Street mobility and accessibility: developing tools for overcoming older people's barriers to walking

Lead Research Organisation: University College London
Department Name: Epidemiology and Public Health

Abstract

Walking (or cycling) around an area helps people to keep physically active in their daily life, reducing the risks of obesity and depression. Streets that are pleasant to walk along also provide opportunities for people to meet and chat with friends and acquaintances. This both enhances the quality of life and is good for health.

Busy roads can deter people from going outside their home to socialise, walk or cycle because of noise or fear of injury. This can also lead to people deciding to avoid making trips, particularly if the alternative to crossing a busy road (e.g. an underpass) increases distances or is considered inaccessible, unsafe or unpleasant. People living on streets with heavy traffic know fewer neighbours and have fewer local friends than people living on streets with less traffic; people with fewer social contacts have worse physical and mental health and die younger. When people do not even try to cross roads because of traffic, they often cannot reach shops, health facilities, services, friends or family easily. This is called community severance (CS).

All these effects are worse in older and other vulnerable groups, for whom mobility and social ties are fundamental to good health. This severance increases social inequalities and exclusion, leading to various economic and social costs. CS probably affects people's physical and mental health and wellbeing too, but this has not been studied very much. Studying health effects of community severance is challenging, as there are no agreed measurement methods that can be used easily and because this is a complex subject, crossing several areas of expertise.

We will first study two residential areas to develop an in-depth understanding and measure of CS. We will ask local residents what is important to them. We will observe what happens in practice when older people try to walk around their neighbourhood. We will consider all this information in the context of the whole area, the levels and composition of road traffic and the way streets connect to each other. We will use the information we collect to develop ways to measure CS in three ways: (i) questions to individuals to assess the effects on them, (ii) how they value these impacts, and (iii) a measuring tool to estimate the extent of community severance due to particular types of roads or road layouts. We will then test these tools in two different residential areas.

The main methods we will use are: community engagement, to explore perceptions and measures of CS and potential solutions; household-based surveys of travel behaviour, social networks, health and wellbeing; computerised surveys to elicit residents' values for severance and mitigation; on-street surveys of travel behaviour; measurement of traffic and road characteristics; space syntax methods, to study how the network of streets affect accessibility and mobility; and analyses integrating these discipline-specific methods. The final stage will be to test the impacts on CS - and thus on mobility and wellbeing - of proposed interventions to reduce CS.

By the end of this project, we will have developed and tested three tools. The first two will be for local government to use, to model and to value levels of CS in their area. The third will be a set of questions that can be asked in surveys to find out whether and how severance affects local people. The survey can then be used by local communities, providing information they can use in discussions with local councillors and staff. The tools can be used by local government to test proposed transport policies, development plans and interventions to assess whether they will affect severance. They can also be used by researchers to find out whether and how CS affects people's mobility, social isolation, and short- and long-term health and wellbeing. The survey can also be used in national surveys so that a more complete picture of this problem is obtained across the UK.

Planned Impact

Beneficiaries will include the public sector, the third sector and, particularly, older members of society. The project will increase understanding of the complex nature of community severance (CS) and its effect on mobility at different ages and degrees of disability, and its impact on independence, wellbeing, social networks, and civic engagement. New tools measuring CS that equate with people's perceptions of ease of movement around their area and how this impacts on their lives will increase understanding of individual mobility behaviour and the relationship between ageing individuals and their social and physical environments. It will enable future work to assess effective interventions to overcome constraints on older people's quality of life, providing a sound evidence base for policy and practice.

It will enable cross-sector policy development and appraisal, allowing the creation of a common language and set of issues that can then be shared between policy makers and community leaders, enabling routine modelling by planners of CS using an evidence-based design and engineering tool validated against user-centred data with particular implications for street design and spatial planning locally, nationally and internationally. Altering the built environment to reduce CS will facilitate mobility and activity and decrease isolation in ageing populations. It will enable an evaluation of how extensive CS is and how it influences perceptions of societal norms, especially where CS is severe, informing design decisions regarding urban restructuring on residents, mobility and wellbeing in complex built environments. This has implications for 'Big Society' policy nationally and social cohesion and mobility at neighbourhood level.

The study will identify 'willingness to pay' to reduce severance and knock-on cross-sector benefits of improved wellbeing and physical and mental health. It will help make the case to the Department of Transport, the Treasury and other bodies for public funding to address CS problems.

Project outputs will include survey tools that can be used nationally (e.g. Health Survey for England), locally (e.g. PLACE surveys), and in studies of older people e.g. English Longitudinal Study of Ageing to assess impacts of severance on long-term health and wellbeing.

Measuring local community severance and its impacts on individuals' wellbeing in a repeatable, validated way will enable local government to assess and mitigate existing severance and model impacts for new proposals, improving quality of life for people living and working in the UK. We intend to ensure the impact is long-lasting by creating tools for end-users, disseminated to organisations in relevant and comprehensible forms. We will also organise a final workshop for senior national policy-makers.

Interventions reducing CS and increasing mobility will help maintain older people's independence, reducing health and social care costs, and facilitate access to local goods, thus enhancing the local economy and improving local social engagement. Broader economic impact will result from increased mobility, since physically active people have better health and cost society less, adding life to years.

Existing research, such as Inclusive Design for Getting Outdoors (I'DGO), focuses on the street and home level, not the broader public realm. I'DGO's design guidance will be complemented by the proposed, validated CS measurement, valuation and survey tools, enabling planning interventions which promote mobility and social cohesion. We will enhance the capabilities of local communities to identify issues and engage effectively with professionals to address problems affecting local wellbeing. We will also strengthen and extend the capabilities of traffic engineers, transport planners, urban designers and others to recognise CS and deal with it effectively, working with local communities.

Publications


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Anciaes P (2015) A57 How do pedestrians react to busy roads? Findings from video surveys in Journal of Transport & Health
Anciaes P (2015) Community Severance: Where Is It Found and at What Cost? in Transport Reviews
Anciaes P (2016) Effectiveness of Changes in Street Layout and Design for Reducing Barriers to Walking in Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board
 
Description We have developed a suite of tools to help local communities, local government staff, national policy-makers, and researchers assess and value community severance, the barrier effect of busy roads on people's mobility, lives, and wellbeing. We have created a toolkit, which can be downloaded for free from our project website at www.ucl.ac.uk/street-mobility/toolkit. Users of the tools can download from that site:
1. the whole toolkit report;
2. brief reports on each of the individual tools (plus an introduction and a summary of what was known and what we found);
3. the valuation tool;
4. the Health and Neighbourhood Mobility Survey questionnaire; and
5. Guides to conducting a survey and to analysing a survey, including a spreadsheet to aid data entry and analysis.

We have published nine working papers:
* about cross-disciplinary research, including different perspectives, languages, facilitators and barriers to working well, using 'community severance' as the exemplar (now submitted as a manuscript to Journal of Transport and Health);
* quantifying community severance;
* valuing community severance economically (required for local government to justify investment);
* definitions of community severance (ending with the area-based definition our research team agreed on;
* developing and testing a pen-and-paper self-completion questionnaire for assessing community severance;
* a review of non-academic literature and resources relating to community severance;
* pedestrians avoid busy roads: evidence from video surveys and bus stop data
* Analysis of the relationships between motorised traffic levels and pedestrian flows in the street network in the Woodberry Down case study area;
* How pedestrians balance safety, walking time, and the utility of crossing the road? A stated preference study; and
* Pedestrians' preferences regarding signalised crossings, footbridges, and underpasses.
Four papers have been accepted by peer reviewed journals, of which three have already been published. another manuscript is under review and a sixth is being prepared.
Presentations at numerous conferences have been uploaded to the project website: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/street-mobility/Publications (Conferences tab).
Each of these papers and presentations is available open access, except for the paper from the Transportation Research Board conference published in TRR which does not allow open access (but is the 'journal' in which conference papers are published).
The space syntax analyses for the London case studies was enlarged into a complex walkability model. We used a similar approach to define our fourth study area, in Birmingham, to validate the findings in London that community severance occurs where high walkability coexists with high traffic volumes.
Exploitation Route The final version of the self-completion questionnaire is now freely available for local communities and local, regional and national government and agencies to assess community severance in areas where there is concern, or to assess potential impacts of road or other planning schemes. We will also seek funding to include these questions in nationally-representative health examination surveys and cohort studies, to assess the links between community severance and health.
The results of the stated preference study is being made available to the Department for Transport, to feed into its WebTAG system for costing and valuing road and other travel schemes.
The tools for assessing pedestrian behaviour and the pedestrian environment have been written up for local authority use, with suggestions for less resource-intensive approaches.
The walkability model developed for London and for Birmingham and use of space syntax for smaller areas will be made available for local government, probably on a consultancy basis because of the complexity of the datasets and computing required.
We are in discussions with researchers (public health, architecture, and transport) in Canada to adapt the toolkit for use in Canada.
We have submitted a small grant bid with colleagues from four Latin American countries to initiate work to develop country-specific versions of the toolkit for Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Construction,Education,Environment,Healthcare,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Government, Democracy and Justice,Transport,Other
URL http://www.ucl.ac.uk/street-mobility
 
Description We have developed a suite of tools to assess and value the impacts of busy roads (community severance) at the individual and area level. We have been working with local communities and with local, regional and national government, feeding back our findings and contributing, where relevant, to current consultations on redevelopment or other urban and/or transport planning. 1. We developed, tested and piloted an individual Health and Neighbourhood Mobility Survey questionnaire for local residents to complete. It has been amended with each iteration; the final version was tested in the fourth of our case studies, and a shortened version was used in a nationally-representative online survey of 2,000 adults in Great Britain. 2. We developed a Stated Preference computer-based questionnaire, which we have used, in conjunction with data from the Health and Neighbourhood Mobility Survey to create a tool to value how important people think community severance is, in financial terms. 3. We conducted PERS audits of the pedestrian environment in all four case study areas. The data have been analysed and fed back to local government staff on how easy it is to walk around an area for adults in general and for those with disabilities that affect mobility. In the fourth case study area, we trialled a less intensive version, as what is feasible in this research project would require too much person-resource in a local authority. 4. We conducted and analysed street video surveys. Again, we are currently studying how this may be made less costly for local authorities. 5. We included the use of space syntax to assess how connected an area is for pedestrians. 6. We developed a walkability model for London that included space syntax methods. This model accounted for 92% of the variability in walking, when compared with pedestrian data for London, provided by Transport for London. Transport for London are now using the model, particularly borough-level models which they are sharing with each borough to help them influence policies to increase active travel, particularly walking. Having discovered that community severance appears to occur where walkability is high in the same places as unusually high traffic volumes, we developed a similar model for Birmingham and used it to select the fourth case study area, as a test of the model. A UK-wide walkability model is currently being prepared for the Department for Transport, to help with planning. Highways England and the Department for Transport are also interested in how they can use the forthcoming valuation tool in planning and policy-making. A community group in Milton Keynes has approached us to use elements of our toolkit but there are no impacts yet.
First Year Of Impact 2016
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Construction,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice,Transport,Other
Impact Types Societal
 
Description Citations in a study by the UK Department of International Development
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Citation in systematic reviews
URL http://r4d.dfid.gov.uk/Output/201023/
 
Description Production of report evaluating solutions to improve Seven Sisters Road. The report was shared with the local council (Hackney). The local council then discussed the contents of the report with other stakeholders, including Transport for London, the developer responsible for a regeneration project around Seven Sisters Road (Berkeleys) and the engineering firm that is designing strategies to improve the road (Atkins)
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
 
Description Redesigning Seven Sisters Road in Woodberry Down
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Report with the main findings of one of the project's case studies (Woodberry Down) sent to practitioners at London Borough of Hackney who previously requested this information
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
 
Description Walkability Analysis for Transport for London and the Greater London Authority feeding down to borough level
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Analysis was carried out looking at the walkability of London as a whole and each borough of London individually. Walkability was examined in relation to other indicators on motorised traffic, travel behaviour and socio-economic indicators. This analysis has informed high level policy and practice within TfL and the GLA. The work has also been presented to London boroughs and the information been made available to them. This is influencing local transport policy and approaches to changing travel behaviour and investment strategies.
 
Description Small grant to attend EU cost action 4-day event to discuss the project with researchers in other interdisciplinary projects
Amount € 745 (EUR)
Organisation European Science Foundation (ESF) 
Department European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST)
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 02/2017 
End 02/2017
 
Description UCL European Institute small grants scheme for UCL staff
Amount £800 (GBP)
Organisation University College London (UCL) 
Department UCL European Institute
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 12/2014 
End 07/2015
 
Title Health & Neighbourhood Mobility Survey 
Description The Health and Neighbourhood Mobility survey is useful for finding out what proportion of local residents have problems from motor traffic, or have other problems walking around the local area. Analysis of information collected through the survey may also reveal health inequalities, such as whether people with mobility impairment are more affected by fast or heavy traffic than other local residents are. Details about how the questionnaire was developed are available on the project website. In brief, we used existing questions where available, validated for other surveys. New questions were tested with local residents in a different area of London by discussing what they thought the questions were asking ('cognitive testing'), then improving the questions, and trying them out ('piloting'). The questionnaire starts by asking about the person responding, including their age group, gender, and how long they have lived at their address. This information means that users can check whether the people who answer the survey are typical of people living in the area. It also allows you to see if different groups (e.g. men and women, or older and younger people) have the same concerns, or are bothered by different things. The questionnaire also includes a few questions about general health, and about disabilities that affect people's mobility. It then asks some specific questions about the effects of busy roads. First there are questions about problems walking around the local area. Next, there are questions about the busiest local road. We have also written a guide to conducting a survey, aimed at community groups, based on the New Economics Foundation's guide for communities on measuring wellbeing; a guide to conducting simple analyses of the data (again, aimed at community groups), and an Excel sheet for data entry and simple anlayses. The questionnaire, the two guides, and the Excel sheet can each be downloaded from the 'Other documents' section of the page. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact An early draft of the questionnaire first used by others as part of the Leverhulme grant reported on previously in ResarchFish. The final version has been made available by free download, launched on 8th March 2017. It is too early for impacts. 
URL http://www.ucl.ac.uk/street-mobility/toolkit
 
Title Participatory Mapping 
Description Participatory mapping is a way to engage groups and individuals in the local community. It can be carried out rapidly, or through a longer and deeper engagement with individuals and groups, in which problems are identified and solutions proposed, and assessed for suitability and relevance. The project uses maps to help people visualise or analyse their local area by focusing on particular issues or questions, allowing people to share their understanding of their environment with others. Start by visiting the area to identify places where people gather (e.g. community centres, shopping centres, religious establishments), and which ones are in the right locations to contact people who live in the area being mapped. In addition, check available online information, for example the Census, to ensure that you are making contact with the different groups living in and using the area. Contact local community groups, housing providers, and religious group and ask about regular meetings, then ask permission to attend some to get familiarity and trust. Consider how to reach under-represented group through their social connections - e.g. a local establishment that they frequent such as a church or a mosque. In addition, consider recruiting 'community champions' who can reach out locally to people who do not attend meetings or are housebound. After these early visits, a programme of community engagement should be carried out, in one or more of these three ways: 1. Rapid appraisal mapping, which involves stopping people in the street and asking them to spend a little time contributing information. The information can be captured on a medium-sized map or an aerial image of the area by asking participants to carry out a short task, such as marking problem spots for crossing the street, or tracing their planned route from home to local facilities. This can also be done in a shopping centre - or even by stopping people near a local traffic node (e.g. near a Tube station). 2. Longer community mapping workshops allow participants to discuss issues more fully. Here you can follow a more detailed process, such as the one depicted in the figure below. The process can involve working in groups, in a discussion over large scale maps or aerial images, printed so people can annotate them. Post-it notes and coloured stickers are recommended to mark places on the map of concern to the group. This process can then be followed up with detailed individual work to investigate areas identified (e.g. by collecting traffic counts, or recording household perceptions) and an additional workshop can be set up to share the results with the group. Online mapping tools can be used to collate and share the information. Such workshops are best held in a place that is familiar to the participants, such as a local library or a community centre. 3. In-depth individual interviews, often with participants in the rapid appraisal mapping exercise or from community groups, can provide deeper insights into issues emerging from the maps and rapid appraisals. These can be part of the later stage of the community mapping project, in which participants share detailed experiences about their area. The use of maps or aerial images allows participants to point to problem spots or to describe different characteristics of their environment, such as informal road crossing points or places where formal crossing provision is inadequate. Once the data are recorded on maps (either online or offline), they can be collated using a Geographical Information System (GIS) and analysed. Qualitative information and descriptions from the interviews can be classified into categories to visualise different issues across the area. This can be done by developing 'codes' - keywords that identify a specific statement or part of an interview. Work is usually needed to code and classify qualitative statements, and then to test how well the coding works when it is used on different interviews or maps. A classification of the findings will then be produced. This can be used to visualise the information on a map, for example by indicating places that had positive comments - and those that had negative comments. Participants can then be asked in more detail about issues they raised concerning road traffic, pedestrian crossing facilities, use of public transport, social networks or neighbourhood boundaries. The resulting map can be used to identify issues that are frequently mentioned by community members. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The tool is freely available on our project website, launched on 8th March 2017. It is too early for there to be any impacts. 
URL http://www.ucl.ac.uk/street-mobility/toolkit
 
Title Street Mobility Toolkit 
Description Most people want to live in pleasant areas that are clean and quiet, and where it is easy to walk or cycle around the neighbourhood. Busy roads can cause problems for people who want to walk along them or to cross them, and also for people living nearby. In addition to noise and air pollution, the main difficulties are caused by: ? the volume, or sometimes the speed, of traffic; ? too few crossings; and ? not enough time to get across. All these can be unpleasant, but they can be more than that too - they can affect people's health and wellbeing. The impacts can be direct, for example from air pollution. They can also be indirect: for example, health can be affected when busy roads separate local residents from goods, services, or other people. This barrier effect is sometimes called 'community severance'. The UCL Street Mobility team has developed this toolkit, offering a suite of research approaches to identify, assess and value this barrier effect or 'community severance'. This toolkit contains tools developed to help local government and local communities assess, and value the costs of, community severance in their area. Knowing what the problem is in more detail helps to make a case for change. The toolkit is divided into eight sections, as follows: Introduction (this section) provides background information about the purpose of this project. It includes a table summarising the various tools for assessing the barrier effects of busy roads and what resources are needed to use for each one. What we know summarises the evidence about what 'community severance' is and how it affects people's lives, including their health and wellbeing. It also includes some references, for anyone who wants to read more about this. All work produced by UCL Street Mobility team members is available to all (open access). Where possible, we have used freely available sources for referencing other people's work, but access to some studies may be restricted. The next five sections explain the tools we have created to help local government and communities measure the effects of busy roads (Participatory mapping, the Health and Neighbourhood Mobility survey, Video surveys, Valuation, and Walkability). The last section describes other, existing tools that we have found useful (Space syntax, Street audits). Which tool (or tools) are selected for use depends on: ? What the users want to find out and/or measure; and ? What resources they have available (time, people, expertise, money). A Table is included in the toolkit to help potential users decide which tool(s) to use. It lists the tools, describes what they are for, and what resources are needed to use them. Each of the tools can be used independently, but can also be used in combination with any of the other tools, and in any order. For example, a community group might use participatory mapping and a street audit. A local authority might start with the Health and Neighbourhood Mobility survey and the valuation tool. A single tool can provide useful information, but using a range of tools will provide a more comprehensive assessment. The tools allow the problem to be broken down into smaller sections that can be dealt with by different people or groups. The toolkit also helps to forge links across sectors and departments. Local community groups and local government staff working together can produce the best information. Certain people, such as children and the elderly, or those with physical or mental health impairments, may be particularly sensitive and vulnerable to the effects of busy roads. Several of the tools contained in this toolkit can be used to identify and assess such inequalities. The tools will generally be used to measure the current barrier effect. However, some of the tools can be used to predict what the effects might be if there are changes. They can contribute to a vision of what streets can be like. They can also be used to monitor or evaluate the effects of interventions. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact It was launched on 8th March 2017, so it is too soon to show any impacts. 
URL http://www.ucl.ac.uk/street-mobility/toolkit
 
Title Video surveys 
Description This involves placing video cameras at particular points to film pedestrian and motor traffic. This is usually done for a 24 hour period or a 15-16 hour period (i.e. daytime). conducting video surveys is not novel, but the way we have analysed the data and the uses to which we have put the data is novel. The information collected from the video survey helps building a more detailed picture of who uses the road, when, and how. Taken together with results from a walkability model, the comparison of the actual pedestrian flows along different roads with what might be expected from the walkability model can give an indication of places that pedestrians avoid. These may indicate where action is needed to improve the conditions for pedestrians and to facilitate more walking for travel in the area. The data collected can also be used to identify particular problems faced by pedestrians at different times of the day, which may be related to variations in the levels or types of motor traffic. Some local authorities will already have cameras in place. Otherwise, there are a number of companies that can place the cameras at agreed locations on an agreed date. Some of these companies will also analyse the data, for a fee. Thought is required regarding where to site the cameras. This includes where each camera should be, and which way it should it face. The more cameras are used, the more information can be obtained. However, more cameras will increase both the cost and the amount of staff time required to view the video footage and analyse the data. The video footage can be used to record a number of items. Each of these will require a separate run-through for every camera: ? Vehicle flow (how many vehicles per hour or per day). ? Vehicle composition (the proportion of private cars; lorries; buses; coaches). ? Pedestrian walking flows (how many pedestrians per hour or per day). ? Pedestrian crossing flows: the number of pedestrians who cross at 'formal' crossings, (such as pedestrian signals, zebra crossings, footbridges, and underpasses) and at 'informal crossings' (which indicates where 'desire lines' are, where people want to cross the road, such as near a bus stop). ? Pedestrian crossing behaviour (where, when, and how people cross the road). ? Waiting times to cross the road. Pedestrian data can be disaggregated by age-group, gender, and disability, if the quality of the video footage is good enough. However, this will increase the time required for the analysis. A number of indicators can also be estimated from the raw data, for example, crossing ratios (the number of people crossing the road as a proportion of people walking along the road), or the number or proportion of people using the pavement who have an encumbrance, such as being in a wheelchair, using a mobility aid, pushing a buggy, or having luggage. The cost of a video survey varies, depending on how much analysis is done in-house or by the company implementing the survey. There is a fixed cost of around £400 for setting up the cameras. Each camera then costs around £35 (for 15-16 hours). Basic analysis of the footage costs £25 per movement recorded (for example vehicles in one flowing on one direction or pedestrians walking in one direction on one pavement). More detailed analysis (for example, of pedestrian crossing behaviours) costs more. These values exclude VAT and were valid in 2015. To make the analysis workload more manageable, the motor and pedestrian traffic counts can be done for parts of the day only, for example, for a 15 minute period during each hour (e.g. from 16 to 30 minutes past each hour), or without disaggregating the direction of the flow. The classification of motor vehicles and pedestrians can also be simplified (for example, vehicles can be counted simply as light or heavy). Vehicle and pedestrian flows can also be counted manually, without using video surveys. Data on the annual average daily vehicle flows in motorways and main roads can be downloaded from the Department for Transport's website. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The final version has been made available by free download, launched on 8th March 2017. It is too early for impacts. 
URL http://www.ucl.ac.uk/street-mobility/toolkit
 
Title Walkability model using space syntax 
Description Walkability models predict how easy it is for people to reach the places they want to walk to. It should be noted that 'walkability' does not measure how pleasant it is to walk these routes, but it is a good indicator of the potential for people to make these journeys on foot. Most walkability models include three factors: • Residential density: how many homes there are in the area, or how many people live in the area; • Land use mix: the variety of destinations available for people to go to, and how many there are; and • Connectivity: this assesses how easy it is to walk between two places in the area. It can use standard distances along pavements and paths, or the number of junctions there are in a standard area ('junction density'). Other models use space syntax to assess this; • Some models also include other factors, such as public transport accessibility. This measures the fact that people are more likely to use public transport and less likely to drive if they are in closer proximity to bus stops or train stations. Walkability models can be used by local government to ensure that the conditions for pedestrians are particularly good (pavement quality, lighting, greenery, etc.) in areas that have high walkability, particularly if budget cuts prevent good conditions everywhere. They can also be used to identify areas of community severance, where the effects of busy roads reduce the likelihood of people walking for local trips. Community severance occurs where areas of high walkability occur in the same place as busy roads. Local government may wish to use walkability models to identify these areas as places to reduce traffic speed or traffic volume, or to improve the number of crossings and the time they allow for pedestrians to cross the road. Two different walkability models for London have been created by members of the Street Mobility and Network Accessibility research team. Both have been validated using data on walking. The walkability model developed by Dr Ashley Dhanani uses a multi-layered approach. It measures land use diversity, taking into account all types of use, including all the floors in a building, as well as intensity of that land use, as well as public transport accessibility and office land use intensity. This means that the model includes a large variety and a high number of potential walking destinations. Street network accessibility is then assessed using space syntax methods. The model represents walkability values as continuously varying, while most models use administrative boundaries for their data and modelling. See image below of whole London walkability model. This model has been proven to predict observed pedestrian demand (based on a large database of measured pedestrian activity across London), accounting for 82% of the difference in walking activity levels between areas. The model has also been produced for Birmingham (see case study below), and is currently being developed for the whole of the UK. The walkability models themselves are not publicly available, but for further information about the models, their applications and access to them please contact ashley.dhanani@ucl.ac.uk. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact See Policy and practice section 
URL http://www.ucl.ac.uk/street-mobility/toolkit
 
Title Redesign of Seven Sisters Road in Woodberry Down 
Description We were invited to meet Transport for London (TfL) to share details of our Street Mobility project, in particular our data from the Woodberry Down case study. We have shared our qualitative findings (interviews conducted by Mapping for Change) about local residents' concerns as well as data from street movement video surveys in the Woodberry Down area, which we have agreed to share with TfL (whose staff are currently considering how Seven Sisters Road, East of Manor Park station, should be modified as part of hte local regeneration / redevelopment plans funded by a housing developer). 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact To be completed later 
 
Description Adaptation of the Street Mobility toolkit for Latin American countries 
Organisation Federal University of Minas Gerais
Country Brazil, Federative Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I contacted some of these collaborators directly. having met them through a British Council Newton Fund Researcher Link workshop I ran or from the LatinAmerican Transport and Health network I have set up, as a branch of the Transport and Health Study Group. I drafted the grant proposal.
Collaborator Contribution Some partners introduced additional collaborators. They assisted with drafting the proposal.
Impact The only output so far is a pump priming grant bid to fund a series of seminars and workshops in Brazil, Colombia and Chile, with the aim of developing a full grant bid.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Adaptation of the Street Mobility toolkit for Latin American countries 
Organisation Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná
Country Brazil, Federative Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I contacted some of these collaborators directly. having met them through a British Council Newton Fund Researcher Link workshop I ran or from the LatinAmerican Transport and Health network I have set up, as a branch of the Transport and Health Study Group. I drafted the grant proposal.
Collaborator Contribution Some partners introduced additional collaborators. They assisted with drafting the proposal.
Impact The only output so far is a pump priming grant bid to fund a series of seminars and workshops in Brazil, Colombia and Chile, with the aim of developing a full grant bid.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Adaptation of the Street Mobility toolkit for Latin American countries 
Organisation Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile
Country Chile, Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I contacted some of these collaborators directly. having met them through a British Council Newton Fund Researcher Link workshop I ran or from the LatinAmerican Transport and Health network I have set up, as a branch of the Transport and Health Study Group. I drafted the grant proposal.
Collaborator Contribution Some partners introduced additional collaborators. They assisted with drafting the proposal.
Impact The only output so far is a pump priming grant bid to fund a series of seminars and workshops in Brazil, Colombia and Chile, with the aim of developing a full grant bid.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Adaptation of the Street Mobility toolkit for Latin American countries 
Organisation San Sebastián University
Country Chile, Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I contacted some of these collaborators directly. having met them through a British Council Newton Fund Researcher Link workshop I ran or from the LatinAmerican Transport and Health network I have set up, as a branch of the Transport and Health Study Group. I drafted the grant proposal.
Collaborator Contribution Some partners introduced additional collaborators. They assisted with drafting the proposal.
Impact The only output so far is a pump priming grant bid to fund a series of seminars and workshops in Brazil, Colombia and Chile, with the aim of developing a full grant bid.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Adaptation of the Street Mobility toolkit for Latin American countries 
Organisation Universidad Diego Portales
Country Chile, Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I contacted some of these collaborators directly. having met them through a British Council Newton Fund Researcher Link workshop I ran or from the LatinAmerican Transport and Health network I have set up, as a branch of the Transport and Health Study Group. I drafted the grant proposal.
Collaborator Contribution Some partners introduced additional collaborators. They assisted with drafting the proposal.
Impact The only output so far is a pump priming grant bid to fund a series of seminars and workshops in Brazil, Colombia and Chile, with the aim of developing a full grant bid.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Adaptation of the Street Mobility toolkit for Latin American countries 
Organisation Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Country Colombia, Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I contacted some of these collaborators directly. having met them through a British Council Newton Fund Researcher Link workshop I ran or from the LatinAmerican Transport and Health network I have set up, as a branch of the Transport and Health Study Group. I drafted the grant proposal.
Collaborator Contribution Some partners introduced additional collaborators. They assisted with drafting the proposal.
Impact The only output so far is a pump priming grant bid to fund a series of seminars and workshops in Brazil, Colombia and Chile, with the aim of developing a full grant bid.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Adaptation of the Street Mobility toolkit for Latin American countries 
Organisation Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia
Country Peru, Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I contacted some of these collaborators directly. having met them through a British Council Newton Fund Researcher Link workshop I ran or from the LatinAmerican Transport and Health network I have set up, as a branch of the Transport and Health Study Group. I drafted the grant proposal.
Collaborator Contribution Some partners introduced additional collaborators. They assisted with drafting the proposal.
Impact The only output so far is a pump priming grant bid to fund a series of seminars and workshops in Brazil, Colombia and Chile, with the aim of developing a full grant bid.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Adaptation of the Street Mobility toolkit for Latin American countries 
Organisation Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil
Country Brazil, Federative Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I contacted some of these collaborators directly. having met them through a British Council Newton Fund Researcher Link workshop I ran or from the LatinAmerican Transport and Health network I have set up, as a branch of the Transport and Health Study Group. I drafted the grant proposal.
Collaborator Contribution Some partners introduced additional collaborators. They assisted with drafting the proposal.
Impact The only output so far is a pump priming grant bid to fund a series of seminars and workshops in Brazil, Colombia and Chile, with the aim of developing a full grant bid.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Adaptation of the Street Mobility toolkit for Latin American countries 
Organisation University of Chile (Universidad de Chile)
Department Department of Electrical Engineering
Country Chile, Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I contacted some of these collaborators directly. having met them through a British Council Newton Fund Researcher Link workshop I ran or from the LatinAmerican Transport and Health network I have set up, as a branch of the Transport and Health Study Group. I drafted the grant proposal.
Collaborator Contribution Some partners introduced additional collaborators. They assisted with drafting the proposal.
Impact The only output so far is a pump priming grant bid to fund a series of seminars and workshops in Brazil, Colombia and Chile, with the aim of developing a full grant bid.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Adaptation of the Street Mobility toolkit for Latin American countries 
Organisation University of La Frontera
Country Chile, Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I contacted some of these collaborators directly. having met them through a British Council Newton Fund Researcher Link workshop I ran or from the LatinAmerican Transport and Health network I have set up, as a branch of the Transport and Health Study Group. I drafted the grant proposal.
Collaborator Contribution Some partners introduced additional collaborators. They assisted with drafting the proposal.
Impact The only output so far is a pump priming grant bid to fund a series of seminars and workshops in Brazil, Colombia and Chile, with the aim of developing a full grant bid.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Adaptation of the Street Mobility toolkit for Latin American countries 
Organisation University of Sao Paulo
Country Brazil, Federative Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I contacted some of these collaborators directly. having met them through a British Council Newton Fund Researcher Link workshop I ran or from the LatinAmerican Transport and Health network I have set up, as a branch of the Transport and Health Study Group. I drafted the grant proposal.
Collaborator Contribution Some partners introduced additional collaborators. They assisted with drafting the proposal.
Impact The only output so far is a pump priming grant bid to fund a series of seminars and workshops in Brazil, Colombia and Chile, with the aim of developing a full grant bid.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Adaptation of the Street Mobility toolkit for Latin American countries 
Organisation University of the Andes Colombia
Country Colombia, Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I contacted some of these collaborators directly. having met them through a British Council Newton Fund Researcher Link workshop I ran or from the LatinAmerican Transport and Health network I have set up, as a branch of the Transport and Health Study Group. I drafted the grant proposal.
Collaborator Contribution Some partners introduced additional collaborators. They assisted with drafting the proposal.
Impact The only output so far is a pump priming grant bid to fund a series of seminars and workshops in Brazil, Colombia and Chile, with the aim of developing a full grant bid.
Start Year 2017
 
Description London walkability analysis for GLA 
Organisation Greater London Authority (GLA)
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Undertaking walkability analyses for the whole of London and for each London borough individually
Collaborator Contribution they provided data, expertise, and time.
Impact Walkability maps for each London borough were provided by TfL to each borough to be used internally for policy formulation and practice. TfL have built an internal online digital platform for use by all TfL staff and this has been included in that.
Start Year 2016
 
Description London walkability analysis for GLA 
Organisation Transport for London
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Undertaking walkability analyses for the whole of London and for each London borough individually
Collaborator Contribution they provided data, expertise, and time.
Impact Walkability maps for each London borough were provided by TfL to each borough to be used internally for policy formulation and practice. TfL have built an internal online digital platform for use by all TfL staff and this has been included in that.
Start Year 2016
 
Description "Community Severance from Major Roads: Can We Measure its Effects on Determinants of Health? Lessons from Finchley Road, London, UK" - 6th International Jerusalem Conference on Health Policy, Jerusalem, Israel 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A presentation was given at a conference attended by around 200 people. The talk elicited questions and debate from the audience, around 50 individuals. The audience comprised mostly national and regional health policy-makers but there were also practitioners and researchers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 1st International Conference on Transport and Health, London: How do pedestrians react to busy roads? Findings from video surveys 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 2nd International Conference on Transport and Health 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presentation given on stated preference survey and monetizing community severance.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214140516300391
 
Description 2nd International Conference on Transport and Health 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation given on findings from community severance survey.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214140516301360
 
Description @StreetMobility Twitter account 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The main purposes of the Twitter account were to increase awareness of community severance and our project, and to drive traffic to our project website. It is impossible for us to monitor the impact as we cannot tell which people registering for our conference (which was heavily advertised on Twitter) or visiting our project website were first alerted or were prompted by seeing a tweet.

A Twitter Reach report on 10th March 2017 showed a total reach of 54,263 and 171,060 impressions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2014,2015,2016,2017
URL https://twitter.com/StreetMobility
 
Description Active Living Research conference 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our contributions at the conference included:
1. A talk about the toolkit we have developed and how we validated it by triangulation in our second case study area.
2. A poster on the Health and Neighbourhood Mobility Survey and some of the findings.
3. A poster about the stated preference survey and how it is being used to develop the valuation tool.
There was interest in using the tool, particularly by members of local community groups, although in general the current tool was felt to be less helpful in the USA because of the major barriers from infrastructure not just the presence of heavy traffic.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.ucl.ac.uk/street-mobility/publications
 
Description Active Living Research conference, Florida, 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact One of the project researchers and I ran a workshop at the ALR conference. Attendees came from a wide range of disciplines and types of organisations. The workshop focused on 'What is community severance (the 'barrier effect' of busy roads)?', and also on its effects on health, wellbeing and inequalities. The format was alternating small group discussion and brief presentations by me. The last part of the workshop was spent with attendees examining copies of our toolkit.

One participant, from the Centers For Disease Control and Prevention, offered to provide examples of training models we can use for disseminating good use of the toolkit.
Another participant, from the National Scientific Research Institute in Canada is intending to work on a grant bid to adapt the tool for use in Canadian cities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.ucl.ac.uk/street-mobility/publications
 
Description Community severance vs social contact presentation at Universities Transport Studies Group Conference 2016 (Bristol) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation given on perceptions of neighbourhood traffic volume and speed in relation to levels of local social contact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description DfT DPTAC Disability working Group meeting 19Jan2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The Disabled Persons' Transport Advisory Committee (DPTAC), a statutory body set up to advise ministers and government on accessibility, functions through a number of working groups. The Evidence and Research Working Group held an afternoon's meeting on research into travel by disabled people in the UK. Twelve invited experts, of whom I was one, each spoke for 5-10 minutes on our relevant research, then discussed with the DPTAC members and civil servants from the Department for Transport what gaps there are in the research and how to make progress. I presented summaries of earlier work on walking speed of older people, and a brief outline of the Street Mobility project and some findings about community severance and difficulties crossing busy roads (for which the slower walking speed of older people is very relevant).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/disabled-persons-transport-advisory-committee
 
Description Engagement with local authority in case study areas 1+2 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Meeting informed our project planning, data sharing, analytic plan and gained us local support

Our results may be used in a local planning consultation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015
 
Description Final conference for SMNA 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact We organised a half-day conference for 150 people, which was oversubscribed.
We interspersed presentations on the problem we were addressing, the toolkit, some of the tools, and some of the findings, with talks from external speakers:
a) two researchers (Glasgow MRC unit and U of Cambridge) about findings of their study of community severance and the new M74)
b) Carol Petrokofsky from Pubic Health England
c) John Miles, from Kilburn Older Voices Exchange (KOVE)
d) Cal shawcross, CBE, London's Deputy Mayor for Transport
e) Lucy Saunders, Public Health consultant at Transport for London and the Greater London Authority
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.ucl.ac.uk/street-mobility/publications
 
Description Follow-up workshop with representatives from Department for Transport, and other practitioners 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Following a previous workshop, members of the project discussed in more detail how can the tools developed by the project to improve methods of economic valuation of transport projects be integrated in methods currently in use by the Department for Transport.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Introducing Street Mobility: Public Health England conference, Warwick, September 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation poster presentation
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Title: Introducing Street Mobility: a cross-disciplinary project developing tools to measure community severance and overcome barriers to walking among older people.
Was displayed at PHE for 2 days.
Conference attended by 1,400 people.

Spoke to ~10 people at the conference; one contacted us afterwards
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://www.phe-events.org.uk/hpa/frontend/reg/tDailyAgendaAlt.csp?pageID=118450&eventID=286&eventID...
 
Description Is community severance a public health problem? Evidence from the Street Mobility project's two London case studies at International Conference on Transport and Health, July 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked discussion and shared preliminary findings, informing analysis plan for main study

Won prize for second highest scoring early career researcher abstract
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description London Assembly inquiry on Transport for London's role to promote Health 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact I was invited to be on a panel of four professionals to answer questions from elected Members of the London Assembly on their Health Committee. This was part of their Inquiry into the role of Transport for London in promoting health and reducing inequalities.
The majority of the afternoon was spent on more general transport and health topics, and about the roles of different organisations and policy options for encouraging active travel. When discussion turned to modelling and valuing health impacts, I introduced them to the Street Mobility and Network Accessibility project, the toolkit we are preparing, and the valuation tool that we are creating.
One of the other panel members (a transport planner / engineer from a commercial company) and one of the London Assembly Members have now been invited to attend our January 2017 workshop to make the draft toolkit as user-friendly, useful, and usable as possible. We will also invite all members of the London Assembly's Health and Transport Committees to the final workshop.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.london.gov.uk/LLDC/ieListDocuments.aspx?CId=304&MId=6100&Ver=4
 
Description Meeting with Transport for London to discuss collaborative analysis results 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The meeting showed the validity of using the modelling tools that have been developed on the research project for predicting walking levels. This allowed the collaboration between the research project and TfL to continue.

The modelling tools were accepted as useful and next steps were pursued in order to utilise them for analysis of walking levels and walkability in London for policy and infrastructural assessments.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description MfC: Engagement with local residents in Finchley Road area 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Understanding of how Finchley Road does (or does not) affect lives of local residents, including maps of their travel patterns and modes.

Information from this first set of discussions informed the content of the second set of workshops and the wording of the questionnaire
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description MfC: Engagement with local residents in Woodberry Down 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Maps of local residents' travel patterns locally and greater understanding of the impact (or not) of Seven Sisters Road on their lives and of other local factors not relevant to our research but of greater concern to them.

Blog written about this
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://streetmobility.wordpress.com/
 
Description Oral presentation given at Sustainable Transport & Health Summit 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Oral presentation entitled "The Street Mobility and Network Accessibility Project:Developing tools to measure and overcome community severance" given at Landor LINKS Sustainable Transport & Health Summit 2017 in Bristol, UK. Sparked questions and discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.landor.co.uk/transporthealth/home.php
 
Description Participation in the EU COST action on Interdisciplinary Research Training School (4-day event with workshops comparing several interdisciplinary projects, including Street Mobility and Network Accessibility)) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A 4-day event with several workshops comparing several interdisciplinary projects across Europe on urban sustainability. A project member presented the methods and findings of the project, which were discussed during the four days in relation to the other projects. The event organisers are going to upload to their website the outputs of the event, posters presenting all the projects discussed (including Street Mobility) and a blog post by a project member.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Pedestrian stated preference presentation at Universities Transport Studies Group Conference 2016 (Bristol) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation on pedestrian stated preference (Estimating preferences for different types of pedestrian crossing facilities)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Poster presentation on "Close residential proximity to busy roads may deter local walking among adults" at Society for Social Medicine 2016 conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presentation, including 3-minute oral presentation, at Society for Social Medicine conference. Questions were asked and the presentation promted discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://socsocmed.org.uk/meetings/annual-scientific-meeting/
 
Description Poster presentation on "Evaluating and establishing national norms for mental wellbeing using the short Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (SWEMWBS); findings from the Health Survey for England" at Society for Social Medicine 2016 conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presentation, including 3-minute oral presentation, at Society for Social Medicine conference. Questions were asked and the presentation promted discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://socsocmed.org.uk/meetings/annual-scientific-meeting/
 
Description Presentation about the methods and findings of the project to postgraduate students 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact sparked questions and discussion afterwards
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation at European Transport Conference 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation at Liveable Cities Conference: Developing tools to measure walkability in London incorporating wayfinding principals 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact The talk sparked discussion and raised awareness of research project's work

After my talk I spoke with a people from industry who showed an interest in the work and discussed the increasing use of modelling tools to analyse pedestrian environments
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation at the meeting of the Network on European Communications and Transport Activities Research (Cluster 1: Networks) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact sparked questions and discussion afterwards
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation given at Transport for London introducing London Walkability Model 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk spurred wider ranging discussion as well development of first steps in collaboration

Plans were made for future collaboration and sharing of data to allow further work to take place
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation to Highways England working group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact sparked questions and discussion afterwards and requests for further information that can possible lead to future collaborations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation to Southend-on-Sea Brough Council Transport and Planning Team 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Southend-on-Sea Brough Council Transport and Planning Team briefed through presentation of research into transport and its health impacts in Southend. Findings were reported to be in line with urban planning evidence produced by the council. Suggestion of future work to research impacts of redevelopment of transport infrastructure in Southend.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation to Surrey County Council public health team, March 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk made public health staff aware of issues regarding transport and health

Public health staff met transport staff attending the talk so the two departments can have stronger connections
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation with an overview of the project and results of one of the case studies in a meeting with representatives of Transport for Greater Manchester 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact discussion after the presentations, comparing the situation in the project case studies and in Greater Manchester
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentations at TRANSED, Lisbon: 1. Defining and measuring the impact of community severance on local accessibility, 2. Developing tools to identify and overcome barriers to walking among older people (both Anciaes et al) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Questions and discussion

Ideas for future work on the project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Project blog (https://streetmobility.wordpress.com) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The main purposes of the blog were to increase awareness of community severance and our project, and to drive traffic to our project website. Wordpress statistics on traffic on the blog showed a total of 2351 visits sinc 2014, 61% of them from the UK, and 39% from other 70 countries.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016,2017
URL https://streetmobility.wordpress.com
 
Description Project website (http://www.ucl.ac.uk/street-mobility) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The main purposes of the website was to increase awareness of community severance and our project. Statistics for the last 6 months (1 Sep.2016-9 March 2017) showed 1122 page views
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2016,2017
 
Description TRB Travel survey group (Washington) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A talk on how we have developed the pen-and-paper self-completion questionnaire to measure community severance. The talk was also widely disseminated through the TRB conference website available to all 13,000 attendees, who are mostly transport practitioners working in government or commercial organisations.
Another talk in the session was very relevant, being about Stated preference surveys (another part of our research project) and statistical approaches to maximise usable data. After the talks, I introduced the speaker to another member of our team, who was presenting a poster about the Street Mobility stated preference survey and the findings to value community severance.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://annualmeeting.mytrb.org/interactiveprogram/Browse
 
Description Talk given at Living Streets introducing London Walkability Model 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk brought about discussion of the applicability of the work to various scenarios, and stimulated considerations of using analytical tools in new contexts.

Continuing dialogue with contact at Living Streets and raising awareness of research project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Task Force on Arterials and Public Health, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I submitted an abstract about the Street Mobility project to the TRB conference and was invited to give a presentation to the Task Force on Arterial (roads) and Health. Those attending were the members of the Task force and others, as it was an open meeting. Attendees included federal and state transport and health practitioners and policy-makers, plus a couple of academics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/am/2017/CommitteeMeetings.pdf
 
Description Transportation Research Board 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I had a large poster presentation that included information both on the toolkit and on some of the findings from the validation in the second case study area.
I was then asked to give an oral presentation to a larger audience of more senior people
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.ucl.ac.uk/street-mobility/publications
 
Description Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact presentation sparked questions and discussion afterwards
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact sparked questions and discussion afterwards
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description UCL Creating Connections events in Camden x2 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Made new contacts in the borough

We will be inviting some of these contacts to future project events regarding feedback from local stakeholders and also dissemination
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Universities Transport Study Group Annual Conference 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact presentation sparked questions and discussion afterwards
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Universities Transport Study Group Annual Conference 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact sparked questions and discussion afterwards
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Walkability presentation at Universities Transport Studies Group Conference 2016 (Bristol) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Walkability presentation (Developing a walkability potentials model of London: Methods to create flexible tools to assess and plan for active travel)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Workshop with practitioners to discuss results of project 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Organised a workshop at UCL to discuss some of the project results. The workshop was attended by representatives of Department of Transport and by leading experts in the stated preference surveys, from universities and consultancy companies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Workshop with practitioners to discuss the toolkit developed by the project 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Workshop with practitioners to discuss and gather feedback on the toolkit developed by the project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Workshop with representatives of the Department for Transport (DfT) and other practitioners. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Members of the project suggested ways to improve methods of economic valuation, which could be integrated in the official guidance documents for policy appraisal published by DfT. Information about the project, and about the methods discussed in the workshop will be disseminated by the DfT representatives within their departments. Members of the project and DfT representatives made plans for further meetings and a possible conference to further develop and disseminate the methods discussed in this workshop.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description World Conference on Transport Research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact sparked questions and discussion afterwards
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016