Transforming the use of x-rays in science and society

Lead Research Organisation: University College London
Department Name: Medical Physics and Biomedical Eng

Abstract

This project aims to build a research group to drive a transformation in the use of x-rays in science and society by replacing the mechanism upon which this has been based for over a century, x-ray absorption. X-rays are electromagnetic waves, and are therefore characterized not only by their amplitude, which is changed by absorption, but also by their phase. Pioneering experiments carried out in the nineties at large and expensive facilities called synchrotrons showed that phase effects can solve the main problem of x-ray imaging, low image contrast due to small absorption differences. This both enhances the visibility of all details in an image, and allows the detection of features invisible to conventional x-ray methods. The benefits this could bring to fields as diverse as medicine, biology, material science, etc were immediately understood, but an effective translation into real-world applications failed because it looked like using a synchrotron was necessary to obtain significant image enhancements.Recently, the PI developed a technique (coded-aperture phase contrast imaging) which showed that this is not true. This technique allows achieving advantages comparable to those obtained at synchrotrons with conventional x-ray sources. This makes the above transformation a concrete possibility for the first time.Although a complete transformation will take longer than the five years of the project, we will seed it by running a series of pilot experiments which will:1) explore the potential of the proposed approach and adapt it to applications in a variety of important fields;2) develop new scientific instruments allowing studies which until now were only possible at synchrotrons to be carried out in conventional labs;3) develop new x-ray methods which will allow the investigation of new scientific fields currently inaccessible.The technique invented by the PI will be applied in new areas of medicine, security, material science, and others. In medicine, we will tackle problems such as imaging blood vessels without contrast agents, enabling earlier detection of breast and other cancers and of osteoporosis, and developing new contrast agents to allow physiological studies with x-rays. We will develop strategies to substantially reduce x-ray dose, which would make radiology safer and allow the expansion of screening campaigns. In security, we will improve threat detection and material recognition. In material science, we will develop tools to detect defects in new materials (e.g. composites, the basis of future aerospace and transport industry, currently posing a challenge to existing test tools) and to allow earlier detection of cracks and corrosion in metals and defects in plastics.Phase-based x-ray scanners will be developed to enable microscopic studies of cells and detection of plaques and metal concentration in tissues in a conventional laboratory setting. X-ray phase methods will be combined with other, functional imaging modalities to develop a new generation of small-animal scanners which will be used in biology and drug development.At synchrotrons, we will combine the increased phase sensitivity of the method developed by the PI with other, cutting-edge methods to push the sensitivity of phase techniques further. These methods will be used to study important scientific areas currently inaccessible, e.g. the mechanisms of tumour invasion.The group will disseminate the obtained results both to specialized audiences (through scientific publications and conference presentations) and to the general public (through public engagement activities). We will collaborate with industry to ensure that the outcome of the applied elements of the research programme are taken to the exploitation stage, and therefore that its full impact is realized. The group will become a world-leading team and produce a step change in x-ray science and its application, to the benefit of society as a whole and UK plc in particular.

Planned Impact

Although sometimes overlooked, x-ray imaging is used in almost all fields of science and society. This project will substantially improve all applications of x-ray imaging, and the range of areas where it will have an impact is consequently wide. Medicine: this project will enable earlier detection of life threatening illnesses such as coronary diseases and various types of cancer. In these diseases, earlier diagnosis is of paramount importance, as it can for example make the difference between a cancer that can be cured and one that cannot. However, early diagnosis is important also in non life-threatening diseases (one example we will target is osteoporosis), as treating a disease at an earlier stage can lead to a different evolution of the disease itself, and therefore to improved quality of life, with less need for constant care, etc. The project will create a new type of phase-based x-ray contrast agents, which will enable functional studies (e.g. of angiogenesis) to be performed with x-rays. It will substantially reduce the radiation dose by exploiting the slow decrease of phase effects with increasing x-ray energy, making radiology safer. This will enable extending screening campaigns, with further benefits on the early detection of important diseases. It will provide new tools for treatment planning/delivery/assessment. Beneficiaries include clinicians, who will have access to new diagnostic and therapeutic tools; the NHS, which will be able to reduce costs and provide better healthcare as a result of improved and less invasive diagnostic techniques; the medical industry, through the commercialization of the new technology, and, ultimately and most importantly, the patients. Material science: we will provide test tools for composite materials. These materials are the future workhorse of the aerospace and transport industries and are currently very difficult to test. The aerospace and transport sectors will benefit, but beneficiaries will also include manufacturers of test systems, Governmental bodies and the general public. Another area that we will target is that of early detection of corrosion/porosity/fatigue cracks in a variety of materials. This will be beneficial to various industrial sectors, among which the nuclear sector, the importance of which to a secure supply of energy for the UK will rise over the coming years, which will benefit through improved waste control. In general terms, the development of improved non-destructive testing tools will be of benefit to a variety of industrial products including microchips and other electronic components, pharmaceuticals, etc. It should be noted that better testing tools are also key to reduce the carbon footprint of all products. Biology: we will produce phase-based x-ray scanners which will enable new studies to be performed in conventional laboratories. This includes studies now possible only at synchrotrons. Some areas of cell biology, tissue studies to understand important diseases, etc are just a few examples in which the developed instruments will generate benefit not only to the scientific community, but also to the pharmaceutical industry and thus ultimately to the NHS and the patients. This also includes the development of new small-animal scanners with increased sensitivity. Security: improved threat detection will be available at airports, customs and strategically important premises in general. Authorities, companies manufacturing security scanners and ultimately the general public will benefit. Finally, companies active in the development and commercialization of scientific equipment will benefit from novel instrumentation developed in this project. Not only does this include manufacturers of x-ray sources, detectors, full imaging systems, etc but also companies active in the field of nanofabrication, and in particular microlithography, should the inclusion of coded-aperture or similar devices become common practice in x-ray systems.

Organisations

Publications


10 25 50
Diemoz P (2013) X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging with Nanoradian Angular Resolution in Physical Review Letters
 
Description This is a challenging engineering grant aimed at a) further developing my phase-based x-ray methods and b) identifying and pursuing new areas of application. Generally speaking, the use of phase in x-ray imaging leads to highly increased image quality and improved feature detection - to the extent that details invisible to conventional x-rays can be detected by phase-based methods.

As a means to achieve points a) and b) above, I am establishing a large international collaboration centered on the activities of my group. Substantial collaborations have already been initiated, notably with three synchrotrons (Diamond in UK, the ESRF in France and ELETTRA in Italy). Experiments have been conducted at all these facilities and set-ups based on my method installed at all three synchrotrons. This has already resulted in the development of a new method with 10-100 times more phase sensitivity than those currently available (paper published in Phys. Rev. Lett.).

Additional new collaborations that have been established in the framework of this grant and are already active include:

- Imperial College to look at a) cartilage diseases (M. Marenzana) b) composite materials (P. Robinson) c) scaffolds for regenerative medicine (J. Jones);

- ICH to look at new methods in regenerative medicine (P. De Coppi);

- John Vane Science Centre to study tumour invasion mechanism (L. Jones);

- The Ludwig-Maximillian University in Munich to study dose reduction mechanisms in Radiology (P. Coan); the ESRF (A. Bravin) is also a partner on this activity;

- The University of Oxford on a) the development of new, microbubble-based contrast agents (E. Stride) and b) use of phase methods in monitoring treatment response in small-animal models (B. Vojnovic);

- Diamond, MARS Bioimaging and Pixirad on the use of spectroscopic pixellated detectors for single-shot phase retrieval methods;

- the University of Strathclyde (D. Jaroszynski) on the application of our mehtods with new x-ray sources.

A number of industrial collaborations have also been initiated as well, the details of which are still confidential at this early stages of the project.
Exploitation Route As mentioned above, ultimately we expect the technology to be deployed worldwide in a range of non-academic contexts which will include hospital, clinics, industry, customs, etc Industry has been heavily engaged in our activity since the start of the grant, as a consequence of exploitation routes having been incorporated in the original project plan. In addition to this we regularly present our results to industrial actors worldwide and hold regular meetings/workshops with diverse audiences. Ideally we would like to pursue applications of our technology on the widest possible number of applications, including e.g. medicine, biology, cultural heritage, material science, non-destructive testing, security, etc.
Sectors Energy,Environment,Healthcare,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology,Security and Diplomacy,Transport,Other
URL http://www.medphys.ucl.ac.uk/research/acadradphys/researchactivities/pci.htm
 
Description The technology can be considered to be still in its infancy however there are significant signs it will exploited up in the near future: we received expressions of interest from approximately 10 companies, have signed an agreement with one (for exploitation in NDT/metrology/industrial/security screening) and are about to sign a second one for exploitation in medical imaging. We have deliberately left out pre-clinical applications as we are currently discussing options with two companies, meaning this could soon materialise in the form of a third industrial agreement. For the time being companies have asked to remain confidential but press releases will be issued in due time. Industrial prototypes are currently under construction, and we expect the first ones will be operational by the end of the grant.
First Year Of Impact 2013
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Construction,Electronics,Energy,Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology,Security and Diplomacy,Transport
Impact Types Cultural,Economic
 
Description A UK facility for 4-D and correlative imaging using x-ray nano computed tomography", EPSRC Strategic Equipment Investments
Amount £2,433,200 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 08/2014 
End 07/2017
 
Description Detecting explosives and weapons via high-throughput multi-modal x-ray imaging
Amount £72,892 (GBP)
Funding ID IRC 2013 - 37765-271212 
Organisation Government of the UK 
Department Home Office
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 04/2014 
End 09/2014
 
Description Detecting explosives and weapons via high-throughput multi-modal x-ray imaging - full prototype", IRC-SBRI
Amount £440,364 (GBP)
Organisation Home Office 
Department Home Office Scientific Development Branch
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 02/2015 
End 01/2017
 
Description Evaluation of edge-illumination based CT for commercialization of the method in industrial applications
Amount £21,000 (GBP)
Organisation Nikon 
Sector Private
Country Global
Start 09/2015 
End 02/2016
 
Description Evaluation of edge-illumination based dark-field imaging for commercialization of the method in industrial applications
Amount £49,648 (GBP)
Organisation Nikon 
Sector Private
Country Global
Start 06/2014 
End 06/2015
 
Description Experimental equipment at UCL - X-Ray bundle
Amount £843,989 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 04/2015 
End 03/2016
 
Description Further development of code-aperture x-ray phase contrast imaging for commercialization of the method in industrial applications
Amount £48,145 (GBP)
Organisation Nikon 
Sector Private
Country Global
Start 01/2013 
End 12/2013
 
Description Imaging ultra-small angle x-ray scattering with edge-illumination: exploiting sub-pixel information in medical diagnostics, materials science and security screening, Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowships
Amount € 183,455 (EUR)
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 07/2015 
End 06/2017
 
Description Investigating the potential of edge-illumination based x-ray phase contrast imaging in the field of angiography (CASE award industrial component)
Amount £23,167 (GBP)
Organisation Siemens Corporate Research 
Sector Private
Country United States of America
Start 10/2014 
End 09/2018
 
Description Investigating the potential of edge-illumination based x-ray phase contrast imaging in the field of angiography (CASE award)
Amount £69,524 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 10/2014 
End 09/2018
 
Description Laboratory-Based Coded Aperture X-ray Phase Contrast Imaging
Amount £85,000 (GBP)
Organisation European Commission (EC) 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 06/2013 
End 05/2017
 
Description Maximizing sensitivity and resolution in edge illumination - based X-ray phase-contrast imaging methods
Amount £85,000 (GBP)
Organisation European Commission (EC) 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 06/2013 
End 05/2017
 
Description Three-dimensional quantitative x-ray phase imaging
Amount £229,086 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/L001381/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 07/2013 
End 06/2015
 
Description Towards a clinical translation of x-ray phase contrast imaging to angiography
Amount £20,415 (GBP)
Funding ID pFACT 48939 
Organisation University College London (UCL) 
Department UCL Business (UCLB)
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 12/2014 
End 07/2015
 
Description Translation of quantitative 2D coded aperture phase contrast imaging from the synchrotron to the preclinical laboratory
Amount $10,000 (CAD)
Organisation Burroughs Wellcome Fund 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States of America
Start 06/2014 
End 11/2014
 
Title 1D ptychography 
Description NB the above <type of research tool or method> does not really apply as it seems to be tailored to medical/biological research only. Ptychography is a new phase based method that can yield nanometric resolution without requiring lenses. It does though require very long exposure times and very high x-ray doses, and only enables scanning very small objects. We have developed a method in which sacrificing the nanometric resolution along one direction (but maintaining it in the other) removes all the above limitations. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Still very early days: the first paper was only published a few months ago (Jul 2014) and analysis of some data is still underway; however there are plans to expand the use of this at Diamond, and the Swiss Light Source has already expressed an interest in implementing it. 
 
Title Coded-aperture x-ray phase contrast imaging 
Description NB the above <type of research tool or method> does not really apply as it seems to be tailored to medical/biological research only. This is the adaptation of the edge-illumination principle to laboratory sources (through masks) and the first ever phase contrast imaging method working with fully incoherent sources. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2012 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Systems based on this principle are under design and construction at the Universities of Houston and Saskatchewan and at the NDA. Two large companies are evaluating it with the aim of exploiting it commercially. 
 
Title Edge-Illumination X-Ray Phase Contrast Imaging 
Description NB the above <type of research tool or method> does not really apply as it seems to be tailored to medical/biological research only. Edge-Illumination X-Ray Phase Contrast Imaging is a new synchrotron-based x-ray imaging method that provides phase sensitivity one order of magnitude higher than any other existing method (see Diemoz et al PRL 2013 in publication list). As such it opens the way to applications which were previously inaccessible. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2012 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The ESRF, Diamond and Elettra are using the method and developments are underway to make it more widely available to their user community. A first contact has been made with DESY in Hamburg to have a first trial run also at that synchrotron, and discussions are underway with the Canadian light source, the APS and other synchrotrons. 
 
Title beam-tracking based tri-modal x-ray imaging 
Description NB the above &lt;type of research tool or method&gt; does not really apply as it seems to be tailored to medical/biological research only. This provides phase contrast, absorption and dark-field images with a single scan of the sample through the beam. It is at the moment available only at Diamond as a planar imaging method, but we are currently a) expanding it to CT and b) looking at its possible implementation at other facilities. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact It is still early but we expect this could find widespread use as well as be translatable for use with conventional sources. 
 
Title incoherent x-ray dark field imaging 
Description This is a new dark field imaging method working with incoherent sample illumination, which was previously considered impossible as the dark field signal was considered in itself a "decoherence" effect (in this sense, this developments has more profound physics implications). It reveals details on the imaged sample on a scale much smaller than the pixel size of the detector used to acquire the images. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This is now used by Nikon and at the basis of our new agreement with them. We have also started a collaboration with the Elettra synchrotron on this and an experiment is scheduled for Dec 2014. 
 
Title laboratory-based x-ray phase contrast microscopy 
Description NB the above <type of research tool or method> does not really apply as it seems to be tailored to medical/biological research only. This is the microscopic implementation of the coded-aperture method which allows fully quantitative hard x-ray phase contrast imaging 1 micron resolution with conventional laboratory equipment. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact A prototype is under designed at should be installed at Nikon Core Technologies in 2015. 
 
Title calculation of effective energy in phase imaging 
Description Effective energy has been used for ages in e.g. conventional absorption based CT. While developing our phase retrieval approaches we have realised that in phase imaging the concept is radically different, and have developed a model to explain this (Olivo & Munro PRA 2013). 
Type Of Material Data handling & control 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Despite this being a recent achievement, it is now used by the University of Houston and we expect that more will follow. 
 
Title extraction of dark field imaging signatures from incoherent datasets 
Description This is am algorithm that allows the extraction of dark field imaging signatures from incoherent x-ray datasets. It has two versions - a simplified one that enables an analytical solution but assumes Gaussian scattering distribution, and an iterative one which is more computationally intensive but in which the scattering distribution can have any shape. 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Nikon is currently applying this method to some of their scientific problems - the method is very recent so we expect that more will ensue. 
 
Title incoherent phase retrieval 
Description This is the first time ever in which quantitative phase retrieval can be performed on data acquired with incoherent sources (see Munro et al PNAS 2012). 
Type Of Material Data handling & control 
Year Produced 2012 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Groups in Trieste (Synchrotron and University), Ludwig-MAximillian University Munich, University of Houston, University of Saskatchewan are now using this. 
 
Description CNR - Crystallography Institute 
Organisation National Research Council (CNR)
Country Italy, Italian Republic 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Our collaborator at the CNR Institute of Crystallography is a world-leader in phase reconstruction problems. We have discussed options for a new method and provided datasets on which to test it.
Collaborator Contribution He has helped us develop the theoretical framework for the new method, collaborated in data analysis and co-wrote the paper.
Impact We have published a joint paper on the new method (1D ptychography). While this at the moment is almost purely physics (optics), in the near future we plan to apply the new method to medicine, biology, materials science etc.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Creatv Microtech 
Organisation Creatv MicroTech
Country United States of America 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Creatv Microtech has fabricated most of the masks we have used so far in our edge-illuminaiton approach. I have effectively opened a new line of business for them, since other groups have ordered similar devices since. I have visited them in two occasions and held lectures to explain how we use the masks and why, which culminated in meetings aimed at improving the mask fabrication process. The first iteration has already taken place resulting in masks with less defects and better gold/substrate adhesion; another is imminent which will be aimed at the fabrication of masks with larger areas.
Collaborator Contribution Creatv Microtech has fabricated for free a number of test structures, which we used in several experiments. In one occasions, they have invited me over at their expenses and showed me their facilities, which enabled a much better understanding of the mask fabrication process and especially of what can and cannot be done with the technology. They have also brokered contacts with the FDA (wit which the terms of a collaboration are under discussion which, if successful, will result in their endorsement of our technology) and with the Frederick Cancer Institute, again a very valuable contact for future collaborations.
Impact Papers are not particularly relevant in this case although one could argue that most edge-illumination phase contrast papers would not have been possible without Creatv Microtech. One important outcome is the availability of mask-based systems not only in our labs but also at Elettra, Diamond and the ESRF (for what concerns our collaborators), plus other labs worldwide e.g. the Universities of Houston and Saskatchewan and soon the FDA and possibly DESY in Hamburg, Germany; considering that out technology is very young we expect this to keep growing in the near future.
Start Year 2006
 
Description Dexela 
Organisation Dexela
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution I have characterised their detector technology using both conventional sources and synchrotron radiation.
Collaborator Contribution They have: co-funded a PhD studentship, loaned us their detector on several occasions and trained us on its use, came to Elettra with us at their expenses for a synchrotron experiment, provided access to their facilities and laboratories, given us their proprietary tomosynthesis reconstruction software for free.
Impact We have published 2 joint papers plus one is under review; moreover our proof-of-concept tomosynthesis paper was made possible by their software. The results of our characterisation now form part of their commercial strategy - e.g. we have demonstrated record-high DQE and this is a key element. Research is again at the intersection of physics/engineering and medicine.
Start Year 2009
 
Description Diamond 
Organisation DIAMOND Light Source Ltd
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I have been involved in the beamline design phase as a member of the user working group. When the beamtime became operational, I have installed an edge illumination system at beamline I13 and developed two other new phase-based imaging methods which will become available to the user community.
Collaborator Contribution They have provided access to beamtime, sample preparation and other labs, analysis software, computational resources, participated in the data analyse sand in proposal and paper writing.
Impact So far this has resulted in 6 joint publications; moreover a long (6 days) beamtime has recently (Nov 2014) been concluded and analysis of the data is underway, which we expect to lead to more publications. As well as physics and engineering, applications of the new imaging methods have so far included medicine, biology and material science.
Start Year 2008
 
Description EMPA 
Organisation Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology
Country Switzerland, Swiss Confederation 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The group at EMPA we collaborate with is concerned with absorption of water in building materials. They have identified our method as a possible way to detect and dynamically track phenomena of this type. We have explained to them what our technique can and cannot do, and as a result we have submitted a joint application for beamtime at the ESRF; not only was this accepted, but it was selected as one of the highlights of that round of submissions. We are also designing an lab-based experiment to perform measurements also here at UCL.
Collaborator Contribution They have opened up a new area of application for our method which holds great promise, co-written the beamtime application, and provided a range of custom-prepared samples which will serve as the basis for a lab experiment. Research is at the interface between physics/engineering and materials science with applications in construction.
Impact No outputs yet beyond the successful beamtime applications - experiments have been planned but not carried out yet.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Elettra Synchrotron 
Organisation Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste
Country Italy, Italian Republic 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I have installed an edge illumination phase contrast system at beamline 6.1 "SYRMEP" at ELETTRA. This is now available also to other users (e.g. a paper is currently (Nov 2014) in press on Phys. Med. Biol., for the first time without the direct involvement of my group); for the time being on a collaborative basis, in the longer term to all users. ELETTRA is the only beamline in the world where phase contrast mammography is performed in vivo on human patients: plans are currently underway to include edge-illumination in the clinical experimentation for additional phase sensitivity. A large EU grant has recently been submitted as a first step in this direction.
Collaborator Contribution They have provided free beamtime in many occasions, as well as access to support labs, sample preparation, fabrication, bench top CT machines etc. They have participated in the data analysis and writing of the papers.
Impact So far this resulted in 9 joint papers (see publication list), with more in preparation. The collaboration is interdisciplinary as it combines physics, engineering, medicine, biology, material science.
Start Year 2006
 
Description European Synchrotron Radiation Facility 
Organisation European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF)
Country European Union (EU) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I have installed an edge illumination phase contrast system at beam lie ID17 at the ESRF. This is now available also to other users, for the time being on a collaborative basis, in the longer term to all users. This system enabled establishing a new world record in phase sensitivity (1.9 nano radians) which led to a prestigious paper in PRL. This was reported in the ESRF's research highlights for 2013. In addition, we have opened new areas of research e.g. in palaeontology and have currently established a task force for the minimisation of the delivered dose in mammography.
Collaborator Contribution The repeatedly offered in-house research time with full support of the technical and scientific staff, access to analysis and reconstruction software (including remotely from UCL), data storage, access to ancillary instrumentation and to their animal facility. They also participated in the data analysis, paper writing as well as writing of beamtime and grant proposals.
Impact So far, 5 joint papers (see publication list) including in leading journals such as Physical Review Letters and Optics Letters, additional extension of the collaboration network (e.g. with the ESRF detector group and with the Ludwig-Maximillian University of Munich) and recently the submission of a large EU collaborative grant (pending). The collaboration is highly interdisciplinary and combines physics and engineering with medicine, biology, palaeontology, material science and other disciplines.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Great Ormond Street Hospital 
Organisation Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH)
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution This is yet another outstanding problem which our imaging method can solve. Prof. Sebire from GOSH has an interest in imaging stillbirth foetuses, since ascertaining the cause of death is of mandatory importance but many parents object to post-mortems. The only imaging method that could (partly) satisfy this need is high-res MRI but this is very expensive and acquisition times are very long if sufficiently high resolution has to be reached. In a preliminary proof-of-concept experiment I have demonstrated that phase-contrast x-ray imaging could solve this problem.
Collaborator Contribution They have significantly contributed to the design of the experiment, to writing the proposal to get access to beamtime at the ESRF (we obtained proof of concept at a synchrotron and the nest step will be lab-based translation), have travelled to Grenoble at their own expenses to participate in the experiment and are currently helping with the data analysis.
Impact Again a recent addition to our range of collaborations so no outputs yet, but a paper is in preparation and we are laying down plans for future (lab-based) developments of the research - which is again interdisciplinary (physics/engineering and medicine).
Start Year 2014
 
Description Heriot Watt University 
Organisation Heriot-Watt University
Department School of Engineering & Physical Sciences
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provided new methods to test their samples
Collaborator Contribution provided samples and indications on what to look for/help with data interpretation
Impact evidence of effective new way to test devices produced by collaborator - will build on these achievement in the near future
Start Year 2015
 
Description Imperial College Bioeng 
Organisation Imperial College London (ICL)
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The main interest of the team at Imperial was to visualise early signs of damage in murine cartilage to develop new treatment strategies for osteoarthritis. We provided a means to do this through our phase-based x-ray imaging methods, first at synchrotrons then with conventional sources.
Collaborator Contribution They provided all the murine samples, led the image analysis and contributed to the writing of the articles.
Impact We have published 4 joint papers and won a joint research grant. Clearly interdisciplinary - physics/engineering meets biology.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Imperial college - composites centre 
Organisation Imperial College London (ICL)
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I have used our imaging methods to detect faint defects and blemishes in composite materials
Collaborator Contribution They have provided samples and participates in the data analysis
Impact So far we have only presented results at conferences but published no joint papers yet - it is an area we are planning to expand in the near future. Interdisciplinary as it encompasses physics, engineering and material science - with applications in transport.
Start Year 2009
 
Description Imperial college - materials 
Organisation Imperial College London (ICL)
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I have proposed and discussed the use of our innovative imaging methods for applications in biomaterials and new scaffolds for regenerative medicine.
Collaborator Contribution They have provided descriptions of the samples they will need imaged and will provide the samples in the near future
Impact We have secured funding for joint PhD student who has just started - she will receive a significantly interdisciplinary (physics, engineering, medicine, materials) training. No other impact yet.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Institute of Child Health 
Organisation University College London (UCL)
Department UCL Institute of Child Health
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research of the group we collaborate with focuses on stem cell-based regenerative medicine. I have started to solve one of their key problems which is the visualisation of scaffold repopulation processes post cell implantation, as well as structure of the scaffolds themselves (they use very peculiar scaffolds obtained from decellularized animal or cadaveric tissue).
Collaborator Contribution They have provided a large number of extremely valuable, refined and unique samples for both our synchrotron and lab-based experiments, plus key data interpretation as this is a completely new area for us. They have contributed to the data analysis and paper writing.
Impact This is a very recent collaboration however one paper is currently under review with a high impact factor journal (Journal of Hepatology, IF 10.4) and two more are in preparation. The collaboration is exquisitely interdisciplinary - physics, engineering and imaging science meet medicine and biology.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Kyoto University 
Organisation University of Kyoto
Department Graduate School of Informatics
Country Japan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Integrated our imaging method in their new image reconstruction framework
Collaborator Contribution Development of ad-hoc reconstruction methods for our imaging approaches
Impact Development of new algorithms
Start Year 2015
 
Description Nikon Japan and Nikon Metrology UK 
Organisation Nikon
Department Nikon UK
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution I have introduced Nikon to our new imaging technology, provided them with access to our labs, explored together new areas of application in metrology and industrial testing. The next steps will be to extend this to new applications and help them with the design of a prototype that will be installed in Japan.
Collaborator Contribution The Nikon team has funded x-ray phase contrast research at UCL in three successive instalments, for the overall total indicated above. A team from Nikon has repeatedly visited us and we have performed a series of experiments together, as well as joint data analysis. They have provided several samples as well as new analysis tools, especially for dark field imaging. They have installed a new x-ray source in our labs and repeatedly given access to their labs in Tring for preliminary tests.
Impact Albeit most of the specific sample-orientated research is unpublished for confidentiality reasons, this research led to the development of the first lab-based hard x-ray phase contrast imaging microscope (See Endrizzi et al 2014 Opt. Lett. paper in outputs, where Nikon appears in the acknowledgments). It led to a new instrument being available in the UCL phase contrast labs which has successfully been used by other communities (e.g. for the development of electrochemical devices, where we have demonstrated detection of dendritic formation in lithium-based batteries - paper in preparation). In this sense this collaboration is interdisciplinary as it covers physics, mathematics of image reconstruction, industrial testing, energy materials, materials for transport (e.g. composites). We have plans to expand this in the area of biology soon.
Start Year 2012
 
Description QMUL 
Organisation Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry
Department Barts Cancer Institute
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I have proposed the use of our new imaging techniques for a) the earlier diagnosis of breast cancer and b) a tool to detect tumour micro-invasion in tissue contrast. I have imaged ~100 tissue specimens with our laboratory setup, and a few tens of tissue constructs with synchrotron radiation (at Diamond).
Collaborator Contribution They have provided hundreds of samples, trained my team on tissue histology and tumour formation, image interpretation, histological confirmation.
Impact We have published 2 papers together and co-written a successful grant application. The research is at the interface between physics/engineering and medicine/biology.
Start Year 2008
 
Description Qinetiq 
Organisation Qinetiq
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution I have proposed the use of our imaging methods as a means to detect damage in composite materials.
Collaborator Contribution They have provided a) composite material samples, including custom-made in which flaws and blemishes were deliberately introduced b) help with data analysis and interpretation.
Impact Research still underway and no dedicated output yet, although an image of one of the Qinetiq samples appeared in a conference proceeding reviewing the overall capabilities of our methods. The research is at the interface between physics/engineering and materials science with application in transport, aeronautics and defense.
Start Year 2010
 
Description Siemens 
Organisation Siemens Corporate Research
Country United States of America 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution I have started to investigate possible uses of our imaging method in healthcare applications. While this will be broader spectrum in the future, the first applications Siemens wants to focus on is angiography.
Collaborator Contribution They have offered a 20k research project (currently being negotiated between Siemens and UCLB, UCL's tech transfer office) and 1/3 of a PhD studentship, plus provided input on the research directions.
Impact Again a relatively new collaboration so no output yet but we have already developed some software which enables studying the optentia of our method in angiography and wrote a joint research proposal. Research is interdisciplinary - physics and engineering applied to medicine.
Start Year 2014
 
Description University of Dundee 
Organisation University of Dundee
Department Dundee Cancer Centre
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Multiple 
PI Contribution I have adapted out imaging method to the imaging of breast tissue samples, trained the radiologist from Dundee on the interpretation of phase contrast images, and provided her with extensive datasets.
Collaborator Contribution She has analysed and blind scored a wide range of breast images obtained with our method, plus conventional images pif the sae specimens for comparison.
Impact We have published 2 joint papers and submitted a joint grant application. The research is at the interface between physics/engineering and medicine.
Start Year 2008
 
Description University of Glasgow 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Department MRC - University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Members of the local team are developing image processing software which is a good match to our x-ray phase contrast images. I have provided them with datasets on which to test their software and helped with the results interpretation and data analysis.
Collaborator Contribution They have used their pattern recognition and image enhancement software on phase contrast images of our objects obtained with our method.
Impact We have published a joint paper. Research is at the interface between physics/engineering and computer science/signal and image processing.
Start Year 2010
 
Description University of Oxford - Bioengineering 
Organisation University of Oxford
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I have proposed a different use of the micro bubble technology they are developing - as a new type of contrast agent for phase-based x-ray imaging.
Collaborator Contribution They have provided the samples, provided access to their facilities for sample characterisation, trained some of our personnel on making and characterising micro bubbles, participated in the experiments (including a synchrotron one at their expense) and in the data analysis.
Impact We have published a joint Applied Physics Letter and have data for what we think will be an even higher IF publication, currently in preparation. We have submitted a joint grant application and are developing plans for the future steps of the collaboration. Research is interdisciplinary as it uses physics and engineering with the purpose of applying then to medicine and biology.
Start Year 2011
 
Description University of Oxford - Radiation Oncology 
Organisation University of Oxford
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The group is interested in imaging methods that could visualise faint localised changes caused by radiation treatment in rodents. I have conducted a pilot experiment and more will follow.
Collaborator Contribution They helped us designing the experiment, have developed dedicated simulation software and written a paper in the subject.
Impact We have published a joint paper and are developing plans to extend the collaboration.
Start Year 2012
 
Description University of Saskatchewan 
Organisation University of Saskatchewan
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I have been invited over to Saskatoon in May 2013 to train the local scientist on our edge-illuminaiton method and give an extended lecture to their students. This has been followed by a visit of Prof. James Montgomery to UCL in Feb 2015, during which we have initiated tests on a new area of medical research - imaging of prostate cancer. Following that I have co-written an application for a Burroughs Wellcome Travel Fellowship with another member of the Saskatoon team - Dr. Mike Wesolowski. This has been successful and, as a result, Dr. Wesolowski is with us as I write (Oct 2014).
Collaborator Contribution The Saskatoon team has created an interest group in edge-illumination phase contrast imaging which is investigating our method with the aim to install it (with our help) a) at the local synchrotron b) in their lab (with a conventional source). They have submitted three grant applications to enable this and are waiting to hear on the outcomes. Prof. Montgomery has visited us and brought over (canine) prostate samples of which we have taken preliminary images. These were used as an indication to further optimise our method for prostate imaging, and more scans will be performed later in the year on some of the samples brought by Montgomery (which were fixed). Montgomery is also planning to send more samples should that be unsatisfactory. Moreover Dr. Wesolowski has co-written a successful application for a travel grant and we are using the time while Wesolowski is here to co-develop a new approach sensitive to phase in two directions. Wesolowski is currentlly taking part in the data acquisition and will perform image analysis and co-write the papers once he returns to Saskatoon.
Impact So far the main output is the successful travel grant; however we would expect at least 2 papers, hopefully 3, to follow in the early months of 2015. This collaboration is at the interface between physics and medicine, with elements of engineering and biology.
Start Year 2013
 
Description University of Strathclyde 
Organisation University of Strathclyde
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am developing an edge-illuminaiton system suitable for installation at the laser plasma source available at the University of Strathclyde, and have provided input to their new software framework that incorporates coherent in a Monte Carlo framework.
Collaborator Contribution They have made their source, detectors and beamline available for preliminary experiments aimed at designing a larger experiment which will be performed early in 2015. In that occasion, more access to the above will be provided. They have modified their simulation code to include phase contrast in general and my methods in particular.
Impact So far we have published one joint paper and developed a modification of the FLUKA Monte Carlo code that includes coherence. For the time being the collaboration is focused on physics with some element of engineering but in the longer term (i.e. after edge-illumination becomes an established method at the laser plasma source) this will be used for studies in medicine, biology, material science, etc.
Start Year 2011
 
Description University of Washington in St Louis 
Organisation Columbia University
Department Department of Biomedical Engineering
Country United States of America 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Introduction to our method, datasets to reconstruct, instructions on how to reconstruct them
Collaborator Contribution development of optimised reconstruction methods for our imaging approaches
Impact paper in preparation
Start Year 2014
 
Description University of Western Australia 
Organisation University of Western Australia
Country Australia, Commonwealth of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution A researcher at UWA is a world expert and has a keen interest in phase contrast imaging. We have made data available for him and discussed a number of new applications and opportunities. I have also helped him write a series of grant applications (primarily fellowships) three of which were successful.
Collaborator Contribution He analysed data, provided calculations and software, wrote and co-wrote papers.
Impact We have published 13 joint papers and co-wrote 3 successful fellowship applications, the last one of which is a prestigious Royal Society Research Fellowship which will allow our collaborator to come to work at UCL for 5 years. While the methods developed are typically within the physics/engineering remit, pursued applications so far are in medicine, biology, security, material science etc so the research is interdisciplinary.
Start Year 2012
 
Description pixirad 
Organisation PIXIRAD Imaging Counters
Country Italy, Italian Republic 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution I have incorporated their new detector technology into our imaging system showing it opens new possibilities (e.g. "colour" phase contrast imaging) and boosts the phase sensitivity of our method.
Collaborator Contribution They have repeatedly loaned their detector to us; the first time this happened they also came over to UCL at their expenses to participate in the installation and train us on its use.
Impact Despite this collaboration having only started very recently (contacts started in 2013 but the first experiment was carried out in 2014), we have already published a joint paper and submitted a large EU grant application. The experimental sessions so far have been very fruitful: data analysis is still underway but we would expect it to lead to al least two more publications.
Start Year 2013
 
Title Phase Imaging: method for highly accurate automated geometric alignment of masks and detector 
Description method for automatic alignment of phase-contrast x-ray imaging systems - alignment is one of the main challenges of the approach 
IP Reference WO/2013/011316 
Protection Patent granted
Year Protection Granted 2013
Licensed Yes
Impact prototypes under construction
 
Title Phase Imaging: method to allow quantification of absorption and phase components of the object 
Description method to quantitatively extract phase and absorption from a phase contrast image, including with incoherent sources (previously considered impossible). 
IP Reference WO/2013/011317 
Protection Patent granted
Year Protection Granted 2013
Licensed Yes
Impact prototypes under construction
 
Title X-Ray Imaging - dark field 
Description enables the extraction of "dark field" (or "ultra-small angle scatter") features from an object: these relate to microscopic properties of the sample, smaller than the pixel size. 
IP Reference GB1311091.1 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2013
Licensed Yes
Impact prototypes under construction
 
Title Monte Carlo-based phase contrast imaging simulator 
Description This is a software that can simulate phase contrast images based on a Monte Carlo approach. Although not as rigorous as the Fresnel/Kirchoff diffraction integral approach, it is more flexible, enables the implementation of more complicated imaging system/phantom geometries, and was demonstrated to produce the same results under relaxed coherence conditions. It is not open source as not of straightforward use (yet) but we are prepared to make it available to any group that might require it. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact There are two versions of this software and one (predominantly developed by them) is in use at the University of Oxford. 
 
Title wave-based phase contrast imaging simulator 
Description This is a software that can simulate phase contrast images based on a rigorous Fresnel/Kirchoff diffraction integral approach. It is not open source as not of straightforward use (yet) but we are prepared to make it available to any group that might require it. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2013 
Impact It allows fast and reliable simulation of phase contrast images. Despite to being a recent development, the University of Saskatchewan is using it, and we also use it as a training tool for students at UCL. 
 
Description A comparison between coded-aperture and grating-based x-ray phase contrast methods: why the former are more suited for clinical translation, Dexela/Perkin Elmer London HQs, March 28 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited seminar at Dexela-Perkin Elmer.

This created a strong link with a key industrial player in the field and led to the establishment of a collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description An incoherent implementation of x-ray phase contrast imaging and tomography that maintains high sensitivity at low delivered doses WCMPE Toronto 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Dissemination to wide and multi-faceted audience of our latest results
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Conventional vs. phase-based x-ray imaging: where does the transformative potential of the latter come from, and can we exploit it in clinical applications? Medical Image Computing Summer School (MedICSS 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Series of opportunities from new technologies presented to imaging scieintists of the future
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Detecting explosives and weapons via high-throughput multi-modal x-ray imaging, IRC Showcase, The Royal Institution of Great Britain, London, UK, Sept 23 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This is a scheme aimed at a) making authorities/industry aware of new options in security b) select best option for further funding/promotion.

We have liaised with a number of authorities representative and are looking into actions to take our approaches into the translation stage.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Development of a 2D and 3D coded aperture x-ray phase contrast imaging system, State of the art and future challenges in x-ray computed tomography for mechanical behaviour assessment, Southampton, Jan 26 2012 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact This was one of our early forays into 3D imaging (later significantly expanded) and this was a first contact with the key players in the UK in the area

Put us "on the map" and generated lots of contact and collaboration requests
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description ESRF beamtime review panel 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Member of the review panel for the selection of the approved experiments on the imaging beamlines (ID17 and ID19) . Awarding Body - ESRF, Name of Scheme - ESRF beamtime review panel

This effectively determined which experiments were carried out and which ones weren't on the basis of scientific excellence.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Edge-illumination XPCi: an intrinsically incoherent phase contrast method, Coherent and incoherent x-ray imaging and tomography, EU "COST" Actions, La Sapienza, Rome, Italy, May 14-16 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact This is a EU wide action aimed at streamlining x-ray imaging activities and methods, especially related to phase including in 3D

Our group is becoming a key player in this EU consortium, which is leading to regular invitations at related events and a number of new collaboration opportunities emerging as a consequence.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Edge-illumination phase contrast imaging with conventional x-ray sources: simplified setup, low dose, high stability, acceptable exposure times, FDA Headquarters, Silver Spring, MD, 9 Dec 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited seminar at the Food and Drug Administration Headquarters, Silver Spring, MD, 9 Dec 2013 (with joint FDA/NIH audience).

This is a key activity which led the FDA to think that our phase contrast method is the most likely to reach the clinical stage. It resulted in their desire to experiment with it (which could led to their official endorsement) and plans have been made to make some of our x-ray mask available to them so that they can commence investigations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description How to achieve acceptable dose levels and exposure times in Phase contrast imaging with conventional x-ray sources, Creatv Microtech Headquarters, Potomac, MD, March 20 2013 (with NIH audience) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited seminar at the Creatv Microtech Headquarters, Potomac, MD, with NIH audience.

seminar invited by industrial partner to facilitate identification of future exploitation routes; members of the NIH were invited along to explore the possibility of obtaining NIH funding for a joint US/UK project

It enabled a better understanding of our needs by our industrial partners leading to better products (x-ray masks) which are now being sold also to other groups; the presence of NIH delegates led to the invitation to submit a grant application.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Making the invisible visible - x-ray phase contrast imaging (Oxford) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact invited seminar for graduate and postgraduate students attended by industry
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Member of the review panel for ESRF beamline ID17 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Member of the review panel for ESRF beamline ID17 All ESRF beamlines are regularly assessed by an international expert panel to decide whether their activities should be reduced, maintained or expanded and to collect advice on future scientific directions.. Awarding Body - ESRF, Name of Scheme - Beamline Review Panels

Key decisions on staffing and future scientific directions of beamline ID17 were taken, and related actions then put in practice.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Micro and Macroscopic implementations of edge-illumination x-ray phase contrast imaging for increased phase sensitivity, Visit by Zeiss Delegation, 7 Feb 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Industrial presentation to Zeiss, who has an interest in exploiting our technology for their &quot;XRadia&quot; x-ray microscopy instruments. Both the CEO and the chief engineer of XRadia were present.



It created interest in Zeiss which is now considering implementing our methods in their instruments.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Multi-modal phase-based x-ray imaging: detecting the undetectable, John Adams Institute for Accelerator Science, University of Oxford 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Again an opportunity to engage studnets and a different audience, including laying down plans to combine our imaging methods with new x-ray sources
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Phase contrast imaging and tomography with hard x-rays - prospective applications to various areas including electrochemical devices, STFC Global Challenge Network in Batteries and Electrochemical Energy Devices 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact An opportunity to reach out to a completely different audience hopefully opening new prospectives for application
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Portable x-ray phase contrast tomography (a.k.a. "incoherent approaches to x-ray phase contrast imaging with conventional x-ray sources"), Varenna 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation to difference audience e.g. users of neutron sources to spawn new areas of collaboration
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Removing the roadblocks to clinical translation of x-ray phase contrast imaging using the edge-illumination method, Mini-symposium on "Frontiers in Phase Contrast X-ray imaging for Biomedical Application 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact initial plans for roadmap for translation of x-ray phase contrast imaging
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Seeing invisible things (possibly while in full possession of your mental capacities): x-ray phase-contrast imaging, Kings College London, Centre for Neuroimaging Science, Nov 20 2012 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Invited seminar at the , Centre for Neuroimaging Science,Kings College London, Nov 20 2013.

INvited seminar aimed at establishing new collaborations between the two Institutes

It started a new collaboration expected to bear fruits in the near future
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Seeing invisible things with X-Rays, "Alumnorum Colloquia" series, Department of Physics, University of Trieste 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Directly aimed at inspiring undergrad students at my univerity of origin
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Status and perspectives of edge-illumination x-ray phase contrast imaging, Nikon Metrology UK Headquarters, Tring, Herts 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Aimed at industry only (Nikon UK and Nikon Japan, with executive members present explicitly for this) aimed at laying down joint exploitation plans
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description The UCL X-Ray Phase Contrast Imaging Method: enhanced sensitivity at synchrotrons and easier translation to conventional sources, UCL Centre for Neuroimaging Techniques, Institute of Neurology, 7 Mar 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Invited seminar at the UCL Centre for Neuroimaging Techniques, Institute of Neurology, 7 Mar 2013.

Invited seminar to establish new collaborations between the two Faculties

Discussions were initiated on possible collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description The UCL method for phase contrast imaging with conventional x-ray sources: simplified setup, low dose, high stability, acceptable exposure times, Visit from SIEMENS delegation, UCL, Apr 23 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation to Siemens.

This led Siemens Corporate Research to consider our phase contrast method as the most likely candidate for clinical translation. It led to long term partnership plans, their funding of a proof-of-concept study, co-funding of a PhD studentship and participation in a large EU submission.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Towards the translation of x-ray phase contrast imaging into clinical applications, IPEM 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of new imaging modality to medical physicists with an eye on future clinical use
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Translating edge-illumination based x-ray phase contrast imaging into in vivo clinical applications, Siemens 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Discussion with Industry to develop commercial soultions based around our methods
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015
 
Description Translating edge-illumination based x-ray phase contrast imaging into mammography and other applications, GE 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A presentation to industry to develop joint commercial solutions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Why could the edge-illumination/coded-aperture x-ray phase contrast imaging method allow for an easier translation into medical and other applications?, Faculty of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada, May 9 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Invited seminar at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada, May 2013.

This led the Saskatchewan group to the decision to use our phase contrast method and kickstarted a very promising collaboration which has already led to two of their scientists spending time in our labs, one through a successful joint application for a Wellcome-Burroghs travel grant.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description X-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) for small animal CT based on edge-illumination/coded aperture, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD, Aug 4 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was a talk delivered by one of our key collaborators, Cha-Mei Tang CEO of Creatv Microtech, to a key cancer lab in the US to broker a new collaboration which we expect could be very productive.

New important collaboration created and joint NIH grant application submitted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description X-ray phase contrast imaging - detecting the undetectable, Biological and Soft System Sector, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University Nov 8th 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Invited seminar at the Biological and Soft System Sector, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University Nov 8th 2013.

It led to new collaboration opportunities and a consultancy for a UK company active in the field of security.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013