A Learning Design Support Environment (LDSE) for Teachers and Lecturers

Lead Research Organisation: Institute of Education
Department Name: Culture, Communication and Media

Abstract

The main focus is to discover how to use digital technologies to support lecturers in designing effective technology-enhanced learning (TEL).



Lecturers will be increasingly required to use TEL, and it is important that they should be at the forefront of this innovation. The research partners will work with HE agencies, and with a group of practising lecturers to research and trial the online tools they need. The project aims to help them collaborate in developing this new knowledge about professional practice, namely how best to use digital technologies to make student learning effective.



The project employs an iterative design research methodology, including interviews, observation, and computational modelling.



The project aims to





  • Research the optimal model for a learning design support environment (LDSE).

  • Achieve an impact on lecturers' practice in designing TEL.

  • Identify the factors that aid collaboration among lecturers.

  • Embed knowledge of teaching and learning in the software architecture.

  • Improve representations of learning designs.

The LDSE will make learning theory and accounts of good pedagogic practice more accessible to lecturers, thereby accelerating their understanding of how best to use TEL. One practical output will be a specification for a full system that could support teachers in all disciplines and sectors.





 
Title Learning design support environment 
Description This is a short video explaining the range of features available in the Learning Design Support Environment software. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2010 
Impact The video was used in workshops and presentations of the tool, and was used by others to show it to their colleagues 
URL http://vimeo.com/17074980
 
Title Learning designer : power tools for teachers 
Description http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rJRR8W_C0U4 The video shows the Learning Design Support Environment (LDSE) in operation. This video gives an overview of the Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) Research Programme's Learning Designer project led by Professor Diana Laurillard at the London Knowledge Lab, Institute of Education London. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2011 
Impact There have been 1935 views of this video since it was launched in 2011. It has now been superseded by the further tools developed from the LDSE itself. 
URL http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rJRR8W_C0U4
 
Title Online pedagogical pattern data collector 
Description This is a short video explaining how to use Online Pedagogical Pattern Data Collector tool developed for the LDSE project purposes. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2010 
Impact This was used for workshops and presentations to promote the use of the tool 
URL http://vimeo.com/16959911
 
Description The project developed the Learning Designer tool and tested it with teachers in all sectors. Key findings are on
Learning design practice
1. Learning design is a complex practice of solving ill-structured cognitive problems. Therefore design guidance had to make the problem space more tractable for the teacher without overly constraining choices.
2. Teachers in HE use many theories (sometimes none) to inform their learning design, although pragmatic considerations take priority.
3. Teachers' concepts of learning design tend to match those of the Learning Design research community. This is an encouraging indication that a digital tool underpinned by this approach might be well received by HE teachers in general.
4. Teachers can see the value to their own practice of capturing, representing, and manipulating their learning designs in a computing system.

Concepts and activity representation
1. It is feasible to migrate good pedagogical designs across discipline areas by modifying a formal description. From generic and specific instances of a design, teachers can select a generic design and test their own content in it before adopting and elaborating it for their own context.
2. Being able to estimate the costs of teacher time, and the effect on the learning experience of class size, TEL activities, and contrasting types of teaching-learning activity, was seen as having considerable value for institutions and departments.

Modelling learning design
1. It is feasible to create learning designs that can be computationally analysed to provide useful visual feedback to teachers, with meaningful verbal and graphical representations.
2. Teachers vary in their ability to map their practice to the concept terminology. Further empirical work continues, for different sectors, to find better terms.
3. The knowledge engineering process for the Learning Designer modelled the learning design concepts and user interactions sufficiently well to achieve a tool that succeeds in supporting teachers-as-designers.
4. We have been able to leverage computer-supported learning design and semantic technologies to support the creation of knowledge products. Moreover, as learning designs are continually modified, knowledge is constructed by automatically annotating user designs with knowledge already embedded into the tool.
5. Intelligent inferencing techniques are able to produce suggestions for optimal ways of combining conventional teaching-learning methods with a variety of TEL methods.
6. By adopting, adapting, trialling, and sharing their learning designs it may now be feasible for the teaching community to develop a collective intelligence of what makes effective learning designs.

Evaluation
1. As a proof-of-concept prototype, the Learning Designer was well received by representatives of the target user group. In particular, the graphical analysis of learning experience was seen to open a new window into a learning design, providing a valued opportunity for pre-lesson reflection and redesign.
2. Seasoned lecturers value the Learning Designer for training new lecturers; however trainees feel the tool requires users to have more knowledge of teaching.
As a research prototype it lacks the robustness for use over an extended period that would be a true field-test of its viability. This is a challenge for design research projects, but with an appropriate analytical framework it is possible to make realistic claims from limited amounts of data.
Exploitation Route The findings have been taken forward in two further funded projects, one funded by ESRC, the Building Community Knowledge project, and one by HEIF, which is developing an interactive modelling tool for modelling the costs and benefits of blended and online learning.
All these tools have been widely used, as reported in the BCK project and under Research Tools, and Software Tools in this project.
Sectors Education
URL http://buildingcommunityknowledge.wordpress.com/
 
Description The proof of concept demonstrated by the LDSE has led to the development of two further tools with further funding: The Learning Designer, a web-based design tool The Course Resource Appraisal Model, a downloadable interactive tool for modelling the learning benefits and teaching costs of conventional, blended, and online courses. ESRC follow-on funding for the 'Building Community Knoweldge' project was obtained for the first, and HE Innovation Funding for the second. The CRAM tool has been used within the BCK project, and has become a product for use by teachers using the Learning Designer, and is therefore part of the impact of the LDSE project.
First Year Of Impact 2014
Sector Education
Impact Types Policy & public services
 
Description Blended Learning CPD for Vocational Teachers
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Reach in terms of enrolments Over 35,000 registrations for the two courses (Blended Learning Essentials,:Getting Started and Embedding Practice), run on FutureLearn Over 54% of participants were from the UK, 56% from the VET sector and almost 60% are teachers or trainers. With further promotion, and the influence of the early participants in these three initial runs, we can expect that in time the courses could reach a high proportion of the intended workforce. Impact on participants Participants enrol on MOOCs such as BLE with a range of personal criteria for success, but completion rates for the courses (17%) have performed well in comparison with similar FutureLearn courses (12%). Participants' attitudes to blended learning were positive from the outset and post-course surveys indicated that they grew even more enthusiastic as a result of the course. Course surveys reported a drop from 49% to 25% of participants who felt nervous about using blended learning, and an increase from 39% to 64% who felt confident about using it appropriately. Participant Engagement and Activity Active engagement achieved across all parts of the course, including over 40,000 comments. The majority of course steps have in excess of an 80% visit to completion conversion rate. Take-up of the accreditation pathways is also positive, 15% opted to buy a statement of participation and the CMALT pilot, run by ALT, was full. Impact on Teaching Practice Pre- and post-course surveys show that: almost 90% of survey respondents note awareness of tools and technologies to support blended learning after the course compared to 45% beforehand. BLE has helped improve participants' confidence and attitudes towards blended learning: only 12% of respondents in the post-course survey now view their 'limited knowledge' of blended learning as a 'serious barrier' to using it, a significant drop from 56% in the pre-course survey. The qualitative analysis of peer assessment, discursive activities and reflective questioning on the platform provides evidence of improving skills and confidence in blended learning. Over 80% of survey respondents felt that the course would improve their career prospects. The interviews with course participants and impact case studies show that BLE helps participants meet their CPD goals. They also demonstrate the positive impact of imparting knowledge acquired on BLE to others within participants' organisations. The interviews also demonstrate the potential for BLE to help teacher trainees improve their practice and meet their professional development goals in blended learning. Further funding The success of these courses led to the team being invited to create two more, outside of the competitive funding process.
URL https://www.futurelearn.com/courses/blended-learning-getting-started/4
 
Description Merging Generator-Learning Designer Project
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Report for the Commission on Adult and Vocational Teaching and Learning
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
 
Description HE Innovation Fund
Amount £70,034 (GBP)
Organisation Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 05/2013 
End 05/2015
 
Title Pedagogical Patterns Collector 
Description The PPC is an interactive online learning design tool for use by teachers in all sectors. The tool enables them to browse exisiting patterns contributed by other teachers, to adapt these or develop their own, to receive feedback on the nature of their design in terms of the learning experience it provides, and to create and publish specific and generic versions for others to use. As a research tool it elicits from teachers a clear articulation of their learning design, its form, and duration, for use as part of an evaluation project. Because it promotes the abstraction of generic pedagogy from a specific design the tool assists in researching the generic forms of pedagogy being developed for online teaching and learning, in comparison with those for conventional teaching. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2011 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Papers in journals, and many keynote invitations, some recorded as outputs of the LDSE project. 
URL http://web.lkldev.ioe.ac.uk/PPC/live/ODC.html
 
Description Building teacher community knowledge of blended learning 
Organisation Beijing Normal University
Country China, People's Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Design and support for the development and evaluation methodology for a research-based online course teachers' professional development
Collaborator Contribution Co-development of the course, support for the promotion, translation and delivery of the course and data collection instruments, co-analysis of data and publications. Funding of travel and accommodation for visits to Beijing. Funding of my cademic time for the project.
Impact Only just started
Start Year 2017
 
Description Mentoring Technology Enhanced Pedagogy (MENTEP) 
Organisation EUN Partnership AISBL
Country Belgium, Kingdom of 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Being a member of the Scientific Committee of MENTEP, which has the aim of reviewing and advising, collegially or individually depending on the issues at stake, the approach, components and outcomes of the policy experimentation before their implementation/finalisation, the Expert being in charge more particularly of all aspects related to the technology-enhanced teaching competence and develop model related to it (competence definition, implementation and development, etc.).
Collaborator Contribution Development, evaluation and delivery of the Technology Enhanced Teaching Self Assessment Tool, and its translation to the language of all 12 partner countries. Management of the project.
Impact Development of the TET-SAT tool, and related resource links Design of the MENTEP MOOCs
Start Year 2015
 
Description Report on Learning@Scale: How digital technology enhances equity, quality and efficiency in the global south. 
Organisation Education University of Hong Kong
Department Hong Kong Institute of Education
Country Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region of China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Produce a 5000 word white paper
Collaborator Contribution Some support for literature survey Management of the project
Impact Just started
Start Year 2016
 
Description Research International Advisory Panel 
Organisation Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR)
Department Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Singapore
Country Singapore, Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Expert advice on learning with digital technology in particular, and i. Provide inputs on the direction of Singapore¹s research strategy, in support of Singapore¹s overall strategy on workforce development and lifelong learning; ii. Review and evaluate the potential impact of Singapore¹s research on workforce development and lifelong learning; and iii. Provide advice on initiatives to build research capabilities in workforce development and lifelong learning in Singapore¹s context.
Collaborator Contribution Organisation of the meeting of experts, support to the meetings, write-up of reports to the Ministry.
Impact Revision of the Research Strategy 2016 - 2020, for the Singapore Workforce Development Agency
Start Year 2015
 
Description The School Education Gateway - Teacher Academy 
Organisation EUN Partnership AISBL
Country Belgium, Kingdom of 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution To act as an expert on the Teacher Academy Pedagogical Advisory Board.
Collaborator Contribution Developing the course proposals, responding to guidance, running and evaluating the courses; managing the project
Impact Website above Courses developed, evaluated, promoted, delivered, updated.
Start Year 2015
 
Title Pedagogical Patterns Collector (PPC) 
Description A learning design tool for teachers in all sectors. Description given under Research Tool. 
Type Of Technology Webtool/Application 
Year Produced 2011 
Impact 1. It has been used by more than 200 teachers nationally and internationally, in schools, FE, and HE. 2. It led to the research team being commissioned to help with the development of a new Learning Management System for schools in China by ASTRI, Hong Kong. The functionality of the PPC was designed into the interface of this new system. 3. It was used as the model for the redevelopment of a more sophisticated version as part of the Building Community Knowledge project. Futher development is now discontinued, but still serves as the only model for the abstraction of a generic pattern from a specific one. This was a complex process for users, but could be of value to researchers. It remains a future plan for the Learning Designed, but is not higher priority than the aim of developing a thriving user community. 
URL http://web.lkldev.ioe.ac.uk/PPC/live/ODC.html
 
Description 'Digital Leadership in Higher Education' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Keynote as interview, via videoconference, for Shanghai Open University International Conference on Leadership and Innovation for the Future in ODL, November 2016, followed by synchronous discussion
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 'Evaluating the current landscape of higher education' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited talk at the BETT Show, Excel Centre, Jan 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 'Professionalising teaching innovation in the digital age' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Keynote at the Association of Medical Education Conference, Barcelona, August 2016.
Audience of >3000
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://amee.org/getattachment/Conferences/AMEE-Past-Conferences/AMEE-2016/1-AMEE-2016-Printed-Progr...
 
Description 'Rethinking the profession of teaching as a design science' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Keynote presentation at the Int'l Conference on Teaching with Learning Technology, Singapore, March 2016
International audience of >2000
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description A Research Agenda for e-Learning 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited workshop for the League of European Research Universites workshop, UCL Knowledge Lab, Nov 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Can pedagogical creativity cross discipline boundaries? The role of learning technologies in collaborative innovation', International Conference on Learning and Teaching, Singapore, June 2010. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invitations to give further keynotes at international conferences

Consultancy contracts with Institute of Adult Learning, and Temasek Polytechnic
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Enabling and operationalising change with learning design support environment (LDSE) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Item in Association for Learning Technology online newsletter

Further requests for the team to run local workshops
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
URL http://newsletter2.alt.ac.uk/?p=378
 
Description Learning in the 21st Century - Blending in digital technology', LERN Conference, New Orleans, Keynote 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Keynote, with discussion and questions, prompting follow-up emails
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Limitless Learning: Who owns the responsibility for it? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Plenary presentation and panel debate for Online Educa, Berlin, Dec 2016
Audience >2000
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://oeb.global/conference#highlights
 
Description No evidence to back idea of learning styles 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Letter to the Guardian, published in print and online with all 30 academic signatories.
The aim was to promote caution in the use of the idea of 'learning styles' in education, and present the argument that there is no educational, psychological or neuroscience research evidence that supports the efficacy of the term in practice.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.theguardian.com/education/2017/mar/12/no-evidence-to-back-idea-of-learning-styles
 
Description Pedagogical pattern collector software tool 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at Art and Science of Learning Design, A Learning Design Grid Investigative Workshop

More people signed up to use the tool
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
URL http://web.lkldev.ioe.ac.uk/PPC/live/ODC.html
 
Description Positioning your institution's global presence: Marketing 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited plenary talk at the Higher Education Show, Olympia, Oct 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://he-show.co.uk/
 
Description Putting teachers at the forefront of innovation in virtual learning 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Keynote to the European Association for Practitioner Research on Improving Learning, Porto, Nov 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://eaprilconference.org/
 
Description Representing and sharing learning designs : a design support environment 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact In this workshop participants worked with a prototype intelligent tool, the Learning Design Support Environment (LDSE), which had been developed to facilitate innovation in teachers' practice through collaboration and sharing, particularly in a climate where time and resources for individual experimentation are increasingly frozen out.

Requests for further workshops
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
URL http://buildingcommunityknowledge.wordpress.com/
 
Description Teaching in the 21st century: Technology policy and practice in education' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Invited presentation to the New York State Board of Regents, Dec 2015, followed by debate and discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015