The ethnic density effect on the health of ethnic minority people in the United Kingdom: a study of hypothesised pathways

Lead Research Organisation: University of Manchester
Department Name: Social Sciences

Abstract

Ethnic minority people have been suggested to be healthier when living in areas with a higher concentration of people from their own ethnic group, a so-called ethnic density effect.



Several studies have explored the protective properties of ethnic density on the health of ethnic minority people, but due to statistical and measurement problems, the effect of ethnic density and the mechanisms by which it impacts on health remain unclear.



This ESRC/MRC Interdisciplinary Postdoctoral Fellowship disseminates and expands on work conducted during a doctoral investigation that used novel multilevel methodology to test three different pathways by which ethnic density was hypothesised to operate: through a change in racism-related social norms; through buffering the detrimental effects of racism on health; and through an increase in civic-political activity. Five main activities will be undertaken during the period of the Fellowship, which will be hosted at the University of Manchester:






  1. Disseminating study results through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations.


  2. Developing expertise by attending further training on statistical methods.


  3. Limited new research exploring the ethnic density effect in New Zealand.


  4. Networking facilitated by attendance and participation in conferences and seminars.


  5. Developing of funding proposals to conduct further research.

Publications


10 25 50
Das-Munshi J (2012) Ethnic density as a buffer for psychotic experiences: findings from a national survey (EMPIRIC). in The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science
 
Description Scientific benefits have included the further development of theories and methods around ethnic density effects. During this fellowship I have been able to conduct two sets of analyses examining ethnic density effects in international settings (one in New Zealand, and one comparing Black Caribbean ethnic density effects in the US and the UK). These papers have advanced the field of ethnic density by adding a new population (the indigenous peoples of New Zealand) and a comparative dimension (US and UK) to the literature. I have also been able to work on two systematic reviews of the literature on ethnic density effects on mental and physical health. In addition to reviewing existent literature, these articles critically analysed the theories and methods behind current studies on ethnic density, and delineated the way for future studies.
Exploitation Route Findings that - when adjusting for area deprivation - the residential concentration of ethnic minorities is protective of their health, social cohesion, and exposure to racial discrimination can be used by a wide range of stakeholders, including other academics, public servants, and organisations working with ethnic minority populations. They can be used to draft policy promoting social cohesion, to ensure that the strengths of ethnic minority communities are realised, and to counteract myths against the consequences of residential concentration.
Sectors Other
 
Description In addition to the academic impact that has been achieved through the multiple peer-reviewed publications and presentations in academic conferences, the project has achieved wider societal impact through media outlets, and through a conference on diverse neighbourhoods that was organised using additional funding from the University of Manchester. I was invited to participate in BBC Radio Manchester's Indus with Rahila Bano programme on April 3 2011, and the study was also discussed in the following media outlets: Asian Image, 28 March 2011, Multiculturalism strengthens communities http://www.asianimage.co.uk/news/8936209.Multiculturalism_strengthens_communities/ Islamophobia Watch, 28 March 2011, Multiculturalism strengthens communities, study shows http://www.islamophobia-watch.com/islamophobia-watch/2011/3/28/multiculturalism-strengthens-communities-study-shows.html Bioscience Technology, 29 March 2011, Multiculturalism 'not to blame' for failed sense of community http://www.biosciencetechnology.com/News/Feeds/2011/03/sections-international-news-multiculturalism-not-to-blame-for-failed-sense-o/ European Web Site on Integration, 29 March 2011, UK: Multiculturalism 'not to blame' for failed sense of community, says university research http://ec.europa.eu/ewsi/en/news/newsdetail.cfm?ID_ITEMS=19498 Phys.org Social Sciences, 29 March 2011, UK: Multiculturalism 'not to blame' for failed sense of community http://www.physorg.com/news/2011-03-multiculturalism-blame.html Short News (Deutsch journal), 30 March 2011, Britische Studie: Multikulti ist nicht gescheitert http://www.shortnews.de/id/885251/Britische-Studie-Multikulti-ist-nicht-gescheitert Interkulti, 30 March 2011, Poll: Multiculturalism 'not to blame' for failed sense of community http://www.interkulti.net/index.php/en/monitor/opinion-articles/184-pollmulticulturalism-not-to-blame-for-failed-sense-of-community Inside the M60, 31 March 2011, PM's stance on multiculturalism challenged by Manchester report http://insidethem60.journallocal.co.uk/2011/03/31/pms-stance-on-multiculturalism-challenged-by-manchester-report/ Times Higher Education, 7 April 2011, Poverty, not diversity, divides us http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?c=1§ioncode=26&storycode=415718 The Guardian, Andrew Sparrow's blog, 14 April 14 2011, 11:38am http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/blog/2011/apr/14/davidcameron-immigration?intcmp=239 Mancunian Matters, 15 April 2011, Multiculturalism 'not to blame' for failed sense of community, says Manchester Uni study http://mancunianmatters.co.uk/content/multiculturalism-%E2%80%98not-blame%E2%80%99-failed-sense-community-says-manchester-uni-study In addition, the media officer at the University of Manchester was contacted by Hasan Veli, Policy & Projects Officer, Integration Division, Decentralisation & Big Society Directorate, Department for Communities & Local Government, for a copy of the paper published in the Journal of Urban Studies in 2011. In his email correspondence, Mr Veli asked to see the report and its findings as it could inform the policy development they were currently engaged in. In order to disseminate study findings on ethnic density to non-academic beneficiaries I organised, together with colleagues at the University of Manchester, a conference to disseminate ethnic density and related research to policy, third sector, media and public audiences. A policy brief was distributed to attendees and made available online.
First Year Of Impact 2011
Sector Other
Impact Types Societal
 
Description Cross-national differences in ethnic density effects on health and experienced racism for Caribbean people in the UK and the US 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Short piece on the Autumn 2012 CCSR Newsletter summarising article on cross-national ethnic density effects published in Social Science & Medicine.

unknown
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description ESDS case study : is ethnic density associated with the health of ethnic minorities? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Case study for ESDS summarising the work conducted during this and previous grants on ethnic density.

Unknown
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://www.esds.ac.uk/resources/datainuse/casestudy.asp?id=85
 
Description Neighbourhood characteristics and social cohesion in the UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Article published in the CCSR spring 2011 newsletter about study on social cohesion and ethnic density. Available at: http://www.ccsr.ac.uk/publications/newsletters/newsletter-2011-spring.pdf

unknown
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
URL http://www.ccsr.ac.uk/publications/newsletters/newsletter-2011-spring.pdf
 
Description Neighbourhoods, diversity and health 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Lecture on ethnic density to students of UCL's MSc / Diploma Health and Society: Social Epidemiology

unknown
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description The ethnic density effect : examinations of its association with racism, social cohesion and health 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Presentation to University of Manchester's Department of Geography Seminar Series

unknown
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description The ethnic density effect : examinations of its association with racism, social cohesion and health 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Presentation at CCSR/ISC Seminar Series

Unknown
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010