Structural evolution across multiple time and length scales

Lead Research Organisation: University of Manchester
Department Name: Materials

Abstract

Taken together the imaging Facilities on the Rutherford Campus will be without equal anywhere in the world. The suite of synchrotron X-ray, neutron, laser, electron, lab. X-ray, and NMR imaging available promises an unprecedented opportunity to obtain information about material structure and behaviour. This infrastructure provides an opportunity to undertake science changing experiments. We need to be able to bring together the insights from different instruments to follow structural evolution under realistic environments and timescales to go beyond static 3D images by radically increasing the dimensionality of information available. This project will use many beamlines at Diamond and ISIS, combining them with laser and electron imaging capability on site, but especially exploiting the 3.3M investment by Manchester into a new imaging beamline at Diamond that will complete in Spring 2012.Traditionally a 3D images are reconstructed from hundreds or thousands of 2D images (projections) taken as the object is rotated. This project will:1) Deliver 3D movies of materials behaviour. 2) Move from essentially black and white images to colour images that reveal the elements inside the material and their chemical state which will be really useful for studying fuel cells and batteries.3) Create multidimensional images by combining more than one method (e.g. lasers and x-rays) to create an image. Each method is sensitive to different aspects.4) Establish an In situ Environments Lab and a Tissue Regeneration lab at the Research Complex. The former so that we can study sample behaviour in real time on the beam line; the latter so that we can study the cell growth and regeneration on new biomaterials. A key capability if we are to develop more effective hard (e.g. artificial hip) and soft tissue (artificial cartilage) replacements.These new methods will provide more detail about a very wide range of behaviours, but we will focus our experiments on materials for Energy and Biomaterials. In the area of energy it will enable us to:Recreate the conditions operating inside a hydrogen fuel cell (1000C) to find out how they degrade in operation leading to better fuel cells for cars and other applicationsStudy the charging and discharging of Li batteries to understand better why their performance degrades over their lifetime.Study thermal barriers that protect turbine blades from the aggressive environments inside an aeroengine to develop more efficient engines.Study the sub-surface corrosion of aircraft alloys and nuclear pressure vessels under realistic conditions improving safetyStudy in 3D how oil is removed from the pores in rocks and how we might more efficiently store harmful CO2in rocks.In the area of biomaterials it will enable us to recreate the conditions under which cells attach to new biomaterials and to follow their attachment and regeneration using a combination of imaging methods (laser, electron and x-ray) leading to:Porous hard tissue replacements (bone analogues) made from bio-active glasses with a microstructure to encourage cell attachmentSoft fibrous tissue replacements for skin, cartilage, tendon. These will involve sub-micron fibres arranged in ropes and mats.Of course the benefits of the multi-dimensional imaging we will establish at Harwell will extend much further. It will provide other academics and industry from across the UK with information across time and lengthscales not currently available. This will have a dramatic effect on our capability to follow behaviour during processing and in service.

Planned Impact

The two experimental themes will deliver immediate benefits to our partner companies (see support letters) but also more widely. For example, Rolls-Royce will better understand the relationship between thermal barrier coatings and oxidation at submerged interfaces. For fuel cells, it will provide the first information on anode/cathode/electrolyte triple point development under operating conditions. Similarly, energy companies will receive be able to quantify the behaviour of oil-brine- CO2 mixtures in rock, determining if they are trapped or mobile. To date most 3D imaging of rock is only of the void space alone, or if for fluids at ambient conditions. This proposal will develop an unrivalled capability that can show the arrangement of multiple fluids at typical reservoir conditions - high temperatures and pressures - during displacement with application to improved oil recovery and carbon storage. These play a key role in industrial research programmes at Imperial with over 50 million of funding; innovative new equipment to support this work will be provided by the Imperial PIs. This will enable them to test and develop new strategies to recover oil whilst sequestering CO2. Similarly, working with FE software providers, we will be able to make it easier to input microstructurally faithful porous material models into fluid dynamics models. Our direct measurements will also help to validate and test the CFD models. With regard to nuclear materials it is generally difficult to follow the development of intergranular corrosion. New in situ rigs and the faster frame rates will enable intergranular corrosion to be studied in real time under more realistic conditions. Surgeons, patients and the NHS will benefit as end users when tissue engineering becomes a reality due to the imaging techniques developed in the new facilities. We aim to significantly reduce healthcare costs for hard tissue replacement by allowing: (i) single step operations; (ii) reduced rehabilitation time, (iii) no immunosuppressant drug treatment (and no associated secondary disease treatment). Operations will be faster and fewer revisions required. Patients will benefit from improved quality of life. This is particularly pertinent in the context of the UK's ageing population and will reduce the burden on an overloaded social care system. For translation of the materials to the clinic to become reality, companies must invest in the materials and take them through regulatory approval. The intellectual property generated will be filed as appropriate and licensed to project partners. Medical device companies will benefit as the imaging techniques will allow more rapid technology transfer and regulatory approval of innovative devices. Both the Energy (power generation and fuel efficient transport) and Biomaterials sectors are of critical importance to the UK - both from a societal viewpoint and because of their wealth generation. While this is the focus, many other industrial sectors will benefit from the technical deliverables. Most directly would be the security market. We are working with Rapiscan to exploit colour imaging, for example this would deliver scanners able to distinguish Christmas pudding from security hazards giving both economic and societal benefits. Others would include chemical industry where the colour imaging will offer real benefits and the corrosion protection industry through to archaeological objects, where both constitution and manufacturing methods can be determined. Finally the visualisation lab would establish a gallery helping members of the public, government and industry visitors to better appreciate the science being undertaken. Images can often communicate the benefits of research to a much wider audience than equations and graphs. In addition we will roll out the 3D movies to our EPSRC Public Engagement funded work with the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester in the Nuclear, medical and aerospace areas.

Publications


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Abolghasemi S (2013) Thermal imaging and stress analysis for predicting the behaviour and long-term performance of flare tips in The Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design
Alderson A (2013) Piezomorphic Materials in Macromolecular Materials and Engineering
 
Description The suite of synchrotron X-ray, neutron, laser, electron, laboratory X-ray, and NMR imaging available at the Rutherford campus created an unprecedented opportunity to obtain information about material structure and behaviour. This infrastructure has provided an opportunity to undertake science changing experiments. We have worked to bring together the insights from different instruments to follow structural evolution under realistic environments and timescales to go beyond static 3D images by radically increasing the dimensionality of information available. Traditionally a 3D images are reconstructed from hundreds or thousands of 2D images (projections) taken as the object is rotated. This project has: 1) Delivered 3D movies of materials behaviour. 2) Generated colour images that reveal the elements inside the material and their chemical state which will be really useful for studying fuel cells and batteries. 3) Created multidimensional images by combining more than one method (e.g. lasers and x-rays) to create an image. These new methods will provide more detail about a very wide range of behaviours, but we have focused our experiments on materials for Energy and Biomaterials. In the area of energy we have: Recreated the conditions operating inside a hydrogen fuel cell (1000C) to find out how they degrade in operation leading to better fuel cells for cars and other applications. Studied the charging and discharging of Li batteries to understand better why their performance degrades over their lifetime. Studied thermal barriers that protect turbine blades from the aggressive environments inside an aeroengine to develop more efficient engines. Studied the sub-surface corrosion of aircraft alloys and nuclear pressure vessels under realistic conditions improving safety. Studied in 3D how oil is removed from the pores in rocks and how we might more efficiently store harmful CO2 in rocks. In the area of biomaterials we have recreated the conditions under which cells attach to new biomaterials and to followed their attachment and regeneration using a combination of imaging methods (laser, electron and x-ray) leading to: Porous hard tissue replacements (bone analogues) made from bio-active glasses with a microstructure to encourage cell attachment, soft fibrous tissue replacements for skin, cartilage, tendon.
Exploitation Route The multi-dimensional imaging capability established at Harwell has provided other academics and industry from across the UK with information across time and lengthscales not currently available.
Sectors Energy,Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology
 
Description Multidisciplinary Charactersation Facility
Amount £18,017,381 (GBP)
Funding ID Mancheter RPIF Round 2 
Organisation Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 08/2013 
End 03/2015
 
Description Next generation multidimensional x-ray imaging
Amount £1,219,152 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/M010619/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 01/2015 
End 12/2019
 
Description Structural Evolution across multiple time and length scales
Amount £1,656,509 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/I02249X/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 10/2011 
End 09/2016
 
Description Tomographic Imaging
Amount £469,584 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/J010456/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 02/2012 
End 08/2015
 
Description Tomographic Imaging
Amount £238,693 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/M022498/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 08/2015 
End 08/2020
 
Description BBC Geoscience consultant 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact K. J. Dobson acted as the BBC Geoscience consultant during programme development.

To bring geoscience (and science in general) concepts and demonstrations to populations who normally would not have exposure to these
To excite people about science and encourage them to become more interested in science
PR to build relationships to advance, promote, and benefit the reputation of the Manchester X-Ray Imaging Facility i.e. the Diamond Light Source-University of Manchester collaboration
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Cheltenham Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We were part of the DinoZone and showed how light based technologies were used to examine fossils.Nearly 14,000 visitors came through and many people stopped and said "wow" as they walked in before getting involved.
We made a Lego model of a synchrotron where children (or adults) could insert balls and turn it on so the electron (balls) go round the ring
A game where children rolled ball bearings rolled down a ramp and changed their trajectory using magnets. This simulates how electrons are bent round the ring in a synchrotron. They won a sweet if they can control the ball to hit a target.
We have a video touchscreen kiosk that will run Dristhi Prayog software. This is a "public space ready" interface that allows users to interface with the 3D data generated by X-ray CT and synchrontrons. It has content showing data from fossils and archaeological human remains which have been scanned by X-ray CT
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.cheltenhamfestivals.com/science/science-in-the-square/dinozone/
 
Description Diamond Open Days 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Diamond Open day 2013 "X-ray imaging of functional materials"
Diamond Open day 28-29 March 2014 "X-ray imaging on multiple length scales"
Diamond Open day 14-15 June 2014 "X-ray imaging on multiple length scales"
Diamond Open day 20 Aug 2014 "X-ray imaging on multiple length scales"
The MXIF staff has explained and given demonstrations (to include 3D printing demonstrations) to show how tomography is used to research problems in multiple length scales e.g. from looking inside bioactive implants to looking inside a battery during discharge

The impact from these open days has led to an increase in interest in GSCE science, and to showcase the Manchester X-Ray Imaging Facility to the public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014
 
Description Diamond Podcast, Episode 15: X-ray imaging. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Diamond Podcast, Episode 15: X-ray imaging. With a new imaging beamline, I13, nearly ready to go online we speak to Diamond users about how synchrotron imaging differs from hospital X-ray imaging, how the technique has already been applied at Diamond and what there is to look forward to in the future.

Various podcast were done on scientific subjects to stimulate support for the Manchester X-Ray Imaging Facility and physics in general, showcased the Manchester X-Ray Imaging Facility to the public and created a media buzz around the Manchester X-Ray Imaging Facility.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Diamond Podcast, Episode 23: In situ 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Diamond Podcast, Episode 23: In situ. How and why do we do in situ experiments at Diamond including aero-engine parts and orthopaedic implants:


Various podcast were done on scientific subjects to stimulate support for the Manchester X-Ray Imaging Facility and physics in general, showcased the Manchester X-Ray Imaging Facility to the public and created a media buzz around the Manchester X-Ray Imaging Facility.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Diamond Podcast, Episode 5: Engineering Applications. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Diamond Podcast, Episode 5: Engineering Applications. Synchrotrons are usually used to examine very small samples, but the development of a new beamline opens the door for larger objects such as engineering components. We look at how Diamond will help engineer our future in areas as diverse as aeronautics to dentistry.

Various podcast were done on scientific subjects to stimulate support for the Manchester X-Ray Imaging Facility and physics in general, showcased the Manchester X-Ray Imaging Facility to the public and created a media buzz around the Manchester X-Ray Imaging Facility.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Open day at the Research Complex at Harwell 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Diamond Open day 2013 "X-ray imaging of functional materials"
Diamond Open day 28-29 March 2014 "X-ray imaging on multiple length scales"
Diamond Open day 14-15 June 2014 "X-ray imaging on multiple length scales"
Diamond Open day 20 Aug 2014 "X-ray imaging on multiple length scales"
The MXIF staff explained and gave demonstrations (to include 3D printing demonstrations) to show how tomography is used to research problems in multiple length scales e.g. from looking inside bioactive implants to looking inside a battery during discharge.

The impact from these open days has led to an increase in interest in GSCE science, and to showcase the Manchester X-Ray Imaging Facility to the public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014
 
Description Organised Chaos 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Seven teachers from local primary schools came to meet with researchers to get ideas for communicating science in the class room
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Pi session 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Museum of Science and Industry ran a special weekend event focusing on light based science and technologies. We took several interactive activities for the public to get involved with and learn about how synchrontrons and X-rays are used in material science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Public lecture - The 60th Hatfield Memorial Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Professor Philip Withers gave a public talk for the The 60th Hatfield Memorial Lecture at the University of Sheffield entitled "How things fail - An inside view"

To bring physics (and science in general) concepts and demonstrations to populations who normally would not have exposure to these
To excite people about physics
To encourage people to become more interested in physics
To stimulate support for the Manchester X-Ray Imaging Facility, the University of Manchester and physics in general
To showcase the Manchester X-Ray Imaging Facility, the University of Manchester to the public
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL https://events.shef.ac.uk/event/view/the-60th-hatfield-memorial-lecture-04-12-2012
 
Description Public lecture: Taking x-ray phase contrast imaging into mainstream applications 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Philip Withers gave a public lecture at the Royal Society entitled "Taking x-ray phase contrast imaging into mainstream applications".

To bring physics (and science in general) concepts and demonstrations to populations who normally would not have exposure to these
To excite people about physics and encourage them to become more interested in physics
To showcase the Manchester X-Ray Imaging Facility and the University of Manchester to the public and stimulate support for the Manchester X-Ray Imaging Facility
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL https://royalsociety.org/events/2013/x-ray-phase-contrast/
 
Description Public talk at the Institute of Engineering and Technology 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Peter Lee gave a public talk at the Institute of Engineering and Technology.

To bring physics (and science in general) concepts and demonstrations to populations who normally would not have exposure to these
To excite people about physics and encourage them to become more interested in physics
To stimulate support for the Manchester X-Ray Imaging Facility, the Research Complex at Harwell and the University of Manchester
To showcase the University of Manchester and the Manchester-Diamond collaboration to the public
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Royal Society Satelitte Exhibition 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This exhibit showed how we've used 4D synchrotron X-ray tomography of magma to better understand volcanic eruptions, and of ice crystals, to work out why some ice cream tastes better! This was a repeat of the summer exhibition held outside London as part of Manchester Science Festival, nearly 13, 000 visitors came over the 5 day exhibition
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://royalsociety.org/science-events-and-lectures/science-exhibition-manchester/
 
Description Royal Society Summer Exhibition 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Entitled "4D Science" this exhibit showed how we've used 4D synchrotron X-ray tomography of magma to better understand volcanic eruptions, and of ice crystals, to work out why some ice cream tastes better. 16,000 visitors came to the week long exhibition.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://royalsociety.org/science-events-and-lectures/summer-science-exhibition/exhibits/4d-science/
 
Description STEM Ambassador 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact K. J. Dobson - STEM Ambassador (2010-present). The main purpose of the STEM Ambassadors Programme was to support pupils, teachers and schools by enriching and enhancing the curriculum, thereby encouraging an interest in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematical (STEM) subjects

Dr Kate Dobson, gave numerous talks/demonstrations at various schools telling the students what she did and trying to get them excited about the options available if they study geology (and science more generally). She knows of a couple of students that have then gone on to study geology as a direct response to these activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Science into Drama 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact CBBC factual/entertainment development team and CBBC drama team came to the university and met with 7 academics in materials science. They wanted to know the potential impact of research being done today would have on the world/society in 50 years time.

The CBBC representatives were so inspired by the conversations that they would like to organise a much wider search for new ideas with the region's universities.Discussions are ongoing as to how CBBC can tap into experts from a range of STEM areas who could inspire 8-12 year olds.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Sky News story - "CT Images Reveal 300 Million-Year-Old Cockroach 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Sky News story - "CT Images Reveal 300 Million-Year-Old Cockroach".

To bring a demonstration of computer tomography (and science in general) to populations who normally would not have exposure to these
To excite people about physics and encourage them to become more interested in physics
To showcase the capabilities of the Manchester X-Ray Imaging Facility and the University of Manchester to the public
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://news.sky.com/story/989422/ct-images-reveal-300-million-year-old-cockroach
 
Description Visit to local secondary schools 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 2013 K. J. Dobson visited 3 local secondary schools to speak on volcanology and geology (years 7-13).

Engineering Education Scheme Sept 2014:
Staff from the MXIF have worked with a group of sixth formers to help develop engineering parts to be used during Xray CT scanning in the lab or beamline. The prototype will be built and evaluated/ showcase to a panel of assessors from industry and guests at Diamond Light Source.

School visits
The impact has been to stimulate interest in continuing to study science.

Engineering Education Scheme Sept 2014:
The impact of this activity has given real life applications of science and work experience to A level students and increasing their interest in a science degree.
A level teachers are keen to continue this scheme.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014
 
Description Volcanic and Magmatic Studies Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact K. J. Dobson acted as the secretary (and primary public contact) for the Volcanic and Magmatic Studies Group (2008-2014).

To showcase the Manchester X-Ray Imaging Facility capabilities and the University of Manchester to the public
To bring demonstrations of computer tomography (and science in general) to populations who normally would not have exposure to these
To encourage more geologists to use CT as part of their research, this has led to several joint projects with publications and inclusion in "Pint of Science 2014"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008,2009,2010,2011,2012
URL http://www.pintofscience.com/#!oxford-earth-/c1z4f