Social, Economic and Environmental Drivers of Zoonoses in Tanzania (SEEDZ)

Lead Research Organisation: University of Glasgow
Department Name: College of Medical, Veterinary &Life Sci

Abstract

Livestock are critical for the food security and livelihoods of almost 600 million people worldwide, and represent an important resource that has the potential to support economic development of many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. However, livestock also act as a source of zoonoses, diseases that can be transmitted to people from animals. There is growing recognition that zoonotic diseases have a profound impact on the health and livelihoods of some of the world's poorest people. This is especially the case for endemic zoonoses that are widespread in low-income countries, including Tanzania.

The zoonotic diseases that are the focus of this study, brucellosis, Q-fever and Rift Valley Fever (RVF), can all result in livestock production losses and cause severe fever-causing illnesses in people, with the potential for chronic disability (brucellosis and Q fever), as well as fatal haemorrhagic disease (RVF). Zoonoses that causing fevers are particularly problematic because they are difficult to diagnose on symptoms alone, and in sub-Saharan Africa are almost always misdiagnosed, often as malaria, with serious consequences for human health.

Livestock systems in Africa are undergoing rapid transition. Changes in market dynamics, land-use and agricultural policy, environmental factors, cultural practices and technology are all changing the way people keep and manage livestock, both for food and as sources of income. However, the consequences of these changes on zoonotic disease risk are almost unknown.

This project will use the case of Tanzania to explore the nature of livestock systems, focusing on two systems undergoing rapid transition: (1) the pastoral-wildlife sector affected particularly by expansion of crop-based agriculture, and (2) the peri-urban livestock sector. Within these systems, we will compare communities that vary in relation to their connectivity with urban centres and wildlife areas to characterise drivers of change (environmental, social, economic, demographic and governance). We will examine how these relate to risks of diseases transmitted to people from animals and how these diseases affect household livelihoods and poverty. We will first develop models of disease risk using information on these three zoonotic diseases in northern Tanzania. From this, we will produce a model that can be applied to several other zoonotic diseases and which will allow us to anticipate how drivers may affect livestock systems and zoonotic disease risks in the future.

Throughout the project, quantitative epidemiological approaches and disease modelling will be complemented by qualitative research (including interviews, focus group discussions and participatory methods) to enable researchers to understand patterns of risk of disease transmission but also the reasoning that lies behind people's decisions to respond (or not) to this risk. This will also help to ensure that policy interventions to mitigate disease risk are developed in a way that is appropriate to, and therefore more likely to be accepted by, the communities in question.

This project is necessarily interdisciplinary and is jointly led by an epidemiologist and a social scientist, which will ensure that scientific and social scientific issues and mutual understanding between disciplines remain central to the project. The international team represents wide-ranging expertise in livestock systems, disease modelling, qualitative social sciences, economics, and development, and also includes policy-makers at national and international levels to inform study design and dissemination approaches that will maximise the uptake of research findings. Annual meetings and regular Skype calls will ensure the exchange of ideas between disciplinary and national backgrounds and will enhance interaction and mentoring between staff at different stages of their careers. The project provides a valuable platform for training opportunities and capacity-building.

Technical Summary

This project will examine and assess drivers, risks and impacts of zoonotic diseases - brucellosis, Q fever and Rift Valley Fever - that affect cattle, sheep and goats, and impact on human health, livelihoods and poverty in pastoral and peri-urban communities in Tanzania.

The project will use inter-disciplinary methodologies from qualitative social sciences, epidemiology and economics to examine how these drivers influence human behaviour and livestock contact networks, and how these, in turn, affect transmission of zoonotic pathogens from livestock to people. Quantitative and qualitative data pertaining to all these elements will be collected coherently in one geographical system, explicitly integrating network patterns and infection dynamics with human economic incentives and behavioural responses.

The research methodology includes: (a) qualitative social science and GIS studies to identify and assess drivers of change in livestock systems; (b) cross-sectional epidemiological studies to determine pathogen exposure patterns in linked human and livestock populations; (c) quantitative and qualitative analyses to identify risk factors for transmission in different communities; (d) analyses of household survey data to link serology with livestock reproductive disease and human disease syndromes (febrile illness, reproductive disease, joint pain) and analysis of confirmed human cases across pastoral and peri-urban sites; (e) development of compartmental network disease models and agent-based simulations that incorporate human behaviour and economics; (f) development of household-level economic models and qualitative social autopsies to determine disease impact on family income and livelihoods; (g) model simulations to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention strategies, and qualitative methods to understand factors affecting acceptability of interventions, with engagement of policy-makers throughout the project to support uptake of findings.

Planned Impact

The outputs of this project will substantially advance our understanding of how social, environmental and economic drivers of change affect zoonotic disease risks in Tanzania through changing patterns of livestock ownership, management and human behaviour. The project will focus on three diseases - brucellosis, Q fever and Rift Valley Fever - for which existing interventions (eg livestock vaccination/husbandry, food preparation) have the potential for mitigating disease risks, but are not widely adopted. We will evaluate the epidemiological effectiveness of interventions, as well as the social, economic and behavioural factors that affect acceptability and uptake at community and policy levels. As a result, we will identify methodologies for promoting their uptake to provide practical and immediate ways of minimising disease risk. Through detailed evaluation of disease impact on household livelihoods and poverty, including impacts through human febrile illness and livestock production losses, we will raise awareness of these diseases for evidence-based policy decisions.

These outputs and outcomes will generate benefits for a broad constituency of stakeholders: livestock-owners, other men and women who work with livestock, and consumers in pastoral and peri-urban communities in Tanzania (with relevance for many other parts of Africa); scientists from a range of disciplines in human and animal health, social sciences and economics; and veterinary and medical practitioners.

Direct beneficiaries will include communities within the study sites, who will benefit in the near-term as a result of improved awareness of zoonotic diseases and steps that can be taken to reduce disease risks. Enhanced clinical awareness and diagnostic capacity will also improve management of human febrile illness. In the medium-term, communities from across Tanzania, and the sub-Saharan African region will benefit from identification of appropriate intervention strategies in livestock, and the engagement of policy makers with livestock-keepers and researchers throughout the project will ensure that interventions are more likely to be implemented. Community-level benefits will include improved health of people and reduced productivity losses in livestock, which will enhance food security and livelihoods.

The academic users of the research will include social scientists, epidemiologists, disease modellers and economists, who will be able to apply insights gained and frameworks established in this project to a range of zoonotic disease problems in other settings. It will also provide interdisciplinary skills for researchers and policy-makers at many different levels, particularly enhancing capacity for social sciences within Tanzanian institutions, which will generate capacity to tackle future interdisciplinary challenges.

Policy-makers in Tanzania, as well as international organizations, will benefit from the evidence base generated by this research to support the development of appropriate and integrated policies that relate to livestock and wildlife systems, as well as human health. Engagement of policy-makers throughout the project, and the involvement of project members in regional and international networks, consortia and advisory groups, will facilitate dissemination and uptake of research findings.

The project will generate a valuable set of quantitative and qualitative data, including human and livestock sera, with detailed contextual information that adds value to their use for research into other diseases. We will also establish and extend laboratory diagnostic capacity for these diseases in northern Tanzania to support research beyond the project. The project will provide an excellent opportunities training and networking, both within the ZELS programme and other One Health capacity-building and research initiatives. The project thus has great potential to enhance the visibility and competitiveness of UK and Tanzanian scie

Publications


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Allan KJ (2015) Renewing the momentum for leptospirosis research in Africa. in Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

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Ao TT (2015) Global burden of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease, 2010(1). in Emerging infectious diseases

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Cleaveland S (2017) One Health contributions towards more effective and equitable approaches to health in low- and middle-income countries in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

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Crump JA (2015) Estimating the Burden of Febrile Illnesses. in PLoS neglected tropical diseases

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Crump JA (2015) A Perspective on Invasive Salmonella Disease in Africa. in Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America


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Crump JA (2016) Goldman-Cecil medicine

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Crump JA (2014) Invasive Salmonella infections in Africa. in Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene


 
Description The project only started on 1st October 2014 and no research findings have yet been generated.
Exploitation Route Not applicable
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment,Healthcare
 
Description The project has only started on 1st October 2014 and no research findings yet generated.
 
Description CME - Endulen Hospital Aug 2016
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Attended by 10 members of the clinical and support staff working at Endulen hospital, Ngorongoro Conservation Area. Attendees included doctors, clinical officers, nurses and lab/pharmacy technicians. Dr Michael Maze, Infectious Diseases Physician at KCMC and University of Otago led the session, which covered guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of brucellosis (and febrile patients more generally) and included detailed discussion of history taking and the use and interpretation of available diagnostic tools.
 
Description Impact Accelerator Workshop June 2016
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Attended by 19 people representing Faraja Health Care Centre, Jaffery Charitable Medical Services, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Institute, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College, Majengo Healthcare Centre, Mawenzi District Hospital, Moshi Upendo Healthcare Centre, Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Senior and Children, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Pasua Healthcare Centre, St Joseph's Hospital, and TPC Hospital. This workshop provided information about the Livestock, Livelihoods and Health pathogens to doctors from across northern Tanzania, and gathered feedback on what sorts of zoonoses doctors encountered, what kinds of information would be helpful for them to receive and what information would be useful for patients to receive regarding zoonotic disease.
 
Description Knowledge Exchange Workshop - NCA Aug 2016
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Attended by 25 people (Community Animal Health Workers, Livestock Field Officers, nurses, medical attendants, hospital administrators, pastoral council representatives, medical doctors, medical attendants and clinical officers) representing nine wards of the eleven wards in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (Ngoile, Ngorongoro, Olbalbal, Eyasi, Kakesio, Endulen, Laitole, Misigiyo, Alailelai). Content of the 3-day workshop focussed on anthrax and brucellosis, particularly identifying the nature of the challenges associated with these diseases and developing ideas for surveillance, prevention and treatment.
 
Description Livestock Modernization Initiative
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
URL http://agriprofocus.com/upload/post/Tanzania_Livestock_Modernization_Initiative1437567817.pdf
 
Description One Health Strategic Plan for Tanzania
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
URL http://livestocklivelihoodsandhealth.org/blog/one-health-plan/
 
Description Afrique One ASPIRE
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Wellcome Trust Ltd 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 10/2016 
End 09/2021
 
Description BBSRC IAAF
Amount £150,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 12/2016 
End 04/2017
 
Description Impact Accelerator 2015
Amount £5,900 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 06/2016 
End 11/2016
 
Description Lord Kelvin Adam Smith scholarship
Amount £90,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Glasgow 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 10/2014 
End 09/2017
 
Description Supporting Evidence Based Interventions
Amount $1,149,879 (USD)
Organisation Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States of America
Start 03/2017 
End 09/2019
 
Description William Evans Visiting Fellow
Amount $7,500 (NZD)
Organisation University of Otago 
Sector Academic/University
Country New Zealand
Start 09/2016 
End 11/2016
 
Description Working Towards the Elimination of Multiple Neglected Tropical Diseases
Amount $16,135 (USD)
Organisation Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States of America
Start 05/2015 
End 09/2016
 
Description ZELS-AS doctoral training centre
Amount £1,500,000 (GBP)
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 09/2015 
End 03/2019
 
Description Collaboration - Institute of Development Studies 
Organisation Institute of Development Studies (IDS)
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Development of SEEDZ grant proposal, intellectual contributions.
Collaborator Contribution Intellectual contribution to SEEDZ grant proposal and research activities. Regular attendance at monthly project skype calls and annual in-person meetings.
Impact Successful SEEDZ grant proposal
Start Year 2014
 
Description Collaboration with Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Institute 
Organisation Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Institute
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have provided partial access costs, all staff training, and various pieces of equipment (incubators, spiral plater, pipettes, etc) to a new lab dedicated to Zoonotic Disease. This lab is a new facility resulting from the requirements of our research collaboration with KCRI and is staffed by project employees.
Collaborator Contribution The in-kind contribution noted is the additional bench fees associated with the cost of this lab's operation over the two years the lab has been in operation. Prof. Kibiki participated in the BBSRC-DfiD ZELS launch meeting in London, 10 November 2014, and in a project specific meeting in London, 11 November 2014. Prof Mmbaga participated in the ZELS Grantholders meeting in Cambridge in December 2015, project meetings in Moshi in 2016 and the ZELS Grantholders' meeting in Arusha in January 2017.
Impact Allan KJ, Biggs HM, Halliday JEB, Kazwala RR, Maro VP, Cleaveland SC, Crump JA. 2015. Epidemiology of Leptospirosis in Africa: A Systematic Review of a Neglected Zoonosis and a Paradigm for 'One Health' in Africa. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9(9): e0003899. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003899 Allan KJ, Halliday JEB, Cleaveland S. 2015. Renewing the momentum for leptospirosis research in Africa. Transaction of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 109 (10). Pp 605-606. DOI: 10.1093/trstmh/trv072 Crump JA, Heyderman RS. A Perspective on Invasive Salmonella Disease in Africa. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2015;61(S4):S235-40. DOI: 10.1093/cid/civ709 Crump JA, Kirk MD. 2015. Estimating the Burden of Febrile Illnesses. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 9(12): e0004040. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004040 Crump JA, Sjölund-Karlsson M, Gordon MA, Parry CM. 15 July 2015. Epidemiology, clinical presentation, laboratory diagnosis, antimicrobial resistance, and antimicrobial management of invasive Salmonella infections. Clin Microbiol Rev doi:10.1128/CMR.00002-15. Penno EC, Baird SJ, Crump JA. 2015. Cost effectiveness of surveillance for bloodstream infections for sepsis management in low resource settings. Am J Trop Med Hyg 93(4), 2015, pp. 850-860. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.15-0083. Viana M, Shirima GM, John KS, Fitzpatrick J, Kazwala RR, Buza JB, Cleaveland S; Haydon DT, Halliday JEB. 2016. Integrating serological and genetic data to quantify cross-species transmission: brucellosis as a case study. Parasitology, available on CJO2016. doi:10.1017/S0031182016000044. Zhang HL, Mnzava KW, Mitchell ST, Melubo ML, Kibona TJ, Cleaveland S, Kazwala RR, Crump JA, Sharp JP, Halliday JEB. 2016. Mixed Methods Survey of Zoonotic Disease Awareness and Practice among Animal and Human Healthcare Providers in Moshi, Tanzania. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10(3): e0004476. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004476 Zhang HL, Kunda W, Mnzava KW, Mitchell ST, Melubo ML, Kibona TJ, Sharp JP, Kazwala RR, Cleaveland S, Crump JA, Halliday JEB. Mixed methods survey of zoonotic disease awareness and practice among animal and human healthcare providers in Moshi, Tanzania. Abstract 1105. 64th American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene annual meeting, Philadelphia, PA, 25-29 October 2015.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Collaboration with Nelson Mandela African Institution for Science and Technology 
Organisation School of Life Sciences and Bioengineering; Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology
Country South Africa, Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Established partnership for livestock disease and zoonoses research with active engagement on development of funding proposals and co-supervision of MSc and PhD students.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of laboratory facilities, including minus 80 freezer storage. Contributions to design, implementation and analysis of field research studies in Tanzania, including student supervision. Contributions to development of collaborative research proposals. Contributions to writing of research manuscripts.
Impact Collaboration which was initially established in relation to research on malignant catarrhal fever and has now been extended to foot-and-mouth disease research, rift valley fever, brucellosis and Q-fever, with the institution now a key partner in three BBSRC ZELS projects led by the University of Glasgow. Joint publication in Science on rabies control and elimination. Training of four Tanzanian MSc students, with successful completion of research projects. Successful collaboration for ZELS grant funding of zoonoses and emerging livestock systems (ZELS) projects Successful collaboration on Bill and Melinda Gates Grants funding for a doctoral training program on livestock health and production (16 PhD studentships) Successful collaboration on ZELS associated doctoral training centre Successful collaboration on AfriqueOne ASPIRE programme Joint publication submitted on Rift Valley Fever in the Serengeti Publications: Viana M, Shirima GM, John KS, Fitzpatrick J, Kazwala RR, Buza JB, Cleaveland S; Haydon DT, Halliday JEB. 2016. Integrating serological and genetic data to quantify cross-species transmission: brucellosis as a case study. Parasitology, available on CJO2016. doi:10.1017/S0031182016000044. Zhang HL, Mnzava KW, Mitchell ST, Melubo ML, Kibona TJ, Cleaveland S, Kazwala RR, Crump JA, Sharp JP, Halliday JEB. 2016. Mixed Methods Survey of Zoonotic Disease Awareness and Practice among Animal and Human Healthcare Providers in Moshi, Tanzania. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10(3): e0004476. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004476 Conference Presentations: Zhang HL, Kunda W, Mnzava KW, Mitchell ST, Melubo ML, Kibona TJ, Sharp JP, Kazwala RR, Cleaveland S, Crump JA, Halliday JEB. Mixed methods survey of zoonotic disease awareness and practice among animal and human healthcare providers in Moshi, Tanzania. Abstract 1105. 64th American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene annual meeting, Philadelphia, PA, 25-29 October 2015.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Collaboration with Sokoine University of Agriculture 
Organisation Sokoine University of Agriculture
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Research team members are in regular contact with collaborators at Sokoine University, including monthly skype calls.
Collaborator Contribution Collaborators at Sokoine University are in regular contact with team members, both at annual in-person meetings and via monthly skype calls. Professor Rudovick Kazwala provides results from the collaborative research conducted to policy-makers via meetings such as the Meeting for Tanzania's National One Health Strategic Plan in 2016.
Impact Contribution to Tanzania's One Health Strategic Plan. Contribution to the Tanzania Livestock Modernization Initiative - http://agriprofocus.com/upload/post/Tanzania_Livestock_Modernization_Initiative1437567817.pdf Publications: Allan KJ, Biggs HM, Halliday JEB, Kazwala RR, Maro VP, Cleaveland SC, Crump JA. 2015. Epidemiology of Leptospirosis in Africa: A Systematic Review of a Neglected Zoonosis and a Paradigm for 'One Health' in Africa. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9(9): e0003899. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003899 Viana M, Shirima GM, John KS, Fitzpatrick J, Kazwala RR, Buza JB, Cleaveland S; Haydon DT, Halliday JEB. 2016. Integrating serological and genetic data to quantify cross-species transmission: brucellosis as a case study. Parasitology, available on CJO2016. doi:10.1017/S0031182016000044. Zhang HL, Mnzava KW, Mitchell ST, Melubo ML, Kibona TJ, Cleaveland S, Kazwala RR, Crump JA, Sharp JP, Halliday JEB. 2016. Mixed Methods Survey of Zoonotic Disease Awareness and Practice among Animal and Human Healthcare Providers in Moshi, Tanzania. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10(3): e0004476. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004476 Conference Presentations: Zhang HL, Kunda W, Mnzava KW, Mitchell ST, Melubo ML, Kibona TJ, Sharp JP, Kazwala RR, Cleaveland S, Crump JA, Halliday JEB. Mixed methods survey of zoonotic disease awareness and practice among animal and human healthcare providers in Moshi, Tanzania. Abstract 1105. 64th American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene annual meeting, Philadelphia, PA, 25-29 October 2015.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Collaboration with Tanzania Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries 
Organisation Ministry of Agriculture Livestock and Fisheries
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Time contributed to Ministry policy development, input into collaborative research activities.
Collaborator Contribution Partners contribute intellectually to research proposal development through annual in-person meetings and monthly skype calls. Dr Emmanuel Swai contributes to Ministry policy development and research activities on behalf of the project.
Impact Meeting for Tanzania's National One Health Strategic Plan - Aug 2016 - Emmanuel Swai, Blandina Mmbaga, Rudovick Kazwala and Gabriel Shirima attended. The objective of the 2-day workshop focussed on advocacy and awareness creation for the One Health strategic plan and reflecting on the One Health work plan over the coming 3 months. Attendees (35) included representatives from the Disaster Management Department of the Prime Minister's Office, Ministry of Health, Gender, Children and Elders, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, Ardhi Institute, TAWIRI, SUA, TVLA, NIMRI, SACIDs, SUA, MUHAS, Ministry of Health and Livestock Zanzibar, CDC, FAO, WHO country offices, USAID P&R- country and regional offices. Discussions of the One Health Strategy took place and feedback from LLH members contributed to the inclusion of AMR, endemic zoonoses and non-infectious conditions into the document.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Collaboration with Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute (TAWIRI) 
Organisation Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We share samples and data that are helpful to management decisions and research programmes run by TAWIRI.
Collaborator Contribution They provide local expertise, scientific inputs and offer supervisory support to students associated with our research.
Impact Outputs anticipated as part of SEEDZ project
Start Year 2014
 
Description Collaboration with University of Otago 
Organisation University of Otago
Country New Zealand 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution University of Otago is a partner institution on the Social, Economic and Environmental Drivers of Zoonoses (BB/L018926/1) project. Team members from the University of Glasgow participate in regular meetings (in person and via skype) with research associates at the University of Otago.
Collaborator Contribution Professor John Crump contributes intellectual input into study design for the SEEDZ project. Professor Crump participates in regular skype meetings and annual in-person meetings. In 2016, Professor John Crump and SEEDZ Pi Sarah Cleaveland successfully applied for a William Evans Visiting Fellowship for Prof Cleaveland to travel to New Zealand for six weeks.
Impact William Evans Visiting Fellowship for Professor Sarah Cleaveland, 2016 - $7500 Publications: Allan KJ, Biggs HM, Halliday JEB, Kazwala RR, Maro VP, Cleaveland SC, Crump JA. 2015. Epidemiology of Leptospirosis in Africa: A Systematic Review of a Neglected Zoonosis and a Paradigm for 'One Health' in Africa. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9(9): e0003899. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003899 Crump JA, Heyderman RS. A Perspective on Invasive Salmonella Disease in Africa. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2015;61(S4):S235-40. DOI: 10.1093/cid/civ709 Crump JA, Kirk MD. 2015. Estimating the Burden of Febrile Illnesses. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 9(12): e0004040. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004040 Crump JA, Sjölund-Karlsson M, Gordon MA, Parry CM. 15 July 2015. Epidemiology, clinical presentation, laboratory diagnosis, antimicrobial resistance, and antimicrobial management of invasive Salmonella infections. Clin Microbiol Rev doi:10.1128/CMR.00002-15. Penno EC, Baird SJ, Crump JA. 2015. Cost effectiveness of surveillance for bloodstream infections for sepsis management in low resource settings. Am J Trop Med Hyg 93(4), 2015, pp. 850-860. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.15-0083. Zhang HL, Mnzava KW, Mitchell ST, Melubo ML, Kibona TJ, Cleaveland S, Kazwala RR, Crump JA, Sharp JP, Halliday JEB. 2016. Mixed Methods Survey of Zoonotic Disease Awareness and Practice among Animal and Human Healthcare Providers in Moshi, Tanzania. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10(3): e0004476. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004476 Conference Presentations: Crump JA. The highs and lows of typhoid disease burden: a story of inequities and moving targets. In symposium 510. Bridging the gap towards defining the burden of typhoid in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia. 65th American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene annual meeting, Atlanta, GA, 13-17 November 2016. Crump JA. Insights on global epidemiology of severe febrile illness. In symposium 501: Febrile illness: epidemiology, diagnostics, management. 65th American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene annual meeting, Atlanta, GA, 13-17 November 2016. Hopkins H, Thomas NV, Crump JA, González IJ, Guérin PJ, Newton PN, Schellenberg D, Bell D, Reyburn H. Mapping fever aetiologies in malaria-endemic areas: an interactive, open-access, on-line map. Abstract. 9th European Congress on Tropical Medicine and International Health, Basel Switzerland. 6-10 September 2015. Zhang HL, Omondi OM, Musyoka AM, Afwamba IA, Swai RP, Karia FP, Muiruri C, Reddy EA, Crump JA, Rubach MP. The challenges of maintaining Good Clinical Laboratory Practices in low-resource settings: a health program evaluation framework case study from East Africa. Abstract 1326. 64th American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene annual meeting, Philadelphia, PA, 25-29 October 2015. Zhang HL, Kunda W, Mnzava KW, Mitchell ST, Melubo ML, Kibona TJ, Sharp JP, Kazwala RR, Cleaveland S, Crump JA, Halliday JEB. Mixed methods survey of zoonotic disease awareness and practice among animal and human healthcare providers in Moshi, Tanzania. Abstract 1105. 64th American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene annual meeting, Philadelphia, PA, 25-29 October 2015.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Collaboration with Washington State University 
Organisation Washington State University
Department School of Global Animal Health
Country United States of America 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Development of data collection instruments and analytical methodologies for evaluating the economic impact of malignant catarrhal fever in Tanzania. Collaboration on Social, Economic and Environmental Drivers of Zoonoses BB/L018926/1. Successful collaboration on "Supporting Evidence Based Interventions (SEBI)", a Gates-funded initiative.
Collaborator Contribution Team members contribute intellectually to our collaborative activities. Dr Felix Lankester will lead field work relating to the SEBI project, including training for field staff in Tanzania. Team members from WSU attend annual project meetings and participate in monthly research skype calls.
Impact Successful collaboration on the SEEDZ grant Successful collaboration on the Gates-funded SEBI project Successful collaboration on a Gates-funded project on combining intervention platforms Conference presentations: Yoder J. Inferring the value of statistical life from tough tradeoffs: Choosing between the risk of death from rabies and the cost of treatment in rural Tanzania. Invited Lecture - University of Glasgow, 1 September 2016.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Eastern Africa Veterinary Epidemiology and Laboratory networks 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Co-Investigator Swai presented One Health experience from Tanzania, giving a examples of ZELS projects. Key discussion issues in this 3-day meeting focussed on future implementation of USAID Response and Preparedness Plan and Emerging Pandemic Threats Programme 2 ( EPT-2) projects within the framework of Global Health and Security Agenda, which Tanzania has officially joined. Based on the discussion, SEEDZ is contributing towards addressing most of the activities earmarked under EPT- 2: establishing the drivers of zoonotic diseases. Participants included: Chief Veterinary Officers, Epidemiology and Laboratory focal points from Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, South Sudan, Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Burundi, Congo DRC, Eritrea and Djibouti.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Glasgow University's Professor Sarah Cleaveland on her quest to eliminate rabies 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Herald Scotland article on Prof Sarah Cleaveland, "Glasgow University's Professor Sarah Cleaveland on her quest to eliminate rabies": http://bit.ly/29WbT51
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.heraldscotland.com/news/14552485.Glasgow_University__39_s_Professor_Sarah_Cleaveland_on_h...
 
Description LLH Facebook Page 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The intended purpose of the facebook page is to highlight activity related to the Livestock, Livelihoods and Health programme and raise awareness of issues related to zoonotic disease. From Sept 2015 to Mar 2016, the number of "likes" has increased from 79 to 290.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
URL https://www.facebook.com/livestocklivelihoodsandhealth
 
Description LLH Twitter account 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Livestock, Livelihoods and Health Twitter feed feature updates on the research the programme is conducting in addition to highlighting information about zoonotic disease and one health research. The goal is to highlight the importance of zoonotic disease, and communicate research outcomes and challenges to stakeholders, colleagues, interested parties and the general public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2017
URL https://twitter.com/zoonoses_TZ
 
Description LLH Website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Livestock, Livelihoods and Health (LLH) programme, comprising the three Glasgow-based ZELS projects, launched in August 2015 to provide information on the projects and a home to the team's blog.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2017
URL http://www.livestocklivelihoodsandhealth.org
 
Description One Health for the Real World: partnership and pragmatism 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Cleaveland S. One Health for the Real World: partnership and pragmatism. ZSL One Health in the Real World. London, UK. 17-18 March 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Participatory Impact Pathways Analysis 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Conducted December 2014 in Arusha, Tanzania. Led by Naomi Marks and Linda Waldman. Included representatives of The Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC); SNV Netherlands Development Organisation; Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Research Institute (TTRI); Ministry of Health and Social Welfare; GALVmed; Arusha town council; Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development. The workshop identified key stakeholders relevant to zoonotic disease and highlighted engagement opportunities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Prof. Sarah Cleaveland OBE | Extended Interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact BBC Radio Scotland Interview with Prof Sarah Cleaveland, "Prof. Sarah Cleaveland OBE | Extended Interview": http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p0400673
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p0400673
 
Description Tanzania One Health Strategic Plan 2015-2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact SEEDZ team members Rudovick Kazwala, Blandina Mmbaga. Julius Keyyu and Emmanuel Swai attended a retreat to operationalize the Tanzania One Health Strategic Plan 2015-2020. Attendees (35) included representatives from the Disaster Management Department of the Prime Minister's Office, Ministry of Health, Gender, Children and Elders, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, Ardhi Institute, TAWIRI, SUA, TVLA, NIMRI, SACIDs, SUA, MUHAS, Ministry of Health and Livestock Zanzibar, CDC, FAO, WHO country offices, USAID P&R- country and regional offices. Feedback from LLH attendees contributed to incorporation of anti-microbial resistance, endemic zoonoses and non-infectious conditions. LLH team member Gabriel Shirima presented the LLH research programme and the work was well-received by the attendees.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://livestocklivelihoodsandhealth.org/blog/one-health-plan/
 
Description ZELS Grantholders Meeting 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The SEEDZ project co-hosted the annual grantholders' meeting and utilized funds from an Imapct Accelerator Award to include representatives from Tanzania's Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries and the Tanzania Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017