F Gröning, C Collins, S Hillson, P O'Higgins, C FitzGerald, MJ Fagan. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in Europe. Nature, 479, 521-524, 2011. • PG Cox, MJ Fagan, EJ Rayfield, N Jeffery. Finite element modelling of the rodent skull: sensitivity analyses of finite element models of rat, guinea pig and squirrel skulls. Journal of Anatomy, 219, 696-709, 2011. • N Curtis, U Witzel, L Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis. Anatomical Record, 294:7, 1178-90, 2011 • MEH Jones, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. Hard tissue anatomy of the cranial joints in Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia): sutures, kinesis, and skull mechanics. Palaeontologia Electronica, 14:2, 17A:92p. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. The effects of the periodontal ligament on mandibular stiffness: a study combining finite element analysis and geometric morphometrics. Journal of Biomechanics, 44:7, 1304-1312, 2011. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144: 593-606, 2011. • P O'Higgins, S Cobb, LC Fitton, F Gröning, R Phillips, J Liu, MJ Fagan. Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1 3-15, 2011. • N Curtis. Craniofacial biomechanics: an overview of recent multibody modelling studies. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1, 16-25, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01317.x • PJ Watson, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, CA Dobson. Validation of a morphometric reconstruction technique applied to a juvenile pelvis. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225:1, 48-57, 2011. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Feedback control from the jaw joints during biting: an investigation of the reptile Sphenodon using multibody modelling. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:16, 3132-3137, 2010. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:14, 2804-2809, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, JF Shi, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Predicting muscle activation patterns from motion and anatomy: modelling the skull of Sphenodon (Diapsida: rhynchocephalia). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, 153-160, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Visualising muscle anatomy using three-dimensional computer models - an example using the head and neck muscles of Sphenodon. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:3, 7T:18pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_3/194). • M Jones, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The head and neck muscles associated with feeding in Sphenodon (Reptilia: lepidosauria: rhynchocephalia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:2, 7A:56pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_2/179) • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Validating a voxel-based finite element model of a human mandible using digital speckle pattern interferometry. Journal of Biomechanics. 42, 1224-1229, 2009. • K Kupczik, CA Dobson, RH Crompton, R Phillips, CE Oxnard, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139: 193-203, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 20, 8273-8277, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MEH Jones, SE Evans, MJ Fagan Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull - a computer modelling study. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Part B, 276, 39-46, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 499-508, 2008. • M Moazen, N Curtis, S Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Rigid body analysis of the lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics, 41:6, 1274-1280, 2008. • N Curtis, K Kupczik, P O'Higgins, M Moazen, MJ Fagan. Predicting skull loading: applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull. The Anatomical Record, 291, 491-501, 2008. • K Kupczik, CA. Dobson, MJ Fagan, RH Crompton, CE Oxnard, P O'Higgins. Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models. Journal of Anatomy, 210:1, 41-53, 2007.
Start Year 2007
 
Description Skull modelling group 
Organisation National History Museum, Paris, France
Country France, French Republic 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution FEA and MDA modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Anatomy expertise, geometric morphometrics expertise, in vivo measurement.
Impact • PJ Watson, F Gröning, N Curtis, L Fitton, A Herrel, S McCormack, MJ Fagan. 2014. Multi-body dynamics modelling of the rabbit skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:99, 20140564. • SW McCormack, U Witzel, PJ Watson, MJ Fagan, F Gröning. 2014. The biomechanical function of periodontal ligament fibres in orthodontic tooth movement. PLoS One 9:7 e102387. • Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1983-92. • N Curtis, U Witzel, MJ Fagan. 2014. Development and 3D morphology of the zygomaticotemporal suture in primate skulls. Folia Primatologica 85: 77-87. DOI: 10.1159/000357526 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. 2013. Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:86, 20130442. • F Gröning, MEH Jones, N Curtis, A Herrel, P O'Higgins, SE. Evans, MJ. Fagan. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:84, 20132016. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Comparing the distribution of strains with the distribution of bone tissue in a human mandible: a finite element study. Anatomical Record, 296:1, 9-18, 2013. • P O'Higgins, LC Fitton, R Phillips, JF Shi, J Liu, F Gröning, SN Cobb, MJ Fagan. 2012. Virtual functional morphology: novel approaches to the study of craniofacial form and function. Evolutionary Biology, 39:4, 521-535. • MEH Jones, I Werneburg, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47852, 2012. • J Shi, N Curtis, LC Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310, 21-30, 2012. • MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans, N Curtis. Shearing mechanics and the influence of a flexible symphysis during oral food processing in Sphenodon (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia). Anatomical Record, 295:7, 1075-1091, 2012. • LC Fitton, JF Shi, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study. Journal of Anatomy, 221:1, 55-68, 2012. • F Gröning, JA Bright, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Improving the validation of finite element models with quantitative full-field strain comparisons. Journal of Biomechanics. 45:8, 1498-1506, 2012. • PG Cox, EJ Rayfield, MJ Fagan, A Herrel, TC Pataky, N Jeffery. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS One, 7(4): e36299, 2012. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Modelling the human mandible under masticatory loads. Which input variables are important? Anatomical Record. 295(5):853-63, 2012. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan. Comment on "The effects of modelling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: The alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments" (volume 44, issue 10, pages 1831-1838). Journal of Biomechanics. 45:9, 1749-50. • J Liu, JF Shi, LC Fitton, R Phillips, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 11:1 35-47, 2012 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in diapsid reptiles. PLoS One, 6:12, e29804, 2011. • MJ Higham, T Compton, C Stringer, R Jacobi, B Shapiro, E Trinkaus, B Chandler, F Gröning, C Collins, S Hillson, P O'Higgins, C FitzGerald, MJ Fagan. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in Europe. Nature, 479, 521-524, 2011. • PG Cox, MJ Fagan, EJ Rayfield, N Jeffery. Finite element modelling of the rodent skull: sensitivity analyses of finite element models of rat, guinea pig and squirrel skulls. Journal of Anatomy, 219, 696-709, 2011. • N Curtis, U Witzel, L Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis. Anatomical Record, 294:7, 1178-90, 2011 • MEH Jones, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. Hard tissue anatomy of the cranial joints in Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia): sutures, kinesis, and skull mechanics. Palaeontologia Electronica, 14:2, 17A:92p. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. The effects of the periodontal ligament on mandibular stiffness: a study combining finite element analysis and geometric morphometrics. Journal of Biomechanics, 44:7, 1304-1312, 2011. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144: 593-606, 2011. • P O'Higgins, S Cobb, LC Fitton, F Gröning, R Phillips, J Liu, MJ Fagan. Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1 3-15, 2011. • N Curtis. Craniofacial biomechanics: an overview of recent multibody modelling studies. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1, 16-25, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01317.x • PJ Watson, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, CA Dobson. Validation of a morphometric reconstruction technique applied to a juvenile pelvis. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225:1, 48-57, 2011. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Feedback control from the jaw joints during biting: an investigation of the reptile Sphenodon using multibody modelling. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:16, 3132-3137, 2010. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:14, 2804-2809, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, JF Shi, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Predicting muscle activation patterns from motion and anatomy: modelling the skull of Sphenodon (Diapsida: rhynchocephalia). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, 153-160, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Visualising muscle anatomy using three-dimensional computer models - an example using the head and neck muscles of Sphenodon. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:3, 7T:18pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_3/194). • M Jones, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The head and neck muscles associated with feeding in Sphenodon (Reptilia: lepidosauria: rhynchocephalia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:2, 7A:56pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_2/179) • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Validating a voxel-based finite element model of a human mandible using digital speckle pattern interferometry. Journal of Biomechanics. 42, 1224-1229, 2009. • K Kupczik, CA Dobson, RH Crompton, R Phillips, CE Oxnard, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139: 193-203, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 20, 8273-8277, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MEH Jones, SE Evans, MJ Fagan Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull - a computer modelling study. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Part B, 276, 39-46, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 499-508, 2008. • M Moazen, N Curtis, S Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Rigid body analysis of the lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics, 41:6, 1274-1280, 2008. • N Curtis, K Kupczik, P O'Higgins, M Moazen, MJ Fagan. Predicting skull loading: applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull. The Anatomical Record, 291, 491-501, 2008. • K Kupczik, CA. Dobson, MJ Fagan, RH Crompton, CE Oxnard, P O'Higgins. Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models. Journal of Anatomy, 210:1, 41-53, 2007.
Start Year 2007
 
Description Skull modelling group 
Organisation Ruhr University Bochum
Country Germany, Federal Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution FEA and MDA modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Anatomy expertise, geometric morphometrics expertise, in vivo measurement.
Impact • PJ Watson, F Gröning, N Curtis, L Fitton, A Herrel, S McCormack, MJ Fagan. 2014. Multi-body dynamics modelling of the rabbit skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:99, 20140564. • SW McCormack, U Witzel, PJ Watson, MJ Fagan, F Gröning. 2014. The biomechanical function of periodontal ligament fibres in orthodontic tooth movement. PLoS One 9:7 e102387. • Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1983-92. • N Curtis, U Witzel, MJ Fagan. 2014. Development and 3D morphology of the zygomaticotemporal suture in primate skulls. Folia Primatologica 85: 77-87. DOI: 10.1159/000357526 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. 2013. Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:86, 20130442. • F Gröning, MEH Jones, N Curtis, A Herrel, P O'Higgins, SE. Evans, MJ. Fagan. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:84, 20132016. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Comparing the distribution of strains with the distribution of bone tissue in a human mandible: a finite element study. Anatomical Record, 296:1, 9-18, 2013. • P O'Higgins, LC Fitton, R Phillips, JF Shi, J Liu, F Gröning, SN Cobb, MJ Fagan. 2012. Virtual functional morphology: novel approaches to the study of craniofacial form and function. Evolutionary Biology, 39:4, 521-535. • MEH Jones, I Werneburg, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47852, 2012. • J Shi, N Curtis, LC Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310, 21-30, 2012. • MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans, N Curtis. Shearing mechanics and the influence of a flexible symphysis during oral food processing in Sphenodon (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia). Anatomical Record, 295:7, 1075-1091, 2012. • LC Fitton, JF Shi, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study. Journal of Anatomy, 221:1, 55-68, 2012. • F Gröning, JA Bright, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Improving the validation of finite element models with quantitative full-field strain comparisons. Journal of Biomechanics. 45:8, 1498-1506, 2012. • PG Cox, EJ Rayfield, MJ Fagan, A Herrel, TC Pataky, N Jeffery. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS One, 7(4): e36299, 2012. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Modelling the human mandible under masticatory loads. Which input variables are important? Anatomical Record. 295(5):853-63, 2012. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan. Comment on "The effects of modelling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: The alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments" (volume 44, issue 10, pages 1831-1838). Journal of Biomechanics. 45:9, 1749-50. • J Liu, JF Shi, LC Fitton, R Phillips, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 11:1 35-47, 2012 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in diapsid reptiles. PLoS One, 6:12, e29804, 2011. • MJ Higham, T Compton, C Stringer, R Jacobi, B Shapiro, E Trinkaus, B Chandler, F Gröning, C Collins, S Hillson, P O'Higgins, C FitzGerald, MJ Fagan. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in Europe. Nature, 479, 521-524, 2011. • PG Cox, MJ Fagan, EJ Rayfield, N Jeffery. Finite element modelling of the rodent skull: sensitivity analyses of finite element models of rat, guinea pig and squirrel skulls. Journal of Anatomy, 219, 696-709, 2011. • N Curtis, U Witzel, L Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis. Anatomical Record, 294:7, 1178-90, 2011 • MEH Jones, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. Hard tissue anatomy of the cranial joints in Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia): sutures, kinesis, and skull mechanics. Palaeontologia Electronica, 14:2, 17A:92p. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. The effects of the periodontal ligament on mandibular stiffness: a study combining finite element analysis and geometric morphometrics. Journal of Biomechanics, 44:7, 1304-1312, 2011. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144: 593-606, 2011. • P O'Higgins, S Cobb, LC Fitton, F Gröning, R Phillips, J Liu, MJ Fagan. Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1 3-15, 2011. • N Curtis. Craniofacial biomechanics: an overview of recent multibody modelling studies. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1, 16-25, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01317.x • PJ Watson, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, CA Dobson. Validation of a morphometric reconstruction technique applied to a juvenile pelvis. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225:1, 48-57, 2011. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Feedback control from the jaw joints during biting: an investigation of the reptile Sphenodon using multibody modelling. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:16, 3132-3137, 2010. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:14, 2804-2809, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, JF Shi, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Predicting muscle activation patterns from motion and anatomy: modelling the skull of Sphenodon (Diapsida: rhynchocephalia). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, 153-160, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Visualising muscle anatomy using three-dimensional computer models - an example using the head and neck muscles of Sphenodon. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:3, 7T:18pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_3/194). • M Jones, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The head and neck muscles associated with feeding in Sphenodon (Reptilia: lepidosauria: rhynchocephalia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:2, 7A:56pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_2/179) • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Validating a voxel-based finite element model of a human mandible using digital speckle pattern interferometry. Journal of Biomechanics. 42, 1224-1229, 2009. • K Kupczik, CA Dobson, RH Crompton, R Phillips, CE Oxnard, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139: 193-203, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 20, 8273-8277, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MEH Jones, SE Evans, MJ Fagan Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull - a computer modelling study. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Part B, 276, 39-46, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 499-508, 2008. • M Moazen, N Curtis, S Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Rigid body analysis of the lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics, 41:6, 1274-1280, 2008. • N Curtis, K Kupczik, P O'Higgins, M Moazen, MJ Fagan. Predicting skull loading: applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull. The Anatomical Record, 291, 491-501, 2008. • K Kupczik, CA. Dobson, MJ Fagan, RH Crompton, CE Oxnard, P O'Higgins. Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models. Journal of Anatomy, 210:1, 41-53, 2007.
Start Year 2007
 
Description Skull modelling group 
Organisation University College London (UCL)
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution FEA and MDA modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Anatomy expertise, geometric morphometrics expertise, in vivo measurement.
Impact • PJ Watson, F Gröning, N Curtis, L Fitton, A Herrel, S McCormack, MJ Fagan. 2014. Multi-body dynamics modelling of the rabbit skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:99, 20140564. • SW McCormack, U Witzel, PJ Watson, MJ Fagan, F Gröning. 2014. The biomechanical function of periodontal ligament fibres in orthodontic tooth movement. PLoS One 9:7 e102387. • Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1983-92. • N Curtis, U Witzel, MJ Fagan. 2014. Development and 3D morphology of the zygomaticotemporal suture in primate skulls. Folia Primatologica 85: 77-87. DOI: 10.1159/000357526 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. 2013. Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:86, 20130442. • F Gröning, MEH Jones, N Curtis, A Herrel, P O'Higgins, SE. Evans, MJ. Fagan. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:84, 20132016. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Comparing the distribution of strains with the distribution of bone tissue in a human mandible: a finite element study. Anatomical Record, 296:1, 9-18, 2013. • P O'Higgins, LC Fitton, R Phillips, JF Shi, J Liu, F Gröning, SN Cobb, MJ Fagan. 2012. Virtual functional morphology: novel approaches to the study of craniofacial form and function. Evolutionary Biology, 39:4, 521-535. • MEH Jones, I Werneburg, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47852, 2012. • J Shi, N Curtis, LC Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310, 21-30, 2012. • MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans, N Curtis. Shearing mechanics and the influence of a flexible symphysis during oral food processing in Sphenodon (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia). Anatomical Record, 295:7, 1075-1091, 2012. • LC Fitton, JF Shi, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study. Journal of Anatomy, 221:1, 55-68, 2012. • F Gröning, JA Bright, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Improving the validation of finite element models with quantitative full-field strain comparisons. Journal of Biomechanics. 45:8, 1498-1506, 2012. • PG Cox, EJ Rayfield, MJ Fagan, A Herrel, TC Pataky, N Jeffery. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS One, 7(4): e36299, 2012. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Modelling the human mandible under masticatory loads. Which input variables are important? Anatomical Record. 295(5):853-63, 2012. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan. Comment on "The effects of modelling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: The alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments" (volume 44, issue 10, pages 1831-1838). Journal of Biomechanics. 45:9, 1749-50. • J Liu, JF Shi, LC Fitton, R Phillips, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 11:1 35-47, 2012 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in diapsid reptiles. PLoS One, 6:12, e29804, 2011. • MJ Higham, T Compton, C Stringer, R Jacobi, B Shapiro, E Trinkaus, B Chandler, F Gröning, C Collins, S Hillson, P O'Higgins, C FitzGerald, MJ Fagan. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in Europe. Nature, 479, 521-524, 2011. • PG Cox, MJ Fagan, EJ Rayfield, N Jeffery. Finite element modelling of the rodent skull: sensitivity analyses of finite element models of rat, guinea pig and squirrel skulls. Journal of Anatomy, 219, 696-709, 2011. • N Curtis, U Witzel, L Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis. Anatomical Record, 294:7, 1178-90, 2011 • MEH Jones, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. Hard tissue anatomy of the cranial joints in Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia): sutures, kinesis, and skull mechanics. Palaeontologia Electronica, 14:2, 17A:92p. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. The effects of the periodontal ligament on mandibular stiffness: a study combining finite element analysis and geometric morphometrics. Journal of Biomechanics, 44:7, 1304-1312, 2011. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144: 593-606, 2011. • P O'Higgins, S Cobb, LC Fitton, F Gröning, R Phillips, J Liu, MJ Fagan. Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1 3-15, 2011. • N Curtis. Craniofacial biomechanics: an overview of recent multibody modelling studies. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1, 16-25, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01317.x • PJ Watson, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, CA Dobson. Validation of a morphometric reconstruction technique applied to a juvenile pelvis. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225:1, 48-57, 2011. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Feedback control from the jaw joints during biting: an investigation of the reptile Sphenodon using multibody modelling. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:16, 3132-3137, 2010. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:14, 2804-2809, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, JF Shi, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Predicting muscle activation patterns from motion and anatomy: modelling the skull of Sphenodon (Diapsida: rhynchocephalia). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, 153-160, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Visualising muscle anatomy using three-dimensional computer models - an example using the head and neck muscles of Sphenodon. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:3, 7T:18pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_3/194). • M Jones, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The head and neck muscles associated with feeding in Sphenodon (Reptilia: lepidosauria: rhynchocephalia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:2, 7A:56pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_2/179) • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Validating a voxel-based finite element model of a human mandible using digital speckle pattern interferometry. Journal of Biomechanics. 42, 1224-1229, 2009. • K Kupczik, CA Dobson, RH Crompton, R Phillips, CE Oxnard, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139: 193-203, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 20, 8273-8277, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MEH Jones, SE Evans, MJ Fagan Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull - a computer modelling study. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Part B, 276, 39-46, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 499-508, 2008. • M Moazen, N Curtis, S Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Rigid body analysis of the lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics, 41:6, 1274-1280, 2008. • N Curtis, K Kupczik, P O'Higgins, M Moazen, MJ Fagan. Predicting skull loading: applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull. The Anatomical Record, 291, 491-501, 2008. • K Kupczik, CA. Dobson, MJ Fagan, RH Crompton, CE Oxnard, P O'Higgins. Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models. Journal of Anatomy, 210:1, 41-53, 2007.
Start Year 2007
 
Description Skull modelling group 
Organisation University of Aberdeen
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution FEA and MDA modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Anatomy expertise, geometric morphometrics expertise, in vivo measurement.
Impact • PJ Watson, F Gröning, N Curtis, L Fitton, A Herrel, S McCormack, MJ Fagan. 2014. Multi-body dynamics modelling of the rabbit skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:99, 20140564. • SW McCormack, U Witzel, PJ Watson, MJ Fagan, F Gröning. 2014. The biomechanical function of periodontal ligament fibres in orthodontic tooth movement. PLoS One 9:7 e102387. • Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1983-92. • N Curtis, U Witzel, MJ Fagan. 2014. Development and 3D morphology of the zygomaticotemporal suture in primate skulls. Folia Primatologica 85: 77-87. DOI: 10.1159/000357526 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. 2013. Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:86, 20130442. • F Gröning, MEH Jones, N Curtis, A Herrel, P O'Higgins, SE. Evans, MJ. Fagan. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:84, 20132016. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Comparing the distribution of strains with the distribution of bone tissue in a human mandible: a finite element study. Anatomical Record, 296:1, 9-18, 2013. • P O'Higgins, LC Fitton, R Phillips, JF Shi, J Liu, F Gröning, SN Cobb, MJ Fagan. 2012. Virtual functional morphology: novel approaches to the study of craniofacial form and function. Evolutionary Biology, 39:4, 521-535. • MEH Jones, I Werneburg, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47852, 2012. • J Shi, N Curtis, LC Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310, 21-30, 2012. • MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans, N Curtis. Shearing mechanics and the influence of a flexible symphysis during oral food processing in Sphenodon (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia). Anatomical Record, 295:7, 1075-1091, 2012. • LC Fitton, JF Shi, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study. Journal of Anatomy, 221:1, 55-68, 2012. • F Gröning, JA Bright, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Improving the validation of finite element models with quantitative full-field strain comparisons. Journal of Biomechanics. 45:8, 1498-1506, 2012. • PG Cox, EJ Rayfield, MJ Fagan, A Herrel, TC Pataky, N Jeffery. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS One, 7(4): e36299, 2012. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Modelling the human mandible under masticatory loads. Which input variables are important? Anatomical Record. 295(5):853-63, 2012. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan. Comment on "The effects of modelling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: The alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments" (volume 44, issue 10, pages 1831-1838). Journal of Biomechanics. 45:9, 1749-50. • J Liu, JF Shi, LC Fitton, R Phillips, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 11:1 35-47, 2012 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in diapsid reptiles. PLoS One, 6:12, e29804, 2011. • MJ Higham, T Compton, C Stringer, R Jacobi, B Shapiro, E Trinkaus, B Chandler, F Gröning, C Collins, S Hillson, P O'Higgins, C FitzGerald, MJ Fagan. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in Europe. Nature, 479, 521-524, 2011. • PG Cox, MJ Fagan, EJ Rayfield, N Jeffery. Finite element modelling of the rodent skull: sensitivity analyses of finite element models of rat, guinea pig and squirrel skulls. Journal of Anatomy, 219, 696-709, 2011. • N Curtis, U Witzel, L Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis. Anatomical Record, 294:7, 1178-90, 2011 • MEH Jones, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. Hard tissue anatomy of the cranial joints in Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia): sutures, kinesis, and skull mechanics. Palaeontologia Electronica, 14:2, 17A:92p. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. The effects of the periodontal ligament on mandibular stiffness: a study combining finite element analysis and geometric morphometrics. Journal of Biomechanics, 44:7, 1304-1312, 2011. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144: 593-606, 2011. • P O'Higgins, S Cobb, LC Fitton, F Gröning, R Phillips, J Liu, MJ Fagan. Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1 3-15, 2011. • N Curtis. Craniofacial biomechanics: an overview of recent multibody modelling studies. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1, 16-25, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01317.x • PJ Watson, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, CA Dobson. Validation of a morphometric reconstruction technique applied to a juvenile pelvis. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225:1, 48-57, 2011. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Feedback control from the jaw joints during biting: an investigation of the reptile Sphenodon using multibody modelling. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:16, 3132-3137, 2010. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:14, 2804-2809, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, JF Shi, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Predicting muscle activation patterns from motion and anatomy: modelling the skull of Sphenodon (Diapsida: rhynchocephalia). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, 153-160, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Visualising muscle anatomy using three-dimensional computer models - an example using the head and neck muscles of Sphenodon. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:3, 7T:18pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_3/194). • M Jones, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The head and neck muscles associated with feeding in Sphenodon (Reptilia: lepidosauria: rhynchocephalia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:2, 7A:56pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_2/179) • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Validating a voxel-based finite element model of a human mandible using digital speckle pattern interferometry. Journal of Biomechanics. 42, 1224-1229, 2009. • K Kupczik, CA Dobson, RH Crompton, R Phillips, CE Oxnard, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139: 193-203, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 20, 8273-8277, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MEH Jones, SE Evans, MJ Fagan Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull - a computer modelling study. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Part B, 276, 39-46, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 499-508, 2008. • M Moazen, N Curtis, S Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Rigid body analysis of the lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics, 41:6, 1274-1280, 2008. • N Curtis, K Kupczik, P O'Higgins, M Moazen, MJ Fagan. Predicting skull loading: applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull. The Anatomical Record, 291, 491-501, 2008. • K Kupczik, CA. Dobson, MJ Fagan, RH Crompton, CE Oxnard, P O'Higgins. Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models. Journal of Anatomy, 210:1, 41-53, 2007.
Start Year 2007
 
Description Skull modelling group 
Organisation University of Chicago
Country United States of America 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution FEA and MDA modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Anatomy expertise, geometric morphometrics expertise, in vivo measurement.
Impact • PJ Watson, F Gröning, N Curtis, L Fitton, A Herrel, S McCormack, MJ Fagan. 2014. Multi-body dynamics modelling of the rabbit skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:99, 20140564. • SW McCormack, U Witzel, PJ Watson, MJ Fagan, F Gröning. 2014. The biomechanical function of periodontal ligament fibres in orthodontic tooth movement. PLoS One 9:7 e102387. • Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1983-92. • N Curtis, U Witzel, MJ Fagan. 2014. Development and 3D morphology of the zygomaticotemporal suture in primate skulls. Folia Primatologica 85: 77-87. DOI: 10.1159/000357526 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. 2013. Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:86, 20130442. • F Gröning, MEH Jones, N Curtis, A Herrel, P O'Higgins, SE. Evans, MJ. Fagan. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:84, 20132016. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Comparing the distribution of strains with the distribution of bone tissue in a human mandible: a finite element study. Anatomical Record, 296:1, 9-18, 2013. • P O'Higgins, LC Fitton, R Phillips, JF Shi, J Liu, F Gröning, SN Cobb, MJ Fagan. 2012. Virtual functional morphology: novel approaches to the study of craniofacial form and function. Evolutionary Biology, 39:4, 521-535. • MEH Jones, I Werneburg, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47852, 2012. • J Shi, N Curtis, LC Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310, 21-30, 2012. • MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans, N Curtis. Shearing mechanics and the influence of a flexible symphysis during oral food processing in Sphenodon (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia). Anatomical Record, 295:7, 1075-1091, 2012. • LC Fitton, JF Shi, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study. Journal of Anatomy, 221:1, 55-68, 2012. • F Gröning, JA Bright, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Improving the validation of finite element models with quantitative full-field strain comparisons. Journal of Biomechanics. 45:8, 1498-1506, 2012. • PG Cox, EJ Rayfield, MJ Fagan, A Herrel, TC Pataky, N Jeffery. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS One, 7(4): e36299, 2012. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Modelling the human mandible under masticatory loads. Which input variables are important? Anatomical Record. 295(5):853-63, 2012. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan. Comment on "The effects of modelling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: The alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments" (volume 44, issue 10, pages 1831-1838). Journal of Biomechanics. 45:9, 1749-50. • J Liu, JF Shi, LC Fitton, R Phillips, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 11:1 35-47, 2012 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in diapsid reptiles. PLoS One, 6:12, e29804, 2011. • MJ Higham, T Compton, C Stringer, R Jacobi, B Shapiro, E Trinkaus, B Chandler, F Gröning, C Collins, S Hillson, P O'Higgins, C FitzGerald, MJ Fagan. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in Europe. Nature, 479, 521-524, 2011. • PG Cox, MJ Fagan, EJ Rayfield, N Jeffery. Finite element modelling of the rodent skull: sensitivity analyses of finite element models of rat, guinea pig and squirrel skulls. Journal of Anatomy, 219, 696-709, 2011. • N Curtis, U Witzel, L Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis. Anatomical Record, 294:7, 1178-90, 2011 • MEH Jones, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. Hard tissue anatomy of the cranial joints in Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia): sutures, kinesis, and skull mechanics. Palaeontologia Electronica, 14:2, 17A:92p. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. The effects of the periodontal ligament on mandibular stiffness: a study combining finite element analysis and geometric morphometrics. Journal of Biomechanics, 44:7, 1304-1312, 2011. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144: 593-606, 2011. • P O'Higgins, S Cobb, LC Fitton, F Gröning, R Phillips, J Liu, MJ Fagan. Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1 3-15, 2011. • N Curtis. Craniofacial biomechanics: an overview of recent multibody modelling studies. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1, 16-25, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01317.x • PJ Watson, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, CA Dobson. Validation of a morphometric reconstruction technique applied to a juvenile pelvis. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225:1, 48-57, 2011. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Feedback control from the jaw joints during biting: an investigation of the reptile Sphenodon using multibody modelling. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:16, 3132-3137, 2010. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:14, 2804-2809, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, JF Shi, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Predicting muscle activation patterns from motion and anatomy: modelling the skull of Sphenodon (Diapsida: rhynchocephalia). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, 153-160, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Visualising muscle anatomy using three-dimensional computer models - an example using the head and neck muscles of Sphenodon. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:3, 7T:18pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_3/194). • M Jones, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The head and neck muscles associated with feeding in Sphenodon (Reptilia: lepidosauria: rhynchocephalia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:2, 7A:56pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_2/179) • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Validating a voxel-based finite element model of a human mandible using digital speckle pattern interferometry. Journal of Biomechanics. 42, 1224-1229, 2009. • K Kupczik, CA Dobson, RH Crompton, R Phillips, CE Oxnard, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139: 193-203, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 20, 8273-8277, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MEH Jones, SE Evans, MJ Fagan Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull - a computer modelling study. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Part B, 276, 39-46, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 499-508, 2008. • M Moazen, N Curtis, S Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Rigid body analysis of the lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics, 41:6, 1274-1280, 2008. • N Curtis, K Kupczik, P O'Higgins, M Moazen, MJ Fagan. Predicting skull loading: applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull. The Anatomical Record, 291, 491-501, 2008. • K Kupczik, CA. Dobson, MJ Fagan, RH Crompton, CE Oxnard, P O'Higgins. Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models. Journal of Anatomy, 210:1, 41-53, 2007.
Start Year 2007
 
Description Skull modelling group 
Organisation University of Liverpool
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution FEA and MDA modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Anatomy expertise, geometric morphometrics expertise, in vivo measurement.
Impact • PJ Watson, F Gröning, N Curtis, L Fitton, A Herrel, S McCormack, MJ Fagan. 2014. Multi-body dynamics modelling of the rabbit skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:99, 20140564. • SW McCormack, U Witzel, PJ Watson, MJ Fagan, F Gröning. 2014. The biomechanical function of periodontal ligament fibres in orthodontic tooth movement. PLoS One 9:7 e102387. • Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1983-92. • N Curtis, U Witzel, MJ Fagan. 2014. Development and 3D morphology of the zygomaticotemporal suture in primate skulls. Folia Primatologica 85: 77-87. DOI: 10.1159/000357526 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. 2013. Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:86, 20130442. • F Gröning, MEH Jones, N Curtis, A Herrel, P O'Higgins, SE. Evans, MJ. Fagan. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:84, 20132016. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Comparing the distribution of strains with the distribution of bone tissue in a human mandible: a finite element study. Anatomical Record, 296:1, 9-18, 2013. • P O'Higgins, LC Fitton, R Phillips, JF Shi, J Liu, F Gröning, SN Cobb, MJ Fagan. 2012. Virtual functional morphology: novel approaches to the study of craniofacial form and function. Evolutionary Biology, 39:4, 521-535. • MEH Jones, I Werneburg, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47852, 2012. • J Shi, N Curtis, LC Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310, 21-30, 2012. • MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans, N Curtis. Shearing mechanics and the influence of a flexible symphysis during oral food processing in Sphenodon (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia). Anatomical Record, 295:7, 1075-1091, 2012. • LC Fitton, JF Shi, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study. Journal of Anatomy, 221:1, 55-68, 2012. • F Gröning, JA Bright, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Improving the validation of finite element models with quantitative full-field strain comparisons. Journal of Biomechanics. 45:8, 1498-1506, 2012. • PG Cox, EJ Rayfield, MJ Fagan, A Herrel, TC Pataky, N Jeffery. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS One, 7(4): e36299, 2012. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Modelling the human mandible under masticatory loads. Which input variables are important? Anatomical Record. 295(5):853-63, 2012. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan. Comment on "The effects of modelling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: The alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments" (volume 44, issue 10, pages 1831-1838). Journal of Biomechanics. 45:9, 1749-50. • J Liu, JF Shi, LC Fitton, R Phillips, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 11:1 35-47, 2012 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in diapsid reptiles. PLoS One, 6:12, e29804, 2011. • MJ Higham, T Compton, C Stringer, R Jacobi, B Shapiro, E Trinkaus, B Chandler, F Gröning, C Collins, S Hillson, P O'Higgins, C FitzGerald, MJ Fagan. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in Europe. Nature, 479, 521-524, 2011. • PG Cox, MJ Fagan, EJ Rayfield, N Jeffery. Finite element modelling of the rodent skull: sensitivity analyses of finite element models of rat, guinea pig and squirrel skulls. Journal of Anatomy, 219, 696-709, 2011. • N Curtis, U Witzel, L Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis. Anatomical Record, 294:7, 1178-90, 2011 • MEH Jones, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. Hard tissue anatomy of the cranial joints in Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia): sutures, kinesis, and skull mechanics. Palaeontologia Electronica, 14:2, 17A:92p. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. The effects of the periodontal ligament on mandibular stiffness: a study combining finite element analysis and geometric morphometrics. Journal of Biomechanics, 44:7, 1304-1312, 2011. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144: 593-606, 2011. • P O'Higgins, S Cobb, LC Fitton, F Gröning, R Phillips, J Liu, MJ Fagan. Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1 3-15, 2011. • N Curtis. Craniofacial biomechanics: an overview of recent multibody modelling studies. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1, 16-25, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01317.x • PJ Watson, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, CA Dobson. Validation of a morphometric reconstruction technique applied to a juvenile pelvis. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225:1, 48-57, 2011. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Feedback control from the jaw joints during biting: an investigation of the reptile Sphenodon using multibody modelling. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:16, 3132-3137, 2010. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:14, 2804-2809, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, JF Shi, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Predicting muscle activation patterns from motion and anatomy: modelling the skull of Sphenodon (Diapsida: rhynchocephalia). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, 153-160, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Visualising muscle anatomy using three-dimensional computer models - an example using the head and neck muscles of Sphenodon. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:3, 7T:18pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_3/194). • M Jones, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The head and neck muscles associated with feeding in Sphenodon (Reptilia: lepidosauria: rhynchocephalia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:2, 7A:56pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_2/179) • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Validating a voxel-based finite element model of a human mandible using digital speckle pattern interferometry. Journal of Biomechanics. 42, 1224-1229, 2009. • K Kupczik, CA Dobson, RH Crompton, R Phillips, CE Oxnard, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139: 193-203, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 20, 8273-8277, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MEH Jones, SE Evans, MJ Fagan Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull - a computer modelling study. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Part B, 276, 39-46, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 499-508, 2008. • M Moazen, N Curtis, S Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Rigid body analysis of the lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics, 41:6, 1274-1280, 2008. • N Curtis, K Kupczik, P O'Higgins, M Moazen, MJ Fagan. Predicting skull loading: applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull. The Anatomical Record, 291, 491-501, 2008. • K Kupczik, CA. Dobson, MJ Fagan, RH Crompton, CE Oxnard, P O'Higgins. Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models. Journal of Anatomy, 210:1, 41-53, 2007.
Start Year 2007