Structural Metallic Systems For Advanced Gas Turbine Applications

Lead Research Organisation: Swansea University
Department Name: School of Engineering

Abstract

Dwindling resources and climate change are forcing engineering designers to utilise materials and energy supplies withever-greater efficiency. It is argued that cuts in CO2 emissions of between 60-90% must be achieved if irreversibleclimate change is to be avoided.At present, almost all aircraft propulsion and over 1/3 of the UK's total generating capacity rely on gas turbines. Theirflexibility and efficiency compared with the alternatives mean that their use in power generation is predicted todramatically increase for the foreseeable future. Similarly, a substantial growth in air travel is also predicted withpassenger numbers forecast to double or triple by 2050. Achieving drastic reductions in the emissions from gas turbines,without bring national economic activity to a standstill, requires urgent activity on a very wide number of fronts. This isparticularly important for the UK. It has Europe's largest gas turbine industry, second only to the US, including majorengine makers, such as Rolls-Royce, Alstom and Siemens, together with approximately 3,000 companies supplyingalloys, high integrity components, such as discs, blades and shafts, as well as coatings and seals. The industry as awhole employs over 400,000 people and generates 2 billion in exports in the power sector alone.The aim of this programme is to meet this challenge by identifying and developing materials based on refractory metals,such as Mo and Co alloys, while carrying out shorter term research to extend the usefulness of Ni-based alloys. Thework will involve a coordinated programme of materials development and processing, microstructural and defectmodelling, characterisation and prediction of these high temperature materials designed to answer the fundamentalquestions that will enable their potential to be fully realised.To generate a critical mass of researchers, the programme brings together academics from 6 universities with expertise inthe necessary areas, together with Rolls-Royce plc to ensure the research is appropriate and to establish a route forexploitation.The success of the UK high-value engineering sector is an area in which improved public understanding is needed toimprove the perception of metallurgical engineering generally and to engender enthusiasm to encourage more youngpeople into science and engineering. To address this, a significant programme of public engagement has been designedto run alongside this research programme

Publications


10 25 50
Ardi D (2015) Surface topography and the impact on fatigue performance in Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties
 
Description Core research studies based at Swansea University under this first tranche of the EPSRC Strategic Partnership contributed key outcomes to all five technical themes / work packages:
WP1 HP and IP Turbine Blades
WP2 LP Turbine Blades
WP3 HP Turbine and Compressor Discs
WP4 Shafts
WP5 Cross Cutting Materials Research Techniques
Swansea was also active under WP6 Public Engagement, contributing to local outreach events and core initiatives led by the Naked Scientist team.
Supplementary research projects were aligned to the core research through approximately 30 postgraduate PhD/EngD studies.
Swansea research focussed on the mechanical characterisation of novel and established nickel based superalloys, gamma titanium aluminides, novel refractory alloys and advanced steels. Fundamental understanding of deformation mechanisms, fatigue and creep behaviour of all these systems was gathered at temperatures ranging from ambient to 1000 degrees centigrade. Mechanical data were generated to support engineering component design and service lifing methodologies of relevance to a range of sponsoring companies.
Key advances in knowledge were established in the areas of:
1. High temperature corrosion mechanisms in nickel based superalloys
2. Establishment of the Wilshire Equations for the accurate prediction of long term creep behaviour
3. The application of small punch test techniques for the assessment of novel Vision 20 alloys in low volumes
4. Dwell fatigue response in nickel disc alloys
5. Composition and process optimisation of F1E advanced steel
Exploitation Route The design quality mechanical data generated at Swansea University will be employed at Rolls-Royce for the design and lifing of safety critical aero-engine components. As a direct result of the core research, overarching improvements to engine efficiency and the associated reduction in specific fuel consumption (SFC) together with the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions will provide wide ranging environmental and societal benefits.
In particular, as a direct result of Swansea Core Research, the company has recently, successfully demonstrated a novel gamma titanium alumidie alloy for low pressure turbine applications based on characterisation of fatigue and creep characteristics and fatigue crack threshold philosophies.
Novel Vision 20 disc compositions have been down selected and optimised subsequent to mechanical assessments conducted at Swansea. Information to support this iterative materials development has been fed back to Rolls-Royce and Cambridge University in particular.
Mechanical properties and the influence of process parameters have been closely monitored by co-sponsors such as Timet UK and fed back into their alloy optimisation programmes.
Through public dissemination of this research material (International Journal and Conference outputs) the wider engineering community will also benefit from our findings.
The pipeline of highly qualified postgraduate and postdoctoral recruits from the Strategic Partnership into the sponsoring companies, including Rolls-Royce, Timet UK, SMaRT and TWI together with the wider UK engineering sector (AWE, JLR, MIRA etc) is one of the most significant outcomes from this scheme.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Education,Energy,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Transport
URL http://www.rrepsrcmetals.co.uk/
 
Description The design quality mechanical data generated at Swansea University has been employed at Rolls-Royce for the design and lifing of safety critical aero-engine components. As a direct result of the core research, overarching improvements to engine efficiency and the associated reduction in specific fuel consumption (SFC) together with the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions will improve future engine designs and provide wide ranging environmental and societal benefits. In particular, as a direct result of Swansea Core Research, the company has recently, successfully demonstrated a novel gamma titanium alumidie alloy for low pressure turbine applications based on characterisation of fatigue and creep characteristics and fatigue crack threshold philosophies. Novel Vision 20 disc compositions have been down selected and optimised subsequent to mechanical assessments conducted at Swansea. Information to support this iterative materials development has been fed back to Rolls-Royce and Cambridge University in particular. Mechanical properties and the influence of process parameters have been closely monitored by co-sponsors such as Timet UK and fed back into their alloy development and optimisation programmes. Recent additions to their portfolio include novel fan disc and containment alloys, developed with the aid of Strategic Partnership Core research and associated PhD/EngD outputs. Through public dissemination of this research material (International Journal and Conference outputs) the wider engineering community will also benefit from our findings. The pipeline of highly qualified postgraduate and postdoctoral recruits from the Strategic Partnership into the sponsoring companies, including Rolls-Royce, Timet UK, SMaRT and TWI together with the wider UK engineering sector (AWE, JLR, MIRA etc) is one of the most significant outcomes from this scheme.
First Year Of Impact 2009
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Education,Energy,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology
Impact Types Societal,Economic
 
Description ATI SAMULET II WP11
Amount £425,000 (GBP)
Organisation Government of the UK 
Department Innovate UK
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 01/2015 
End 12/2016
 
Description ATI SILOET II WP17
Amount £475,000 (GBP)
Organisation Government of the UK 
Department Innovate UK
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 01/2014 
End 06/2016
 
Description DevTMF
Amount € 732,000 (EUR)
Funding ID 686600 
Organisation European Commission (EC) 
Department Horizon 2020
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 02/2016 
End 01/2020
 
Description SAMULET I WP1
Amount £290,000 (GBP)
Organisation Technology Strategy Board (TSB) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 12/2009 
End 11/2011
 
Description SILOET I WP2
Amount £175,000 (GBP)
Organisation Rolls Royce Group Plc 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 04/2010 
End 12/2011
 
Description SILOET I WP4
Amount £360,000 (GBP)
Organisation Technology Strategy Board (TSB) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 06/2010 
End 12/2013
 
Description SILOET I WP7
Amount £350,000 (GBP)
Organisation Technology Strategy Board (TSB) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 06/2010 
End 03/2013
 
Description SILOET II WP6
Amount £450,000 (GBP)
Organisation Government of the UK 
Department Innovate UK
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 06/2013 
End 09/2015
 
Description SILOET II WP8
Amount £250,000 (GBP)
Organisation Government of the UK 
Department Innovate UK
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 04/2013 
End 05/2015
 
Description Birmingham University (Strategic Partnership) 
Organisation University of Birmingham
Department School of Metallurgy and Materials
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Swansea University is a fellow partner to the EPSRC Rolls-Royce Strategic Partnership in Structural Metals for Gas Turbines. Partnership research at Swansea focusses on the mechanical characterisation of established, advanced and novel structural materials.
Collaborator Contribution Birmingham University Materials Department contributes world leading research into TiAl development, oxidation resistance and dwell fatigue crack growth as part of our combined activities under the Strategic Partnership. Student and staff exchanges are encouraged together with sharing of unique technical facilities.
Impact joint publications have resulted from the Swansea-Birmingham collaborations.
 
Description Cambridge University (Strategic Partnership) 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Department Department of Materials Science
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Swansea University is a fellow partner to the EPSRC Rolls-Royce Strategic Partnership in Structural Metals for Gas Turbines. Partnership research at Swansea focusses on the mechanical characterisation of established, advanced and novel structural materials.
Collaborator Contribution Cambridge University Materials Department contributes world leading research into alloy development and fundamental deformation mechanisms as part of our combined activities under the Strategic Partnership. Student and staff exchanges are encouraged together with sharing of unique technical facilities.
Impact Numerous joint publications have resulted from the Swansea-Cambridge Strategic Partnership collaborations.
Start Year 2009
 
Description Cranfield University (Strategic Partnership) 
Organisation Cranfield University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Swansea University is a core partner to the EPSRC Rolls-Royce Strategic Partnership in Structural Metals for Gas Turbines. Partnership research at Swansea focusses on the mechanical characterisation of established, advanced and novel structural materials.
Collaborator Contribution Cranfield University (under the direction of Prof J Nicholls) contributes world leading research into oxidation and high temperature corrosion mechanisms as part of our combined activities under the Strategic Partnership. Student and staff exchanges are encouraged together with sharing of unique technical facilities.
Impact Joint publications have resulted from the Swansea-Cranfield collaborations.
Start Year 2009
 
Description Metrology Assessment of Nickel based superalloys 
Organisation University of Huddersfield
Department School of Computing and Engineering
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Supply of bespoke fatigue specimens (UD720 and RR1000) with proprietary peened and as machined surface finish for inspection. Swansea contributed a fundamental understanding of fatigue behaviour, leading to four co-authored publications.
Collaborator Contribution Access to specialist surface profile equipment for the 2D areal characterisation of peened and as machined specimens. Expert consultations from Prof Liam Blunt.
Impact multi-disciplinary research outputs (mechanical properties and metrology), 4 publications.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Standardisation of Small Punch Testing 
Organisation JRC Institute for Energy Petten
Country Netherlands, Kingdom of the 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Round robin testing to contribute towards an international standard
Collaborator Contribution Round robin testing
Impact Multi-discplinary - Nuclear, Aerospace
Start Year 2014
 
Company Name Swansea Materials Research & Testing Ltd 
Description Mechanical testing laboratory incorporated as a wholly owned subsidiary of Swansea University in order to commercialise research conducted within the Institute of Structural Materials. 
Year Established 2009 
Impact SMaRT has been used as an exemplar of knowledge transfer between academia and industry by Swansea University and forms a key project on the new Science and Innovation Bay Campus. SMaRT was instrumental in securing development funds for the SAIBC from Welsh Government and the European Community Bank. SMaRT is one of three major strategic suppliers to Rolls-Royce (Global) for the provision of mechanical testing services.
Website http://www.smart-swansea.com
 
Description 2nd International Workshop on Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact International Conference on Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description CREEP 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact International conference on Creep
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description ECCC 2014 Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation to an international audience in the field of creep
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description EPSRC Strategic Partnership Conference, Swansea 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact 3 day technical workshop to disseminate Core Research and postgraduate research across the EPSRC Strategic Partnership in Structural Metals for Gas Turbines. Delegates from partner universities (Swansea, Cambridge, Birmingham, Sheffield, Imperial College, Cranfield), Industrial sponsors (Rolls-Royce, Timet, TWI, SMaRT, AEC) and funding councils (EPSRC, TSB, MoD etc).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Fatigue Damage in Structural Materials (Conference series, Hyannis, USA) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact International conference held every two years in Hyannis, Massachussetts, USA focussed on fatigue behaviour in advanced structural metals. Draws an audience approaching 200 delegates from academia, industry and defence sectors. Prof Bache has acted as an invited member of the International Scientific Committee for 18 years and held the position of Conference Chairman for three events. This series of meetings is renowned for the vigorous technical debates amongst the International fatigue community, encouraged by the single session format. Papers submitted to this conference are published in the International Journal of Fatigue (impact factor ~ 2) subject to standard review criteria.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity Pre-2006,2006,2008,2010,
URL http://www.fatiguedamageconference.com/
 
Description MaterialsLive - Big Bang Cymru 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact National Science Exhibition
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Rolls-Royce SELETAR / ASTAR visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Fact finding visit to i) Rolls-Royce R&D division in Seletar, Singapore; ii) fan blade manufacturing plant; iii) various university engineering departments; and iv) Advanced Re-manufacturing Research Centre. Purpose of visit was to disseminate the PhD research conducted by Dennise Ardi and establish collaborations. The various Rolls-Royce and public centre research teams offer expertise in surface treatments, peening and residual stress measurement without duplication of Swansea expertise in the field of mechanical characterisation. Training opportunities were also explored.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Royal International Air Tattoo 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact International Air Show
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description SSTT Conference 2012 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact International Conference on Small Scale Test Techniques
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description SSTT Conference 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact International Conference on Small Scale Test Techniques
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description SSTT Conference 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact International Conference on Small Scale Test Techniques
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016