Hazards Associated with Zoonotic enteric pathogens in Emerging Livestock meat pathways (HAZEL)

Lead Research Organisation: University of Glasgow
Department Name: College of Medical, Veterinary &Life Sci

Abstract

Context: Meat from livestock (cattle, goats, sheep and poultry) is a key protein source for poor farmers, their families and communities. As countries develop, populations grow and move to urban areas and the nature of livestock systems has to change to keep up with consumer demand for meat. This presents an economic opportunity for poor farmers who may seek to produce meat for commercial markets but it also presents a potential threat to public health. Centralization of slaughter and processing facilities and growth of distribution networks that serve wholesalers, retailers and consumers may have major implications for food-borne diseases because risks of infection and contamination are likely to increase with scaling-up of production systems and increasing complexity of supply chains. Already, bacterial food-borne pathogens, including Salmonella and Campylobacter, have been described as the 'forgotten zoonoses' of Africa and changes in the meat supply chain may aggravate the problem. At the same time, improvements in policy, regulatory systems and technical capacity are potential tools to alleviate such problems.

Aims and Objectives: Our aim is to develop a robust understanding of how zoonotic enteric pathogens flow through the meat chain in Tanzania and to use this information to develop policies to improve food safety. We focus on Tanzania because the country has been identified as a hotspot for bacterial foodborne zoonoses and because its National Livestock Policy promotes intensification of livestock production systems to meet growing demand for meat. Furthermore, our team can build on existing infrastructure and laboratory capacity and years of interdisciplinary research collaboration in the livestock dense areas of Arusha and Kilimanjaro. Thus, there is both a need and the capacity to conduct this research. To achieve our aim, we will use an approach called modular process risk modelling (MPRM) to describe livestock meat pathways and hazards in these pathways. In the initial step, each stage of meat production from farm to retail is described by social and veterinary scientists. Local scale commercial production will be compared with wider markets to identify hazards that may emerge as meat production, processing and distribution is scaled up. Once the meat supply chain is charted, microbiologic techniques are used to establish the presence and concentration of non-typhoidal Salmonella and Campylobacter at each step in chain. By studying the genetic fingerprint of the bacteria, it is possible to track flow of bacteria from pre- to post-harvest. Comparison of DNA fingerprints of livestock and food isolates with those from bacterial isolates obtained from people with diarrhoea or other diseases will give an indication of the role of meat in human illness. Whilst mapping emerging livestock meat pathways and their associated hazards, we will conduct a formal review of current food safety policies and regulations in Tanzania and assess how they are implemented. Knowledge of the strengths and weaknesses of existing policies, combined with opportunities and threats identified through analysis of the meat value chain and hazards in the livestock meat pathway will enable scientists and policy makers to develop new food safety policies.

Potential applications and benefits: Through its combination of social, biological and quantitative sciences and collaboration with policy makers, this project will contribute to improved food safety policy and reduction in food-borne exposure of people to non-typhoidal Salmonella and Campylobacter. This will provide economic and health benefits to producer and consumer communities in Tanzania. In addition, improved product safety may help farmers to access new retail markets. Finally, the approach developed in this project can serve as a model for other diseases and countries where changes in livestock production systems may affect the availability and safety of our food.

Technical Summary

Tanzania has been identified as a hotspot for bacterial foodborne disease due to zoonotic enteric pathogens including non-typhoidal Salmonella and Campylobacter, with livestock (ruminants and poultry) as confirmed source of Campylobacter. Most livestock meat supply chains are informal but commercial supply chains and markets are expanding rapidly to meet growing demand from consumers. Increased industrialisation may affect occurrence of food-borne pathogens, particularly in poorly-managed systems, with risks of product contamination and human infection likely to increase with scaling-up of production systems and increasing complexity of supply chains. This project applies modular process risk modelling (MPRM) to understand and address hazards for human health associated with the specified zoonotic enteric pathogens in emerging livestock meat pathways in Tanzania. The research is multidisciplinary and transnational, engaging expertise from social science, veterinary and human health, conventional microbiology, molecular epidemiology, and statistics and modelling to develop the MPRM. Supply chain mapping, value chain analysis, prevalence and quantitation studies, standardized molecular typing methods, Monte Carlo methods and Bayesian belief networks will be used to support decision-making concerning control points for intervention, and to provide source level inference or biotracing opportunities that complement risk assessments. By collaborating with an East African human diarrhoeal disease surveillance system, preliminary source attribution may be possible. Finally, policy scientists will conduct systematic reviews of national and international regulations and policy as well as key informant interviews to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) in current Tanzanian food safety policy. SWOT analysis will be informed by MPRM findings to identify gaps and suggest improvements to national, regional, and international food safety policies.

Planned Impact

This project addresses presence of foodborne pathogens (Salmonella and Campylobacter) in livestock meat (ruminants and poultry) because they have specifically been identified as a public health threat in the United Republic of Tanzania in preparatory reviews by the UK Department for International Development. Beneficiaries of the project will include producers, processors and consumers of livestock meat and policy makers with responsibility for food safety and public health.

The project will benefit poor farmers in Tanzania and in similar agro-ecologic settings by informing improvements in the microbiologic safety of meat derived from their livestock, resulting in mitigation of risk for zoonotic bacterial enteric infections (diarrhoea, sepsis) in poor communities and potentially increased economic opportunities. SNV, the Netherlands Development Organization, has been exploring ways to support red meat value chain development in Tanzania since 2009, but limited analysis and understanding of microbiological risks and management strategies has been a major obstacle to the development of adequate food safety practices at meat production, processing and retail level. Through collaboration with HAZEL, SNV will be able to provide better support to local and national stakeholders such as producers' and butchers' associations and the Tanzania Meat Board.

Food safety and livestock development policy makers from the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development in Tanzania will participate in a formal policy and regulatory review. Through this process they will identify and have the opportunity to resolve gaps in existing food safety policies that are discovered during the project. Through its contribution to policy development, the project that has the potential to endure well beyond the period of the research and to provide benefits throughout the meat supply system, including a large consumer and livestock-keeping population. In the long term, enhanced food safety is hoped to contribute to reduction in diarrhoeal and systemic illness due to zoonotic enteric pathogens among the Tanzanian population. Collaboration with the CDC's regional diarrhoea surveillance programme based in Kenya will allow for preliminary source attribution, which will indicate the contribution of meat to human disease problems and help to prioritise disease prevention methods and messages.

The interdisciplinary approach adopted by HAZEL will benefit all researchers interested in food safety through its drawing together of insights from quantitative and qualitative researchers in medical, veterinary and social sciences. The project will apply modular process risk modelling of the meat supply chain in a low resource country for the first time, which will generate new methodologies and insights for researchers worldwide with applications in other countries and food supply systems.
Currently, capacity for food safety research and social science in Tanzania is limited, and a major impact of this project will be the establishment of local capacity for social, epidemiological and microbiological approaches to food safety in collaboration with the Nelson Mandela African Institute for Science and Technology and Sokoine University of Agriculture and enhancement of laboratory capacity for isolation, identification, and quantitation of pre- and postharvest microbiologic hazards in the food chain at the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre. Tanzanian post-graduate students will be encouraged to develop projects within the HAZEL platform, which will allow them to benefit from mentorship provided by senior Tanzanian and international experts and academics. In this way, the project will benefit Tanzania by helping to develop the next generation of social scientists and food safety experts and will model a science-based and interdisciplinary approach to food safety in a One Health context.

Publications


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Allan KJ (2015) Renewing the momentum for leptospirosis research in Africa. in Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Ao TT (2015) Global burden of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease, 2010(1). in Emerging infectious diseases
Crump JA (2015) Estimating the Burden of Febrile Illnesses. in PLoS neglected tropical diseases
Crump JA (2015) A Perspective on Invasive Salmonella Disease in Africa. in Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Kamani TM (2015) One Health: a concept led by Africa, with global benefits. in The Veterinary record
 
Description - How might the findings be taken forward and by whom?
Significant achievements towards meeting the project objectives include the following:
- Development of a fully functioning Zoonoses Laboratory within KCRI where serological, microbiological and molecular work are conducted.
- Interviews of ca. 100 actors in the meat supply and value chain, from cattle traders, slaughters and skinners to butchers and cooked meat sellers in urban and rural areas in Northern Tanzania
- Development of a Modular Process Risk Model for amplification of non-typhoidal Salmonella along the meat supply chain and integration with a Bayesian Belief Network to capture quantitative and qualitative information on food safety hazards and risks.
- A desktop inventory of Food Safety policy in Tanzania, including areas of duplication and overlap and gaps in the policy or regulatory chain. This has identified implementation of regulation as a key gap in the system and this will be explored further through additional stakeholder interviews and engagement with policy actors and enforcers.
- Testing of ca. 1500 samples of ruminant origin and 400 samples of poultry origin for non-thyphoidal Salmonella and Campylobacter and archiving of isolates for downstream genetic or phenotypic characterization

Further work is planned to quantify the importance of the ruminant and poultry meat supply chain as likely source of foodborne disease in Northern Tanzania. This will inform recommendations on policy development and implementation, which will be taken forward by Tanzanian collaborators within the Ministry of Livestock, Fisheries and Agriculture.
Exploitation Route Further work is planned to quantify the importance of the ruminant and poultry meat supply chain as likely source of foodborne disease in Northern Tanzania. This will inform recommendations on policy development and implementation, which will be taken forward by Tanzanian collaborators within the Ministry of Livestock, Fisheries and Agriculture or commercial actors in the meat supply chain, such as the Chamber of Commerce in Moshi or butchers' associations.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Healthcare,Government, Democracy and Justice,Retail
URL http://livestocklivelihoodsandhealth.org/
 
Description The zoonoses laboratory is contributing to capacity strengthening in Tanzania by providing a bespoke space for zoonoses research, and through training of project staff at KCMC/KCRI. In addition, new projects are starting to evolve, e.g. on culture-free detection of anthrax and antimicrobial resistance, and additional training has been provided to students and staff members of other academic and veterinary organizations. In addition, through regular participation in project specific, veterinary or policy meetings, we are expanding our network of contacts and strengthening rapport with medics and policy makers that are important impact partners for our work.
First Year Of Impact 2016
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Education
Impact Types Policy & public services
 
Description Knowledge Exchange Workshop - NCA Aug 2016
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Attended by 25 people (Community Animal Health Workers, Livestock Field Officers, nurses, medical attendants, hospital administrators, pastoral council representatives, medical doctors, medical attendants and clinical officers) representing nine wards of the eleven wards in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (Ngoile, Ngorongoro, Olbalbal, Eyasi, Kakesio, Endulen, Laitole, Misigiyo, Alailelai). Content of the 3-day workshop focussed on anthrax and brucellosis, particularly identifying the nature of the challenges associated with these diseases and developing ideas for surveillance, prevention and treatment.
 
Description Livestock Modernization Initiative
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
URL http://agriprofocus.com/upload/post/Tanzania_Livestock_Modernization_Initiative1437567817.pdf
 
Description One Health Strategic Plan for Tanzania
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
URL http://livestocklivelihoodsandhealth.org/blog/one-health-plan/
 
Description Alma C. Baker Trust Fellowship
Amount $17,250 (NZD)
Organisation AgriFood Charities Partnership (AFCP) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country Unknown
Start  
 
Description BBSRC IAAF
Amount £150,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 12/2016 
End 04/2017
 
Description Impact Accelerator 2015
Amount £5,900 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 06/2016 
End 11/2016
 
Description Lord Kelvin-Adam Smith PhD Studentship
Amount £72,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Glasgow 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 10/2016 
End 10/2019
 
Description Supporting Evidence Based Interventions
Amount $1,149,879 (USD)
Organisation Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States of America
Start 03/2017 
End 09/2019
 
Description Supporting Evidence-Based Interventions
Amount $1,149,879 (USD)
Organisation Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States of America
Start 03/2017 
End 09/2019
 
Description William Evans Visiting Fellow
Amount $7,500 (NZD)
Organisation University of Otago 
Sector Academic/University
Country New Zealand
Start 09/2016 
End 11/2016
 
Description ZELS-AS doctoral training centre
Amount £1,500,000 (GBP)
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 09/2015 
End 03/2019
 
Description HAZEL-IFR 
Organisation University of East Anglia
Department Institute of Food Research
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I led the write up of the grant proposal HAZEL; submitted under the ZELS call, with contributions from my research team.
Collaborator Contribution Dr. Gary Barker contributed to the writing of the grant proposal HAZEL; that was submitted under the ZELS call. Dr Barker contribute intellectually to the research and participates in monthly skype calls as well annual in-person meetings.
Impact Successful grant proposal HAZEL submitted to BBSRC and DfID for funding under the ZELS (Zoonoses and Emerging Livestock Systems). This is a multi-disciplinary collaboration involving medics, veterinarians, quantitative scientists, social scientists, and molecular epidemiologists. Team member Gary Barker has published two blogs on the Institute for Food Research website: http://news.ifr.ac.uk/2015/11/tying-up-the-ends-of-tanzanias-meat-supply-chain/ http://news.ifr.ac.uk/2015/06/reducing-the-risk-of-foodborne-disease-in-tanzanias-meat/ Conference Presentations: R. Zadoks, K. Thomas, G. Barker, J. Benschop, J. Buza, S. Cleaveland, M. Davis, N. French, E. Karimuribo, R. Kazwala, B. Mmbaga, N. Mtui, G. Prinsen, J. Sharp, E. Swai, L. Waldman, J. Crump. Of Meat and Men, Models and Microbes - Understanding Salmonella risks in Tanzania's Meat Supply Chain. . 34th Tanzania Veterinary Association Conference, 6-8 December 2016, Arusha, Tanzania. Audience: veterinarians, policy makers, PhD students, researchers.
Start Year 2012
 
Description HAZEL-KCMC 
Organisation Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMS)
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution I led the write up of the grant proposal HAZEL; submitted under the ZELS call, with contributions from my research team.
Collaborator Contribution Prof. Moshi Ntabaye contributed to the writing of the grant proposal HAZEL; that was submitted under the ZELS call. Prof. Gibson Kibiki initially took over as the main collaborator and he helped our team to implement a BSL2 laboratory for testing of samples of animal origin at the Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Institute where the laboratory component of our project will be based. Gibson Kibiki was replaced by Prof Blandina Mmbaga in mid-2015, and has contributed intellectually to the ongoing research. Prof Mmbaga attends monthly skype calls and attended two ZELS grantholders' workshop' in 2015 (Cambridge) and 2017 (Arusha).
Impact Successful funding application for the HAZEL project Operationalization of a new Zoonoses Laboratory at the Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Institute Successful application for Afrique One ASPIRE project funding Successful application for Marie Curie Fellowship (MEBA - DLV-659223): Molecular epidemiology of Bacillus anthracis: novel data and techniques for local surveillance in Tanzania. Fellow: Taya Forde (UoG). Lab work is being conducted at the Zoonoses Laboratory UoG undergraduate veterinary student Milou Nijenhuis conducted a placement in the Zoonoses Lab in Moshi. Co-Supervision of PhD Student: Development of surveillance and typing schemes for anthrax epidemiological studies in endemic areas Conference Presentations: Thomas KM, Crump JA, Benschop J, Buza J, Cleaveland S, French N, Karimuribo E, Kazwala R, Mmbaga B, Mtui N, Prinsen G, Sharp J, Swai E, Zadoks R. 2016. Hazards Associated with Zoonotic enteric pathogens in Emerging Livestock meat pathways (HAZEL) - Understanding meat safety in Tanzania through a One Health approach. Abstract number OR-VF-025. FoodMicro2016. 25th International Committee on Food Microbiology and Hygiene Conference. Dublin, Ireland. 19-22 July 2016. R. Zadoks, K. Thomas, G. Barker, J. Benschop, J. Buza, S. Cleaveland, M. Davis, N. French, E. Karimuribo, R. Kazwala, B. Mmbaga, N. Mtui, G. Prinsen, J. Sharp, E. Swai, L. Waldman, J. Crump. Of Meat and Men, Models and Microbes - Understanding Salmonella risks in Tanzania's Meat Supply Chain. . 34th Tanzania Veterinary Association Conference, 6-8 December 2016, Arusha, Tanzania. Audience: veterinarians, policy makers, PhD students, researchers.
Start Year 2012
 
Description HAZEL-Massey 
Organisation Massey University
Country New Zealand 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I led the write up of the grant proposal HAZEL; submitted under the ZELS call, with contributions from my research team.
Collaborator Contribution Prof. Nigel French, Dr. Jackie Benschop and Dr. Gerard Prinsen contributed to the writing of the grant proposal HAZEL; that was submitted under the ZELS call. Prof French and Drs Benschop and Prinsen contribute intellectually to the research and participate regularly in skype and in-person project meetings. Prof. Nigel French attended a HAZEL meeting in London on 10 November 2014 and Dr. Benschop attended the launch meeting in Tanzania on 10 December 2014. Dr Prinsen attended the ZELS grantholders' meeting in Tanzania in January 2017.
Impact Successful funding application: HAZEL which was submitted to BBSRC and DfID for funding under the ZELS (Zoonoses in Emerging Livestock Systems) call. This is a multi-disciplinary collaboration involving medics, veterinarians, quantitative scientists, social scientists, and molecular epidemiologists. Conference Presentations: G. Prinsen, J. Benschop, N. French, E. Swai, R. Zadoks, J. Sharp, L. Waldman. Food Safety Awareness and Practices in Urban and Rural Butcheries and Eateries in Northern Tanzania. 34th Tanzania Veterinary Association Conference, 6-8 December 2016, Arusha, Tanzania. Audience: veterinarians, policy makers, PhD students, researchers. G. Prinsen, J. Benschop, N. French, E. Swai, R. Zadoks, J. Sharp, L. Waldman. Food Safety Awareness and Practices in Urban and Rural Butcheries and Eateries in Northern Tanzania. 9th Biennial Conference New Zealand International Development Studies Network, 5-7 December 2016, Wellington, New Zealand. Audience: researchers, development experts. R. Zadoks, K. Thomas, G. Barker, J. Benschop, J. Buza, S. Cleaveland, M. Davis, N. French, E. Karimuribo, R. Kazwala, B. Mmbaga, N. Mtui, G. Prinsen, J. Sharp, E. Swai, L. Waldman, J. Crump. Of Meat and Men, Models and Microbes - Understanding Salmonella risks in Tanzania's Meat Supply Chain. . 34th Tanzania Veterinary Association Conference, 6-8 December 2016, Arusha, Tanzania. Audience: veterinarians, policy makers, PhD students, researchers.
Start Year 2012
 
Description HAZEL-MoLFD 
Organisation Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development, United Republic of Tanzania
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I led the write up of the grant proposal "HAZEL" submitted under the ZELS call, with contributions from my research team.
Collaborator Contribution Dr. Emanuel Swai and Dr. Niwael Mtui-Malamsha contributed to the writing of the grant proposal "HAZEL" that was submitted under the ZELS call.
Impact Successful application of the Hazards Associated with Zoonotic enteric pathogens in Emerging Livestock meat pathways (HAZEL) BB/L017679/1 Contribution to the Tanzania One Health Strategic Plan 2015-2020 Conference Presentations: G. Prinsen, J. Benschop, N. French, E. Swai, R. Zadoks, J. Sharp, L. Waldman. Food Safety Awareness and Practices in Urban and Rural Butcheries and Eateries in Northern Tanzania. 34th Tanzania Veterinary Association Conference, 6-8 December 2016, Arusha, Tanzania. Audience: veterinarians, policy makers, PhD students, researchers. G. Prinsen, J. Benschop, N. French, E. Swai, R. Zadoks, J. Sharp, L. Waldman. Food Safety Awareness and Practices in Urban and Rural Butcheries and Eateries in Northern Tanzania. 9th Biennial Conference New Zealand International Development Studies Network, 5-7 December 2016, Wellington, New Zealand. Audience: researchers, development experts. Thomas KM, Crump JA, Benschop J, Buza J, Cleaveland S, French N, Karimuribo E, Kazwala R, Mmbaga B, Mtui N, Prinsen G, Sharp J, Swai E, Zadoks R. 2016. Hazards Associated with Zoonotic enteric pathogens in Emerging Livestock meat pathways (HAZEL) - Understanding meat safety in Tanzania through a One Health approach. Abstract number OR-VF-025. FoodMicro2016. 25th International Committee on Food Microbiology and Hygiene Conference. Dublin, Ireland. 19-22 July 2016. R. Zadoks, K. Thomas, G. Barker, J. Benschop, J. Buza, S. Cleaveland, M. Davis, N. French, E. Karimuribo, R. Kazwala, B. Mmbaga, N. Mtui, G. Prinsen, J. Sharp, E. Swai, L. Waldman, J. Crump. Of Meat and Men, Models and Microbes - Understanding Salmonella risks in Tanzania's Meat Supply Chain. . 34th Tanzania Veterinary Association Conference, 6-8 December 2016, Arusha, Tanzania. Audience: veterinarians, policy makers, PhD students, researchers.
Start Year 2012
 
Description HAZEL-NMAIST 
Organisation Nelson Mandela African Institute for Science and Technology
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I led the write up of the grant proposal HAZEL; submitted under the ZELS call, with contributions from my research team.
Collaborator Contribution Prof. Paul Gwakisa contributed to the writing of the grant proposal HAZEL that was submitted under the ZELS call. NMAIST hosted the launch meeting in Arusha, Tanzania, in December 2014. Professor Joram Buza has since taken over as lead contact for this project. Prof Buza participated in the BBSRC-DfiD ZELS launch meeting in London, 10 November 2014, and in a project specific meeting in London, 11 November 2014. Prof Buza contributes regularly to project discussions and hosted the 2017 Grantholders' Meeting at NM-AIST.
Impact Successful application for the HAZEL project funding. This is a multi-disciplinary collaboration involving medics, veterinarians, quantitative scientists, social scientists, and molecular epidemiologists. Successful application for funding of the Afrique One ASPIRE project Co-supervision of an MSc project: Assessment of risk factors that lead to prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter in chicken managed in different production systems Co-supervision of a PhD project: Development of surveillance and typing schemes for anthrax epidemiological studies in endemic areas Conference Presentations: Thomas KM, Crump JA, Benschop J, Buza J, Cleaveland S, French N, Karimuribo E, Kazwala R, Mmbaga B, Mtui N, Prinsen G, Sharp J, Swai E, Zadoks R. 2016. Hazards Associated with Zoonotic enteric pathogens in Emerging Livestock meat pathways (HAZEL) - Understanding meat safety in Tanzania through a One Health approach. Abstract number OR-VF-025. FoodMicro2016. 25th International Committee on Food Microbiology and Hygiene Conference. Dublin, Ireland. 19-22 July 2016. R. Zadoks, K. Thomas, G. Barker, J. Benschop, J. Buza, S. Cleaveland, M. Davis, N. French, E. Karimuribo, R. Kazwala, B. Mmbaga, N. Mtui, G. Prinsen, J. Sharp, E. Swai, L. Waldman, J. Crump. Of Meat and Men, Models and Microbes - Understanding Salmonella risks in Tanzania's Meat Supply Chain. . 34th Tanzania Veterinary Association Conference, 6-8 December 2016, Arusha, Tanzania. Audience: veterinarians, policy makers, PhD students, researchers.
Start Year 2012
 
Description HAZEL-Otago 
Organisation University of Otago
Department School of Medicine Otago
Country New Zealand 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I led the write up of the grant proposal HAZEL; submitted under the ZELS call, with contributions from my research team.
Collaborator Contribution Prof. John Crump contributed to the writing of the grant proposal HAZEL that was submitted under the ZELS call and led the interview process for appointment of a postdoctoral research associate based in Tanzania. Professor John Crump participates in monthly skype calls, annual in-person meeting and contribute intellectually to the project. PDRA Kate Thomas run the Zoonoses Laboratory at the Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Institute in Tanzania, contributes intellectually to the laboratory components of the project and attends all project meetings.
Impact Successful submission of the grant proposal HAZEL under the ZELS (Zoonoses in Emerging Livestock Systems). This is a multi-disciplinary collaboration involving medics, veterinarians, quantitative scientists, social scientists, and molecular epidemiologists. Publications: Crump JA, Heyderman RS. A Perspective on Invasive Salmonella Disease in Africa. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2015;61(S4): S235-40. DOI: 10.1093/cid/civ709 Crump JA, Kirk MD. 2015. Estimating the Burden of Febrile Illnesses. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 9(12): e0004040. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004040 Crump JA, Sjölund-Karlsson M, Gordon MA, Parry CM. 15 July 2015. Epidemiology, clinical presentation, laboratory diagnosis, antimicrobial resistance, and antimicrobial management of invasive Salmonella infections. Clin Microbiol Rev doi:10.1128/CMR.00002-15. Penno EC, Baird SJ, Crump JA. 2015. Cost effectiveness of surveillance for bloodstream infections for sepsis management in low resource settings. Am J Trop Med Hyg 93(4), 2015, pp. 850-860. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.15-0083. Conference Presentations: Crump JA. The highs and lows of typhoid disease burden: a story of inequities and moving targets. In symposium 510. Bridging the gap towards defining the burden of typhoid in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia. 65th American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene annual meeting, Atlanta, GA, 13-17 November 2016. Crump JA. Insights on global epidemiology of severe febrile illness. In symposium 501: Febrile illness: epidemiology, diagnostics, management. 65th American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene annual meeting, Atlanta, GA, 13-17 November 2016. Hopkins H, Thomas NV, Crump JA, González IJ, Guérin PJ, Newton PN, Schellenberg D, Bell D, Reyburn H. Mapping fever aetiologies in malaria-endemic areas: an interactive, open-access, on-line map. Abstract. 9th European Congress on Tropical Medicine and International Health, Basel Switzerland. 6-10 September 2015. Thomas KM, Crump JA, Benschop J, Buza J, Cleaveland S, French N, Karimuribo E, Kazwala R, Mmbaga B, Mtui N, Prinsen G, Sharp J, Swai E, Zadoks R. 2016. Hazards Associated with Zoonotic enteric pathogens in Emerging Livestock meat pathways (HAZEL) - Understanding meat safety in Tanzania through a One Health approach. Abstract number OR-VF-025. FoodMicro2016. 25th International Committee on Food Microbiology and Hygiene Conference. Dublin, Ireland. 19-22 July 2016. R. Zadoks, K. Thomas, G. Barker, J. Benschop, J. Buza, S. Cleaveland, M. Davis, N. French, E. Karimuribo, R. Kazwala, B. Mmbaga, N. Mtui, G. Prinsen, J. Sharp, E. Swai, L. Waldman, J. Crump. Of Meat and Men, Models and Microbes - Understanding Salmonella risks in Tanzania's Meat Supply Chain. . 34th Tanzania Veterinary Association Conference, 6-8 December 2016, Arusha, Tanzania. Audience: veterinarians, policy makers, PhD students, researchers. Zhang HL, Omondi OM, Musyoka AM, Afwamba IA, Swai RP, Karia FP, Muiruri C, Reddy EA, Crump JA, Rubach MP. The challenges of maintaining Good Clinical Laboratory Practices in low-resource settings: a health program evaluation framework case study from East Africa. Abstract 1326. 64th American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene annual meeting, Philadelphia, PA, 25-29 October 2015.
Start Year 2012
 
Description HAZEL-SUA 
Organisation Sokoine University of Agriculture
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I led the write up of the grant proposal "HAZEL" submitted under the ZELS call, with contributions from my research team.
Collaborator Contribution Prof. Rudovick Kazwala and Dr. Esron Karimuribo contributed to the writing of the grant proposal "HAZEL" that was submitted under the ZELS call. Prof. Kazwala participated in the BBSRC-DfiD ZELS launch meeting in London, 10 November 2014, a project specific meeting in London, 11 November 2014, project specific meeting in Moshi in January 2016, and in the ZELS grantholders' meeting in Arusha in January 2017. Prof Kazwala additionally participates in monthly project skype calls. Contribution to the Tanzania One Health Strategic Plan 2015-2020 Conference Presentations: Thomas KM, Crump JA, Benschop J, Buza J, Cleaveland S, French N, Karimuribo E, Kazwala R, Mmbaga B, Mtui N, Prinsen G, Sharp J, Swai E, Zadoks R. 2016. Hazards Associated with Zoonotic enteric pathogens in Emerging Livestock meat pathways (HAZEL) - Understanding meat safety in Tanzania through a One Health approach. Abstract number OR-VF-025. FoodMicro2016. 25th International Committee on Food Microbiology and Hygiene Conference. Dublin, Ireland. 19-22 July 2016.
Impact This collaboration has resulted in submission of the grant proposal "HAZEL" which has been submitted to BBSRC and DfID for funding under the ZELS (zoonoses and emerging livestock systems) call and which has been selected for funding. The project officially started on 30 November 2014 but face-to-face meetings between international collaborators and interviews for appointment of staff members have already taken place. This is a multi-disciplinary collaboration involving medics, veterinarians, quantitative scientists, social scientists, and molecular epidemiologists. Publications: Halliday, JEB; Allan, KJ; Ekwem, D; Cleaveland, S; Kazwala, RR; Crump, JA. Endemic zoonoses in the tropics: a public health problem hiding in plain sight. Veterinary Record. 2015. 176: 220-225. doi: 10.1136/vr.h798 Conference Presentations: Thomas KM, Crump JA, Benschop J, Buza J, Cleaveland S, French N, Karimuribo E, Kazwala R, Mmbaga B, Mtui N, Prinsen G, Sharp J, Swai E, Zadoks R. 2016. Hazards Associated with Zoonotic enteric pathogens in Emerging Livestock meat pathways (HAZEL) - Understanding meat safety in Tanzania through a One Health approach. Abstract number OR-VF-025. FoodMicro2016. 25th International Committee on Food Microbiology and Hygiene Conference. Dublin, Ireland. 19-22 July 2016. R. Zadoks, K. Thomas, G. Barker, J. Benschop, J. Buza, S. Cleaveland, M. Davis, N. French, E. Karimuribo, R. Kazwala, B. Mmbaga, N. Mtui, G. Prinsen, J. Sharp, E. Swai, L. Waldman, J. Crump. Of Meat and Men, Models and Microbes - Understanding Salmonella risks in Tanzania's Meat Supply Chain. . 34th Tanzania Veterinary Association Conference, 6-8 December 2016, Arusha, Tanzania. Audience: veterinarians, policy makers, PhD students, researchers.
Start Year 2012
 
Description HAZEL-UoG 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I led the write up of the grant proposal HAZEL submitted under the ZELS call, with contributions from my research team
Collaborator Contribution Prof. Jo Sharp coordinated the writing of the social science elements of the grant proposal HAZEL that was submitted under the ZELS call.
Impact This collaboration has resulted in submission of the grant proposal HAZEL; which was submitted to BBSRC and DfID for funding under the ZELS (Zoonoses and Emerging Livestock Systems) call and which was selected for funding. The project officially started on 30 November 2014 but face-to-face meetings between international collaborators and interviews for appointment of staff members have already taken place. This is a multi-disciplinary collaboration involving medics, veterinarians, quantitative scientists, social scientists, and molecular epidemiologists. Jo Sharp has developed a new class at the University of Glasgow as part of the Honours Core Course. The new class is 4 two-hour seminars on "Impacts of Environmental Change on Zoonotic Disease in the Global South" Conference Presentations: G. Prinsen, J. Benschop, N. French, E. Swai, R. Zadoks, J. Sharp, L. Waldman. Food Safety Awareness and Practices in Urban and Rural Butcheries and Eateries in Northern Tanzania. 34th Tanzania Veterinary Association Conference, 6-8 December 2016, Arusha, Tanzania. Audience: veterinarians, policy makers, PhD students, researchers. G. Prinsen, J. Benschop, N. French, E. Swai, R. Zadoks, J. Sharp, L. Waldman. Food Safety Awareness and Practices in Urban and Rural Butcheries and Eateries in Northern Tanzania. 9th Biennial Conference New Zealand International Development Studies Network, 5-7 December 2016, Wellington, New Zealand. Audience: researchers, development experts Thomas KM, Crump JA, Benschop J, Buza J, Cleaveland S, French N, Karimuribo E, Kazwala R, Mmbaga B, Mtui N, Prinsen G, Sharp J, Swai E, Zadoks R. 2016. Hazards Associated with Zoonotic enteric pathogens in Emerging Livestock meat pathways (HAZEL) - Understanding meat safety in Tanzania through a One Health approach. Abstract number OR-VF-025. FoodMicro2016. 25th International Committee on Food Microbiology and Hygiene Conference. Dublin, Ireland. 19-22 July 2016. R. Zadoks, K. Thomas, G. Barker, J. Benschop, J. Buza, S. Cleaveland, M. Davis, N. French, E. Karimuribo, R. Kazwala, B. Mmbaga, N. Mtui, G. Prinsen, J. Sharp, E. Swai, L. Waldman, J. Crump. Of Meat and Men, Models and Microbes - Understanding Salmonella risks in Tanzania's Meat Supply Chain. . 34th Tanzania Veterinary Association Conference, 6-8 December 2016, Arusha, Tanzania. Audience: veterinarians, policy makers, PhD students, researchers.
Start Year 2012
 
Description HAZEL-WSU 
Organisation Washington State University
Country United States of America 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I led the write up of the grant proposal HAZEL; submitted under the ZELS call, with contributions from my research team.
Collaborator Contribution Dr. Margaret Davis contributed to the writing of the grant proposal HAZEL; that was submitted under the ZELS call. Dr Davis contributes intellectual input into project activities and attends annual in-person meetings and monthly skype calls. Conference Presentations: G. Prinsen, J. Benschop, N. French, E. Swai, R. Zadoks, J. Sharp, L. Waldman. Food Safety Awareness and Practices in Urban and Rural Butcheries and Eateries in Northern Tanzania. 34th Tanzania Veterinary Association Conference, 6-8 December 2016, Arusha, Tanzania. Audience: veterinarians, policy makers, PhD students, researchers. G. Prinsen, J. Benschop, N. French, E. Swai, R. Zadoks, J. Sharp, L. Waldman. Food Safety Awareness and Practices in Urban and Rural Butcheries and Eateries in Northern Tanzania. 9th Biennial Conference New Zealand International Development Studies Network, 5-7 December 2016, Wellington, New Zealand. Audience: researchers, development experts. R. Zadoks, K. Thomas, G. Barker, J. Benschop, J. Buza, S. Cleaveland, M. Davis, N. French, E. Karimuribo, R. Kazwala, B. Mmbaga, N. Mtui, G. Prinsen, J. Sharp, E. Swai, L. Waldman, J. Crump. Of Meat and Men, Models and Microbes - Understanding Salmonella risks in Tanzania's Meat Supply Chain. . 34th Tanzania Veterinary Association Conference, 6-8 December 2016, Arusha, Tanzania. Audience: veterinarians, policy makers, PhD students, researchers.
Impact Successful application for funding of the HAZEL project. This is a multi-disciplinary collaboration involving medics, veterinarians, quantitative scientists, social scientists, and molecular epidemiologists.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Blog - GB, Reducing the risk of foodborne disease in Tanzania's meat 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact IFR's Dr Gary Barker blogs about the need for the HAZEL project, as highlighted by the news of meat shortages prompted over hygiene fears.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.ifr.ac.uk/news/latest-news/2015/06/reducing-risk-foodborne-disease-tanzanias-meat/#
 
Description Blog - GB, Tying up the ends of Tanzania's meat supply chain 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In this blog article, originally published on the Livestock, Livelihoods and Health website, Dr Gary Barker explores issues around the meat supply chain in Tanzania, and how mathematical modelling could be used to better understand how this system works, and the threats of food contamination.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.ifr.ac.uk/news/latest-news/2015/11/tying-ends-tanzanias-meat-supply-chain/
 
Description Blog - Shades of Grey, Gerard Prinsen 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Gerard Prinsen wrote a blog entry on preliminary findings from interviews with meat sellers in Tanzania.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://livestocklivelihoodsandhealth.org/blog/shades/
 
Description HAZEL-ASFAAP 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Preparations sparked interactions between collaborators and invitation of additional collaborators. Benschop, French, Prinsen, Crump presented "Food Safety and Economic Opportunity in Tanzania's Meat Value Chain"

Yet to be assessed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://afsaap.org.au/conference/conference-2014/
 
Description HAZEL-Boyd Orr 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussions. As a result of discussion following this talk, a PhD studentship was successfully conceived and applied for: Lord Kelvin Adam Smith PhD Scholarship "Building (de)fences - empowering farmers to take action on disease control", co-supervised by Prof. Sally Wyke (Institute of Health and Wellbeing) and Dr. Lisa Boden (School of Veterinary Medicine), University of Glasgow.

This talk led to a new contact between biological and social scientists, who are now developing a project on social aspects of farmer behaviour as it relates to livestock health and disease.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description HAZEL-ZELS launch London 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Discussion during the event and during subsequent follow-up meeting with smaller group of participants.

Better understanding of funders' and participants' aims and expectations with regards to communication, reporting, and project management.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description LLH Facebook Page 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The intended purpose of the facebook page is to highlight activity related to the Livestock, Livelihoods and Health programme and raise awareness of issues related to zoonotic disease. From Sept 2015 to Mar 2016, the number of "likes" has increased from 79 to 290.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
URL https://www.facebook.com/livestocklivelihoodsandhealth
 
Description LLH Twitter account 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Livestock, Livelihoods and Health Twitter feed feature updates on the research the programme is conducting in addition to highlighting information about zoonotic disease and one health research. The goal is to highlight the importance of zoonotic disease, and communicate research outcomes and challenges to stakeholders, colleagues, interested parties and the general public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2017
URL https://twitter.com/zoonoses_TZ
 
Description LLH Website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Livestock, Livelihoods and Health (LLH) programme, comprising the three Glasgow-based ZELS projects, launched in August 2015 to provide information on the projects and a home to the team's blog.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2017
URL http://www.livestocklivelihoodsandhealth.org
 
Description NZPSA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Gerard Prinsen presented "When Cows go to Town". This presentation is available online at http://livestocklivelihoodsandhealth.org/research/meat-risks/
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://livestocklivelihoodsandhealth.org/research/meat-risks/
 
Description Participatory Impact Pathways Analysis 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Conducted December 2014 in Arusha, Tanzania. Led by Naomi Marks and Linda Waldman. Included representatives of The Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC); SNV Netherlands Development Organisation; Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Research Institute (TTRI); Ministry of Health and Social Welfare; GALVmed; Arusha town council; Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development. The workshop identified key stakeholders relevant to zoonotic disease and highlighted engagement opportunities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Prof. Sarah Cleaveland OBE | Extended Interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact BBC Radio Scotland Interview with Prof Sarah Cleaveland, "Prof. Sarah Cleaveland OBE | Extended Interview": http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p0400673
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p0400673
 
Description TZ Meat Chain Stakeholder Meetings 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact PI Zadoks, Co-Is Sharp and Prinsen met with key stakeholders including representatives from Arusha city abattoir, Moshi Chamber of Commerce, SNV, Meat Traders Association, and Arusha City Council, to initiate the supply chain analysis in March 2015. Additional meetings were held via skype with representatives of the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Tanzania One Health Strategic Plan 2015-2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact SEEDZ team members Rudovick Kazwala, Blandina Mmbaga. Julius Keyyu and Emmanuel Swai attended a retreat to operationalize the Tanzania One Health Strategic Plan 2015-2020. Attendees (35) included representatives from the Disaster Management Department of the Prime Minister's Office, Ministry of Health, Gender, Children and Elders, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, Ardhi Institute, TAWIRI, SUA, TVLA, NIMRI, SACIDs, SUA, MUHAS, Ministry of Health and Livestock Zanzibar, CDC, FAO, WHO country offices, USAID P&R- country and regional offices. Feedback from LLH attendees contributed to incorporation of anti-microbial resistance, endemic zoonoses and non-infectious conditions. LLH team member Gabriel Shirima presented the LLH research programme and the work was well-received by the attendees.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://livestocklivelihoodsandhealth.org/blog/one-health-plan/
 
Description ZELS Grantholders Meeting 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The SEEDZ project co-hosted the annual grantholders' meeting and utilized funds from an Imapct Accelerator Award to include representatives from Tanzania's Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries and the Tanzania Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017