GGS - Modelling forces and stresses in gigantic granular systems for coastal engineers

Lead Research Organisation: Imperial College London
Department Name: Earth Science and Engineering

Abstract

The Research Team is based within the Applied Modelling and Computation Group (AMCG) at Imperial in the Department of Earth Science and Engineering. The industrial partners, Sogreah Consultants, and Baird & Associates, are world leaders in Coastal Engineering and have committed considerable financial support. This project exploits the VGW EPSRC project in which numerical models were developed.To meet this century's challenge of extensive and accelerating future coastal change, society will expect coastal engineers to design resilient structures to hold the line against flood and erosion where it is deemed necessary. The first choice construction material and design approach for such structures will often be to use armour layers of massive rocks or concrete units. Currently, designers do not understand the details of how they work, relying heavily on empirical methods. This project will reveal fundamental mechanisms that cause disintegration of these rubble mound coastal structures and breakwaters. With our further enhanced simulation tools we will re-create the construction process, examine inherent heterogeneity, explore unit shapes and their interaction with under-layer rock geometry, examine scale effects, and use vibration and other proxies for wave disturbance, all to study block motion, contact force and stress heterogeneity and risk of concrete unit breakages.The aims are to:(1) Promote a shift in design approach from empirical to scientifically-determined damage and breakage probabilities. This requires modelling the solid geometry together with both the static and transient dynamic stress states within gigantic granular systems of complex-shaped concrete units and rock armour used in coastal structures and breakwaters, during construction, when at rest and as perturbed by external forces. (2) Extend the stress and deformation analysis tools of our world-leading 3D FEMDEM modelling technology that combines the multi-body interaction and motion modelling (i.e. Discrete Element Model, DEM) with the ability to model internal deformation of arbitrary shape (Finite Element Model, FEM) to the point where they can be readily harnessed to deliver a more fundamental understanding of a wide range of environmental and industrial problems.The layers of concrete units and rocks targeted in this coastal research are an extreme case of particulate or granular media intensively studied by physicists, with solid-like behaviour dominating but potentially fluid-like behaviour possible, should they become unravelled in a storm. Scientists have long been able to see stresses in photo-elastically deformed grain pack experiments using any 2D grain shapes, but have had no such property or tool to interrogate our real-world 3D granular systems. This is all about to change following research by the PI and co-workers - the development of a generic 3D computer model based on FEMDEM developed under our VGW EPSRC grant. No other model (presented in the literature) handles multi-body dynamics of complex-shaped deformable particles with greater accuracy, capturing the stress components everywhere in time and space. This project will bring fresh modelling capability to both fundamental science and engineering applications of granular materials. Information about temporal and spatial heterogeneity of stress will become available to underpin the workings at the heart of our currently limited understanding of granular material behaviour that is so vexing the physicists.Applications of numerical models to loading and collapse of silos, mineral and powder processing/handling, avalanching, and geotechnics have all been attempted using DEM. Upgrading DEM to FEMDEM, taking account of deformability, dynamics and the angularity/complexity of particle shape in these multi-body systems will significantly improve simulations, extending applications to unprecedented fields such as biomechanics and nuclear systems, too numerous to list here.

Planned Impact

APPLICATION TO COASTAL STRUCTURES targets broader societal needs in times of increasing storminess, sea level rise, and a drive to exploit marine renewables: (a) to develop next generation numerical tools for structure and wave-structure technologies for coastal engineers - hence this addresses the mission of both Energy and Living With Environmental Change (LWEC) research programmes of EPSRC and (b) to provide Industry and Government with more accurate and robust science to innovate in design, help evaluate flood risk and ensure public confidence in the safety of coastal structures well into the 21st century. Rock and concrete unit armoured coastal structures, and structures to protect tidal energy harnessing lagoons, barrages and offshore wind and wave energy farms will use design methods born out of this project's research on granular solids and from fluid/granular structure numerical methods developed in later research phases. It is estimated that across Europe, the value of yearly coastal construction based on rubble mound methods is in excess of 1 billion Euros with breakwater asset values often exceeding 200m and a long-term annual UK flood defence spend requirement of 1b announce by EA (30.06.09). Dr Latham was heavily involved in the Rock Manual (2007) and has well established links with all key UK (and European) stakeholders in rubble structures. They include Government, Infrastructure and Client Organisations: DEFRA/EA, DTI, Local authorities, Network Rail; Consultants: Halcrow, WS Atkins, Royal Haskoning, High-Point Rendel; Contractors: Royal Boskalis Westminster, Van Oord UK, Nuttal; Materials Suppliers: concrete, aggregates, quarry companies e.g. CEMEX. Working with the world's leading unit designers, this project will position UK researchers at the heart of design innovations. With the international pace of numerical modelling, it is reasonable to suggest that within 5-10 years, coastal engineering research groups will use wave-structure numerical models to show realistic armour unit movement and stresses under simulated design wave climates. This may be expected to transfer into routine design practice, often replacing the need for flume models, within say 10-15 years. At key conferences, it will be possible through presentations and exhibits to engage designers and contractors, through visualisation of simulation results, to demonstrate the consequences of different construction practices that either improve or compromise performance in terms of interlocking, stability and dynamic tensile stress development. THE MODELLING TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH into developing further the FEMDEM software will impact on many researchers (PhD, Postdocs whether academic or industry led) of particle or blocky systems interactions, through the software's ability to tackle complex problems and its accessibility, compared with commercial tools. The range of environmental and industrial sectors to benefit from submodel enhancements to the FEMDEM codes already available on VGW are numerous, especially when taken together with the planned further coupling of solids FEMDEM with AMCG's generic fluids codes, FLUIDITY & ICOM. VGW was conceived with a focus on geoscience and geoengineering, but as the FEMDEM/fluids modelling technology becomes more versatile, the potential sectors for exploitation go much wider and include: resilience to extreme events (flood, avalanche), carbon capture, porous/fractured blocky rock-mass engineering, soil engineering, particulate processing, biomechanics and nuclear engineering. To ensure good engagement and communication, following the success of the VGW launch workshop, we will continue to run modelling technology hands-on workshops, use Encora (new European coastal network and Wiki) to promote a workshop and regular group meetings to link with other European Coastal research groups, publish journal and conference papers and webpages and include media relations, through the IC Press Office.

Publications


10 25 50
Anastasaki E (2016) Numerical test for single concrete armour layer on breakwaters in Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Maritime Engineering
García X (2011) A two-phase adaptive finite element method for solid-fluid coupling in complex geometries in International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids
 
Description We are approaching the end of the research grant period (ends 31 Nov 2014) - more details will be added in the final reporting period.

The numerical simulation technology (based on the combined finite-discrete element method, FEMDEM) developed in this project is unique in that it can simulate multi-body interactions and deformation of any complex shaped bodies or particles. The effort has focused on creating numerical models of breakwater armour layers that have the complex friction and interlocking behaviour of real Gigantic (10-100 tonne armour unit) Granular Systems on breakwaters.
Depending on the density of the packing and the shape of the units and the underlayer roughness, the granular layer systems perform differently to the same energy disturbances.
Two methods of disturbing the layers have been tested. Vibration - like an earthquake disturbance - shows very clearly the different degree of stability of the different designs of armouring the breakwater. However, a more promising method is the 'Wave Proxy' method that uses FEMDEM to combine oscillatory drag, buoyancy and lift forces (oscillations associated with an idealised storm wave action) with the contact and body forces of the solid skeleton.
The heterogeneity and statistical nature of contact forces and internal stresses as well as movements have all been demonstrated in this research by simulating the dynamic response of granular structures. The structures are built and begin with a realistic pseudo-random orientation and quite regular spatial distribution of placed units. If not initially tightly packed, the units can be seen to spead out and form gaps just above the still water line and compact by settlement further downslope.
The GGS project is set ready for a phase with increasing engineering insights, e.g. into how to design better units and armouring systems, now that the software has been parallelised and can execute faster runs.

Updated March 2016:
The Wave Proxy approach indeed proved more than promising.
A follow-up grant (Numerical Breakwater Wave Proxy Tool - NBWPT) funded by EPSRC for one year PtI (Pathway to Impact Acceleration Account managed by Imperial College London) led to a new methodology that combined wave forces in a design storm with the forces controlling the solid interactions. This was presented in Boston at the Intl Conf on Coastal Structures in Sept 2015 and journal papers are in preparation. Of most interest for Coastal companies: Artelia, Baird and CH2MHill, was the hydraulic force history and solids modelling behind the impressive ability to see a movie simulation of the wave by wave movements and velocity vectors for every armour unit out of a 242 unit model section of a breakwater, where the contact forces on each unit can be investigated and concrete breakages predicted.
Long-term funders - Consulting Engineering Company, Baird and Associates have just begun a PhD study Jan 2016, with Ottawa University specifically to perform Hydraulics Laboratory Experiments needed to validate the powerful software tools for modelling breakwaters generated in the GGS project and its NBWPT follow-up. Furthermore, a new Imperial College PhD studentship project funded by EPSRC, to examine use of our new software for designing resilient breakwaters, will run in parallel with the experiments at Ottawa, and will be conducted in AMCG group, to start in September 2016.
It should be noted that many generic tools developed in this project led to the fast parallelised shape packing technologies that are applicable to a wide range of industrial processes and are under exploitation arrangements with Imperial Innovations who will be licencing the DEMPlus software on behalf of the inventors at Imperial.
Exploitation Route The code developments are largely generic. The recently parallelised (faster execution) code and Wave Proxy modelling improved implementations has made this technology very attractive to engineers. As a result, Pathway to Impact follow-up funding was secured from EPSRC. A post-doctoral expert from IH-Cantabria joined Imperial's group in 2015. He calibrated the Wave Proxy Model for design storm waves and shared its impact widely with Coastal Engineers in a specially convened workshop. The large strain plasticity and 3D fracture model developments (this fracture model part was funded independently) make the unique properties of this code of extreme interest to concrete armour unit designers and also manufacturing companies working with particulates - chemical engineers, pharmaceutical companies.
Johnson Matthey Catalysts have funded a CASE EPSRC studentship to model the fragile packed bed system of hollow cylindrical catalyst pellets, using this advanced multi-body software. The simulation methods can be applied to rock-fill and soil materials and to avalanche and rock-fall problems. The possible exploitation by JM is in an advanced state and reaching a final decision in March 2017.

As the project at Imperial is hosted within a group AMCG of computational scientists (55 persons; 30 professionals + 25 PhDs), there are many developments that are currently being funded that involve coupling the solid modelling technologies further developed in this GGS project with advanced multiphase fluids models. These technologies have potential to impact widely in reservoir engineering, hydraulic fracturing, water jet drilling, waste repository safety, rock blasting, rock avalanching into water bodies and many more fields.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Agriculture, Food and Drink,Chemicals,Construction,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Energy,Environment,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology,Retail,Security and Diplomacy,Transport
URL http://solidityproject.com
 
Description Further discussions with coastal engineering companies are ongoing. They wish to carry out internal company evaluation of which important design questions the new technology can help to answer, now that practical simulation run-times of ~ a few days is achievable with the new parallelised code. A further update before final reporting will be included. Note: the findings have prompted the funding of a follow-up Impact Acceleration EPSRC project to help deliver impact. The follow-up project NBWPT, was successful in persuading Canadian company Baird Associates to renew direct industry funding of our collaboration by setting up a PhD in Ottawa to run in parallel with a newly funded EPSRC PhD project in our group (Mr Luis via Estrem) to further develop and use the new software tools at Imperial - See key findings
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Construction,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology
Impact Types Economic
 
Description College Impact Acceleration Account - Internal Scheme
Amount £75,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/K503733/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 01/2015 
End 12/2015
 
Description H2020 SURE Geothermal
Amount £350,000 (GBP)
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 03/2016 
End 02/2020
 
Description Industry CASE Studentship
Amount £85,000 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 07/2013 
End 06/2016
 
Description NERC-RATE Hydroframe
Amount £475,000 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/L000660/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 10/2013 
End 09/2017
 
Description PhD studentship for Mr Lluis Via Estrem
Amount £81,000 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 10/2016 
End 03/2020
 
Title Solidity (new naming has been agreed) 
Description The 3D combined finite - discrete element method (FEMDEM) is a multi-body solids solver for transient dynamic problems. In this project, complex man-made or natural shapes forming a discrete particle are discretised into finite elements. Many advances were made to the code including particle entry into the computational domain with the new deposition code, POSITIT that is linked to Solidity (or with CAD). 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Coastal Engineers are evaluating the new wave proxy FEMDEM method, developed under a one year Acceleration Impact grant from EPSRC and ICL. It is hoped that it will become an alternative or complement to hydraulics testing. The technology is featuring in the ICE Breakwaters Conference "Innovation Spotlight" in Liverpool Sept 2017. A 4 year collaboration has begun with Baird and Ottawa University to validate and make the tools more useful for coastal engineers Catalyst Pellet Manufacturer is funding specific application of it Follow-up funding by EPSRC was secured. Imperial College Innovations and Research Office have performed Due Diligence and licensing of certain features of new software developments (DEMPlus) and Open Source materials are under negotiation . 
URL http://www.solidityproject.com
 
Title VBWPT 
Description The model captures the movement of armour units in a breakwater. Contact forces and stresses associated with every unit can be captured. In follow-up EPSRC project 'NBWPT', the movements associated with storm wave action can be modelled. Further research has been funded to make the software useful to practicing coastal engineeers to supplement and/or replace current empirical methods and physical scale modelling laboratory methods. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Widespread interest by top consulting engineers such as CH2MHILL 
URL HTTP://www.VGeST.net
 
Description Coastal Engineering Industrial Partners 
Organisation Artelia
Country France, French Republic 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Numerical modelling expertise, training
Collaborator Contribution Access to model units, unit moulds, review of research outcomes, review of drafted publications and reports, steering committee activities, hosting meetings in Grenoble France and Ottawa Canada.
Impact Conference Papers Journal Papers Internal Research Report Follow on ICL EPSRC Pathway to Impact; Funding
Start Year 2009
 
Description Coastal Engineering Industrial Partners 
Organisation WF Baird & Associates
Country United States of America 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Numerical modelling expertise, training
Collaborator Contribution Access to model units, unit moulds, review of research outcomes, review of drafted publications and reports, steering committee activities, hosting meetings in Grenoble France and Ottawa Canada.
Impact Conference Papers Journal Papers Internal Research Report Follow on ICL EPSRC Pathway to Impact; Funding
Start Year 2009
 
Description ICL/Baird/UoOttawa/NRCC 
Organisation National Research Council - Ottawa
Country Canada 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Drs Latham and Xiang with new PhD (start Oct 2016) researcher Mr L. Via Estrem conduct further modelling development and code validation to create design tools for Coastal Engineers in a collaboration for a further 4 years.
Collaborator Contribution The team in Canada provide experimental facilities, Baird's consulting expertise in Coastal Structures design, and currently employ a PhD research student Mr S. Douglas. William Baird (CEO of Baird Associates and long time champion of Latham's FEMDEM approach, since support began in 2004) colleague Seth Logan of Baird and research partners at the University of Ottawa (Prof. Ioan Nistor) and the National Research Council of Canada are focusing mainly on hydraulic laboratory testing, flow analysis, flow simulation and are examining all possible applications of the generic tools developed by the Imperial College team.
Impact Invited to present at ICE Breakwaters Conference in Sept 2017, Liverpool UK. Dr Latham will present a multi-authored "Innovation Spotlight" on A PHYSICS-BASED RUBBLE MOUND STABILITY SIMULATOR FOR ARMOUR LAYERS
Start Year 2015
 
Description ICL/Baird/UoOttawa/NRCC 
Organisation University of Ottawa
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Drs Latham and Xiang with new PhD (start Oct 2016) researcher Mr L. Via Estrem conduct further modelling development and code validation to create design tools for Coastal Engineers in a collaboration for a further 4 years.
Collaborator Contribution The team in Canada provide experimental facilities, Baird's consulting expertise in Coastal Structures design, and currently employ a PhD research student Mr S. Douglas. William Baird (CEO of Baird Associates and long time champion of Latham's FEMDEM approach, since support began in 2004) colleague Seth Logan of Baird and research partners at the University of Ottawa (Prof. Ioan Nistor) and the National Research Council of Canada are focusing mainly on hydraulic laboratory testing, flow analysis, flow simulation and are examining all possible applications of the generic tools developed by the Imperial College team.
Impact Invited to present at ICE Breakwaters Conference in Sept 2017, Liverpool UK. Dr Latham will present a multi-authored "Innovation Spotlight" on A PHYSICS-BASED RUBBLE MOUND STABILITY SIMULATOR FOR ARMOUR LAYERS
Start Year 2015
 
Description ICL/Baird/UoOttawa/NRCC 
Organisation WF Baird & Associates
Country United States of America 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Drs Latham and Xiang with new PhD (start Oct 2016) researcher Mr L. Via Estrem conduct further modelling development and code validation to create design tools for Coastal Engineers in a collaboration for a further 4 years.
Collaborator Contribution The team in Canada provide experimental facilities, Baird's consulting expertise in Coastal Structures design, and currently employ a PhD research student Mr S. Douglas. William Baird (CEO of Baird Associates and long time champion of Latham's FEMDEM approach, since support began in 2004) colleague Seth Logan of Baird and research partners at the University of Ottawa (Prof. Ioan Nistor) and the National Research Council of Canada are focusing mainly on hydraulic laboratory testing, flow analysis, flow simulation and are examining all possible applications of the generic tools developed by the Imperial College team.
Impact Invited to present at ICE Breakwaters Conference in Sept 2017, Liverpool UK. Dr Latham will present a multi-authored "Innovation Spotlight" on A PHYSICS-BASED RUBBLE MOUND STABILITY SIMULATOR FOR ARMOUR LAYERS
Start Year 2015
 
Description Imperial College Innovations - DEMplus 
Organisation Imperial Innovations
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We have invented software that Imperial Innovations wishes to exploit through offering appropriate licences. Imperial has written a detailed proposal
Collaborator Contribution Imperial Innovations have performed the background research into markets and liaised in meetings with key interested industry parties, and prepared an offer brochure.
Impact The company most interested in exploiting the current software and helping to fund a future research project with us has been considering how to provide the resources within their company and a decision was due in end Feb and then mid March 2017 but on 16th March 2017 is still awaited.
Start Year 2015
 
Title DEMPlus 
Description Software for complex shape packing was developed 
IP Reference  
Protection Copyrighted (e.g. software)
Year Protection Granted 2016
Licensed No
Impact The licensing terms have been agreed with Imperial Innovations
 
Title open source software licence 
Description VGW, Version 1.0 (now named VGeST - Virtual Geoscience Simulation Tools) VGW was launched on March 30th 2009 with the Lesser General Public Licence LGPL 3.0 applicable to all modules in the Library. The simulation tools designed principally for academia but also for industry use can be accessed through the best known portal for OpenSource projects, "Sourceforge.net". Note in 2014, on Nov 12th there have been over 3600 downloads from all over the world since its launch in 2009. 
IP Reference  
Protection Protection not required
Year Protection Granted
Licensed Yes
Impact The core technology of 3D FEMDEM is now proven to deliver physically realistic results for complex problems. It is a "must have" research tool for US National Laboratories e.g. Los Alamos, and different offshoots of the methodology are now described at DEM conferences. Its wider use is somewhat challenged by the CPU demands which mean interesting real world and industry problems are often held back by impractically long run times, so a focus on parallelisation has resulted. Having now parallelised our code there is a strong case that use of the code first developed under the VGW project will find users beyond our current funders who are mainly Coastal Engineers, Oil, Gas and Nuclear Waste Repository Engineers and Catalyst Manufacturers, as well as a host of academic scientists around the world
 
Title DEMPlus software 
Description The software is a complex shape packing simulator with input and output analysis options that makes calls to the opensource software 'Solidity' invented by the team starting with the VGW project and continuing with GGS. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact Outputs not yet established as awaiting decision from key industry company. 
 
Title Solidity 
Description The 3D combined finite - discrete element method (FEMDEM) is a multi-body solids solver for transient dynamic problems. In this project, complex man-made or natural shapes forming a discrete particle are discretised into finite elements. Many advances were made to the code including particle entry into the computational domain with the new deposition code, POSITIT that is linked to Solidity (or with CAD). 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2014 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact Coastal Engineers are evaluating it for further funding Catalyst Manufacturers are funding application of it EPSRC has supported a follow-on Pathway to Impact project 
URL http://solidityproject.com
 
Description Invited Talk at NGL conference plus return Hosted Visit from SKB 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact After presenting my invited talk in Kalmar NGL Conference, SKB, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company numerical modellers came to Imperial for two-day research exchange visit. We are in discussions regarding research collaboration projects that will be funded.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017
URL http://www.novaoskarshamn.se/documents/nova/documents/nova%20fou/ngl-konferens%202016/j-p%20latham_i...
 
Description Meeting in Ottawa in Dec 2015 to plan collaboration strategy with Baird and Associates 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The meeting discussed our formal collaboration aiming to bring the Imperial College Software into widespread use in Baird and the Coastal Engineering Community at large.
One PhD has begun in Ottawa University to perform the necessary validation experiments - Jan 2016.
One PhD project with selected student, has been funded by EPSRC (quota award) and will be supervised in AMCG ESE department of Imperial College London to begin in Autumn 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Research Strategy Partner Meeting at International Conference on Coastal Engineering, ICCE, Santander 2012 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation workshop facilitator
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact An offline working group meeting was convened by JPL to coordinate an international effort to harness the unfolding potential of the GGS methods presented at the conference paper and poster sessions.

The Conference Venue was perfect to pull together potential collaborators from industry in UK, Canada and France to discuss with academics in Spain, France and Japan future research in coupling fluids models with solids models, that could follow up on this current GGS project.

A responsive mode EPSRC proposal: Fluid-structure modelling for coastal and ocean engineers, >£1m, was submitted in Sept 2012 by JPL, with all the people from that meeting being actively involved plus additional Chinese input. The proposal very narrowly missed selection for funding.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Signing MoU between Wuhan University, China and ICL 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact It was dicussed that a WHU-ICL Research Centre on High Performance Computing and its Application in Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, was to be set up in Wuhan.


Wuhan Research Visitors (Two Associate Professors, 12 months and 6 month stay) have been academic visiors at ICL, working on research and joint publications using modelling methods developed in large part during the GGS project. (One key revised manuscript paper with ten co-authors is currently under review for Geofluids Journal)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Telephone call to Colorado S Mines and Arrangement of Special Session on Coastal Engineering at DEM6 Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The telephone call lead to the Conference Organiser agreeing to my organising a themed session on DEM modelling in Coastal Engineering applications

After all five talks on the Coastal Engineering theme, including my invited Keynote, widespread knowledge of the special challenges to modelling behaviour of coastal structures was imparted to an audience of international specialists in numerical methods especially DEM methods.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013
URL http://csmspace.com/events/dem6/