ShellEye: Satellite-based water quality bulletins for shellfish farms to support management decisions

Lead Research Organisation: Plymouth Marine Laboratory
Department Name: Remote Sensing Group

Abstract

This project will use ocean-viewing satellites together with weather forecasts in order to help monitor the quality of water surrounding shellfish farms. These tools will help the shellfish farmers make decisions, for example when to harvest their crop to avoid contamination in nearby water.

The farming or cultivation of seafood (e.g. shellfish) termed 'aquaculture' is an important worldwide source of protein. As global populations continue to rise the need for aquaculture as an important source of food will only increase. So increasing aquaculture output will help to provide food security for future generations. So approaches to help ensure efficient and sustainable aquaculture farming (e.g. towards reducing farm costs and energy use, and ensuring supply) will clearly help the industry to expand to feed future populations.

Pollution events that reduce the quality of the water within an aquaculture farm, both from humans and naturally occurring, can significantly impact aquaculture farms. These events can cause the loss of stock (ie shellfish have to be disposed of), harvesting to stop (causing a loss in supply to the customer), illness or in extreme cases death (through humans eating contaminated food).

Water quality in and around the aquaculture farms in the UK and Europe are monitored using a series of tests based on collecting water samples and analyzing the flesh of the seafood being farmed. This sampling is carried out by government agencies. Due to financial constraints and complexity of this sampling, it is not possible to take samples everyday and there is a delay between the samples being collected and the results being given to the farmer. The farmers themselves often do not have any way of measuring the water quality within their own farms, so they have to rely on the monitoring provided by the agencies, even if it is sporadic and the results are delayed. Whereas up to date information on water quality would help farmers make decisions about when and how much to harvest. Information about the quality of the water offshore from their farm would help warn farmers of possible future water quality problems within their farm.

There are many approaches that have been developed by scientists to use satellites to provide salmon and trout farmers with information on their local water quality. Scientists have also looked at the links between reduced water quality and changes in the weather conditions. For instance satellites are routinely used for monitoring water quality in and around Salmon farms in Scotland, and simple models that relate environmental conditions like rainfall and sunlight to reduced water quality have been developed for the south west UK. These approaches and tools have yet to be made available to shellfish farms in a way that is simple for farmers to use and exploit.

This project will extend the approaches developed for Salmon farmers to be specific for shellfish farmers. It will develop and extend existing methods for using satellites for studying water quality in offshore and coastal farms. It will also extend and develop simple tools that shellfish farmers can use to predict short-term variations in water quality, based on their local weather conditions and forecasts. A simple method to provide this information in a timely manner through regular 'news bulletins' to farmers using text messages and emails will also be tested. Importantly, all of this work will be carried out in conjunction with shellfish farmers, allowing them to provide feedback on the project and ensure that the results are highly relevant to their needs.

Technical Summary

This proposal will develop satellite Earth observation (EO) and simple modelling tools for monitoring and forecasting water quality for shellfish aquaculture. The tools developed will be tailored to help farmers monitor, and work with, EU and UK water quality regulatory requirements and to help manage water quality related risk. This project will i) extend the range of harmful algal bloom (HAB) species that can be optically discriminated using satellite data; ii) exploit the fusion of EO and meteorological data to enable warning of increased microbiological contaminants due to sewage discharges and storm overflows; and iii) develop a shellfish-specific water quality bulletin service. We will future proof our approaches by ensuring the developed methods can be exploited by the advanced capabilities of satellite sensors soon to be launched within the long term monitoring EU Copernicus programme. The project will be closely informed by consultation with the shellfish industry through partner case studies.

This proposal addresses Priority 4: Tools, methods and technologies: for risk-based management of farms, and monitoring for HABs; and Priority 1: Mechanisms of disease spread: to indicate increased risk of human pathogens (E. coli, norovirus) infecting farmed shellfish.
The objectives are tackled through five workpackages:
WP1: Stakeholder engagement - to ensure the project is informed by the shellfish industry.
WP2: Harmful algal bloom (HAB) early warning. An EO HAB classifier will be extended to discriminate further species that can impact shellfish farm water quality.
WP3: Microbiological hazard early warning: Meteorological and EO data will be exploited for water assessment and short term forecasting.
WP4: Preparing for new Earth observation sensors. We will ensure that the methods developed can fully exploit improved capabilities.
WP5: Advanced aquaculture bulletins. The novel methods will be brought together to pilot a shellfish monitoring service.

Planned Impact

The initial non-academic beneficiaries will be the aquaculture companies involved with the project (Westcountry Mussels and Loch Fyne Oysters). Other shellfish companies and customers in the wider region will benefit in the longer-term through the approaches and methods developed within this pilot project being made available. Knowledge and new technology resulting from this project will be of use to the wider shellfish and food production industries and other aquaculture farms across the UK and Europe, who will benefit from the procedural and technological outcomes of this project. The advances made by the project will underpin a possible future operational service for advanced water quality bulletins for the wider shellfish industry. Benefits to wider society would occur through improved water quality monitoring, leading to improved shellfish food safety and increased customer confidence; and by addressing an issue of relevance to food security.

ShellEye will also feed into policy and environmental management for sustainable aquaculture, through government agencies such as Defra, the UK Environment Agency and the Marine Management Organisation and Marine Scotland, whilst also informing the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) targets for Good Environmental Status.

Further beneficiaries include: the Agri-Food and Bioscience Institute (AFBI), contributing to their knowledge on food safety, animal health and environment in relation to aquaculture; the Food Standards Agency, by the project providing advances in the monitoring of shellfish issues to improve national capability in food safety, and the Association of Inshore Fisheries and Conservation Authorities, to help ensure healthy seas, sustainable fisheries and a prosperous industry.

Impact activities will be fast-tracked due to the existing strong connections of the partners PML, SAMS and Cefas with the shellfish industry and wider aquaculture research. Beneficiaries will be engaged through these existing links and new targeted contact via tailored project outputs. For example, all relevant shellfish companies in the southwest England will be invited to the final meeting; and we hope to reach a large proportion of the Scottish and UK industry through promotion at key industry conferences and through newletters of the Shellfish Association of GB. A project website will highlight the progress of the project, and allow interaction and registration of interests, to build a database of potential service users for meeting invitations and promotion.

Further impact deliverables will include: a 3-minute video for funders, policymakers and non-specialists; a project leaflet; three newsletters; three media releases; and a tailored final report.

The impact plan will be evaluated through continuous monitoring, and feedback sought proactively from stakeholders at several milestones in the project and continuously via a website comments form. The experienced and qualified PML Communications group includes a science broadcaster, a Postgraduate Diploma in Science Communication, and a specialist webmaster. Approximately 5% of the project budget has been allocated to these impact activities.
 
Title BBSRC/NERC short film about ShellEye project: "What can satellite data do for aquaculture' 
Description The media teams from ShellEye's funders, BBSRC & NERC, joined a ShellEye fieldwork trip to film ShellEye activities for a short video. The video team joined a sampling trip off the south coast of Cornwall, with ShellEye scientists from the Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) and Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML). Following this the team returned to PML to shoot footage of the satellite processing that will form an integral part of the bulletin service. The video was published on 12 Sep. 2016. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact The film has so far received 1,146 views, with publicity circulated on Twitter. 
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XsPqugslGjk
 
Title ShellEye Banner 
Description Project banner to promote ShellEye and increase visibility and profile at conferences and events 
Type Of Art Artefact (including digital) 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact Used at the ASSG conference, was successful in drawing people to the exhibition stand to request more information. 
 
Description The ShellEye project has brought together several types of satellite remote sensing data and numerical models to improve the monitoring and forecasting of water quality parameters relevant to shellfish environmental risks. The satellite data include ocean colour data for discriminating the likely species of certain dense harmful algal blooms, high-resolution (10m) optical data for observing riverine sediment plumes in which pollutants would be carried, and sea-surface temperature that can affect the probability of a toxic algal bloom and E coli. We have developed numerical models to predict the presence of biotoxins and E coli in two estuaries in Cornwall in which mussels are farmed, based on satellite-derived products and meteorological forecasts. Encouraging results of the modelling are being prepared for publication. This research has prepared the ground for an expansion of the satellite techniques as we begin processing of ESA's latest OLCI ocean colour sensor, which offers improved resolution to bring the HAB discrimination down to the scale needed by the aquaculture farmers. We have engaged with a wide cross-section of the aquaculture industry during this project, particularly at industry events, and attracted a strong team of stakeholders to guide the second phase of the project.
Exploitation Route We have successfully achieved funding for a second phase of the ShellEye project, in which we will develop this research into innovative pilot trials towards a commercial service. The aims of this second phase are:

1. Domain expansion: to involve pilot aquaculture farms in two additional UK regions, and consultation with the largest salmon farms in Scotland, as a route to wider exploitation of the potential benefits of ShellEye's approach.

2. Enhanced resolution of HAB detection, from 1km to 300m, to improve precision of near-coast and near-farm HAB risk estimation. This will use the latest ocean colour sensor launched on the Sentinel-3 satellite in Feb. 2016.

3. Marine insurance: to address requirements of insurers and their clients, both to encourage a wider take-up of our novel early warning tools to reduce potential finfish losses, and to develop long-term HAB probability maps to assist in insurance risk assessment and site selection.

4. Other types of aquaculture, which will require a customised version of the ShellEye early warning tools: we will test this with our partner who is developing innovative procedures for offshore lobster farming.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism
URL http://www.shelleye.org/News_en
 
Description ShellEye has been producing satellite monitoring and biotoxin forecast bulletins since July 2016 for a stakeholder mussel farm in St Austell Bay to coincide with the 2016 algal bloom season. This has been part of a key test phase to produce and disseminate combined bulletins and receive feedback on their value, applicability and how they can be improved. Feedback has led to the bulletin being developed further to include additional environmental information, such wind speed and direction and sea surface temperature. Plus the images have been more focussed on areas of interest to increase their value to the farmer. Unfortunately the farm was closed for most of the season, due to poor water quality samples, so the farmer was not able to fully utilise the bulletins to test their management potential. However, modelling of biotoxins against sampled data has demonstrated the value of this process as the forecasted values matched the in-situ sampling results to within a week. This has helped to build confidence in the model amongst users and will guide future development.
First Year Of Impact 2016
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink
Impact Types Economic
 
Description Aquaculture Europe conference (Edinburgh, Sep. 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact I presented two talks on: "Satellite-based HAB and water quality monitoring for shellfish farms to support management decisions", focussed on results from the ShellEye and AQUA-USERS projects. Many questions were asked, demonstrating the dissemination of this research to the aquaculture industry and water quality management agencies. The talks were also highlighted in the summary report of the conference sessions, further evidence that the presentations were well understood.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.easonline.org/39-uncategorised/346-aquaculture-europe-2016
 
Description Aquaculture UK conference (Aviemore, May 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact I presented a talk during this aquaculture exhibition: "Satellite-based water quality monitoring for shellfish farms to support management decisions". The talk was focussed on the results from the ShellEye project, and raised several questions from the audience, and discussions afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://web.archive.org/web/20160411192625/http://www.aquacultureuk.com/index.php?c=conference
 
Description Aquaculture workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presenation on harmful algal risk assessment to aquaculture workshop
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Article about ShellEye on BBSRC news pages 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A feature-lenght news article was produced by the BBSRC media team and was published under the food security of their news news section. The aim of this article was to highlight the project and its use of satellites as well as how BBSRC funding is helping to address food security issues in the UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk/news/food-security/2016/160919-pr-satellite-data-early-warning-signals-shellf...
 
Description Article in the Grower Newsletter for the Association of Scottish Shellfish Growers 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Following circulation of the ShellEye press release PML were asked to write a feature article for this publication. The article was targeted at Shellfish growers and introduced how the ShellEye project aims to address water quality monitoring challenges in a new and innovative way.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Article on ShellEye in Phys.org 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An article on ShellEye was published in Phys.org (via BBSRC) explaining the impact of harmful algal blooms and how the project is using satellites to help reduce the negative impact on businesses and the industry. This article was shared 20 times from the phys.org website.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://phys.org/news/2016-09-satellite-aquaculture.html
 
Description Article on ShellEye in Phys.org 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Based on the ShellEye project launch press release, an article was published in Phys.org on what the project plans to achieve. The article was shared 27 times from the Phys.org website.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://phys.org/news/2015-09-satellite-technology-mussel-shellfish.html#nRlv
 
Description Article on ShellEye in Planet Earth 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An article about the aims of the project and its progress in the first year. This was aimed at a general audience to highlight the project and the research being funded by NERC.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.nerc.ac.uk/planetearth/stories/1832/
 
Description Association of Scottish Shellfish Growers conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact ShellEye was represented at the Association of Scottish Shellfish Growers conference in October 2015. The event allowed ShellEye to develop contacts and raise project awareness.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description BBSRC Business article on ShellEye 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact An article on ShellEye featured in BBSRC's Business magazine aiming to highlight the project to potential new partners and end-users.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk/news/food-security/2016/160921-f-what-can-satellite-data-do-for-aquaculture/?...
 
Description Building a working relationship and working with a Shellfish aquaculture company 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Regular discussions and meetings with industry staff (owner and the staff of a Shellfish aquaculture business) to discuss and design how our research project focus can be specific for their industry and business. This includes working with them to design a mooring and sensor setup (that underpins our research, but could be used and maintained in the future by the business) and understanding how to design our predictive water quality monitoring tools so that the business can use them in the future to guide farm management decisions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
URL http://www.shelleye.org
 
Description FISHupdate article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact ShellEye was mentioned as part of an article on funding for Scottish aquaculture research, which instigated a media enquiry and website registrations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
URL http://www.fishupdate.com/5m-for-new-aquaculture-research-projects/
 
Description Feature article in Marine Professional 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Following circulation of the ShellEye press release PML were asked to write a double page feature article for this publication. The article highlighted key challenges with aquaculture water quality monitoring and how remote technologies can be used to help address these challenges. The article introduced the ShellEye project and how it will aim to address these challenges in a new and innovative way.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description ICES/PICES HABs and Climate Change Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at the ICES/PICES HABs and climate change conference in Gothenburg on HAB risk assessment
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description ICHA conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presenation (keynote co-author, oral and poster) to the International Conference on Harmful Algae in Florianopolis
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Oceanology International - Aquaculture conference (London, Mar. 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact I presented a talk in the Aquaculture conference during this large international exhibition: "Satellite-based water quality monitoring for shellfish farms to support management decisions". The talk was focussed on the results from the ShellEye project, and raised several questions from the audience, and discussions afterwards, including an invitation to attend the Association of Scottish Shellfish Growers (ASSG) meeting, and interest from a marine insurance company which led to their involvement in the second phase of ShellEye.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.oceanologyinternational.com/__novadocuments/235488?v=635972612242870000
 
Description Participation in conference - Association of Scottish Shellfish Growers 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Exhibition stand at ASSG conference in Oban. Attended conference with stand (ShellEye banner, leaflets, laptop playing ShellEye film) to raise awareness of ShellEye project and encourage audience to sign-up to participate in the upcoming ShellEye stakeholder webinar, with flyers and through discussing with attendees (mostly shell-fishermen and related industry groups).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.shelleye.org/
 
Description Project launch press release 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact A press release was created to raise awareness of the launch of the ShellEye project. The PR highlighted the aims of the project as well as communication channels with the project for stakeholders (e.g. register for news updates through website). The press release was picked up by various media outlets including Fish Update, Future Agriculture portal, Aquaculture Directory, The Aquaculturists, as well as regional newspapers where the project is focused in the SouthWest, such as the Cornish Guardian and West Briton.

One of ShellEye's active stakeholders also instigated an article that appeared in the Guardian that made reference to PML's support of the UK Shellfish Industry's monitoring of water quality. http://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/2015/oct/30/smart-farm-satellite-controlled-cows-crop-heath-technology-food
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.shelleye.org/News_en?page=2
 
Description Project video 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A short project video (with teasers) was produced by the BBSRC/NERC media team. The aim of the video was to highlight the project to potential end-users whilst also showcasing BBSRC/NERC funded science. The video is hosted on the BBSRC YouTube channel (viewed 1157 times) and can also be found on the ShellEye website / electronic newsletter as well as being shown at a number of industry events and on the 'Big Screen' in Plymouth City Centre.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XsPqugslGjk
 
Description ShellEye Project website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Project website to disseminate project news and event information. Particular focus on showcasing the project to relevant industry / businesses and other stakeholders. Includes facility to subscribe to electronic newsletters to be kept up-to-date with project news.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
URL http://www.shelleye.org/
 
Description ShellEye electronic newsletter 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact First ShellEye electronic newsletter, providing project news and event information as well as useful links to partners and relevant stakeholders. Links to the facility on the project website to sign-up for regular updates.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
 
Description ShellEye leaflet 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Project leaflet providing a concise overview of ShellEye's aims and objectives, partners and how to find out more. Leaflets have been disseminated at relevant events such as the Association of Scottish Shellfish Growers annual conference on the 22-23 October 2015.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
 
Description ShellEye newsletter 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Annual newsletter to update interested parties on the progress of ShellEye and the bulletin service. Most recipients have organically registered their details through the project website and a number of media enquiries have been as a result of the newsletter.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://us10.campaign-archive2.com/?u=0a1f17d91ab0b711be36f6f70&id=1c50c7057b&e=dd5288513d
 
Description Stakeholder feedback survey 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A survey distributed to stakeholders to solicit feedback on the Stakeholder Webinar, perception of the project and progress of the developing bulletins. This has provided valuable information and suggestions directly from shellfishers that has been fed back into future developments.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Stakeholder webinar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact ShellEye hosted a stakeholder webinar to update stakeholders on the project's progress whilst also providing the team with a platform for discussion with end-users. This webinar engaged stakeholders at an early stage and helped provide the ShellEye team with valuable information and feedback on the project and the developing bulletin.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://shelleye.org/getmedia/95789a71-10fe-49ad-b033-10080bfbb1b6/ShellEye_webinar_web2.pdf
 
Description Survey of stakeholders to inform project dissemination techniques and project products 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Survey to gather intelligence on the preferred communication tools and format of products to be used to disseminate water quality bulletins. This information is being used to inform the development of products to ensure they are accessible and useful for the aquaculture industry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Test pilot bulletin distribution 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Test bulletins were sent to a target stakeholders during the 2016 algal bloom season. By working closely with this stakeholder this exercise proved most valuable in helping identify areas for improvement or opportunities for added value before circulating to the wider stakeholder test group.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://shelleye.org/News/First_bulletin_sent_to_targeted_industry_partners
 
Description The Grower progress article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A double-page spread was published in the Association of Scottish Shellfish Growers' (ASSG) quarterly newsletter, The Grower. Copies of the newsletter were also distributed at the ASSG's annual meeting. The aim of the article was to provide a progress report on the project and the development of the bulletin service as well as encourage involvement.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.shelleye.org/getmedia/3190aaa7-3bf9-4f70-b462-b77ad9f1aa81/Grower_2016_October.pdf