The English Plastic Bag Charge and Behavioural Spillover: A Field Experiment, Diary Study and Secondary Data Analysis

Lead Research Organisation: Cardiff University
Department Name: Welsh School of Architecture (ARCHI)

Abstract

One of the greatest challenges of sustainable development is to find effective and acceptable policies that can foster meaningful and lasting behaviour change. While many people can be encouraged to recycle by providing adequate facilities, it is very difficult to change other waste-related habits. At the same time, governments have become less willing to introduce expensive regulation. Consequently there is great interest in low-cost, socially acceptable policies that help support behaviour change. The plastic bag charge (PBC) that is going to be introduced in England in October 2015 can be seen as such an instrument. Previous research has shown that PBCs are popular, easy to implement, and can successfully reduce plastic bag use (Convery et al. 2007; Poortinga et al. 2013).

Some policy-makers hope that the benefits may go even further, in that changes to a relatively simple behaviour may lead to other, more ambitious changes (Defra 2008). The first behaviour change may serve as a 'foot in the door' to help establish experiences that may subsequently lead to other changes - also known as behavioural spillover (Thogersen & Crompton 2009). This holds the promise that significant cost-effective changes can be made without burdensome regulation. Indeed, previous research conducted by the applicants found significant changes in environmental identity after a similar carrier bag charge was introduced in Wales in October 2011 (Poortinga et al. 2013). However, there is very little evidence of behavioural spillover in the environmental domain.

The overall aim of the project is to generate high-quality field-experimental and qualitative evidence of lifestyle change and potential BSO resulting from the English PBC. The introduction of the English PBC is a unique opportunity to conduct this research, as it is a relatively simple instrument that aims to change a specific and common waste-related habit. However, little is known about the lifestyle impacts of a PBC. The observation that even small charges produce great changes, suggests that a PBC acts as a 'habit disruptor' that forces shoppers to rethink their plastic bag use, rather than as an economic instrument (Poortinga 2013). Furthermore, as 'bringing your own bag' is a highly visible and symbolic behaviour, it may change how people perceive themselves in terms of waste-consciousness. This then may lead to other waste-related behaviour changes.

The project builds upon previous research of the applicants (Poortinga et al. 2013), but will expand the scale and depth of the study by conducting a mixed-method longitudinal programme of work, including (1) a novel field experiment, (2) a qualitative diary study, and (3) secondary data analyses, to examine in detail how effective a PBC can be; how it works; and whether it can produce behavioural spillover. It will use Wales and Scotland as comparators to allow the effects of the English PBC to be separated from other trends in carrier bag use and waste practices. Furthermore, the proposed project uses secondary data analysis and a behaviour mapping exercise to identify the most likely candidates for behavioural spillover.

Planned Impact

The project constitutes an ambitious multi-method programme of work that will create an in-depth understanding of lifestyle change and behavioural spillover following the introduction of a plastic bag charge. The beneficiaries of the research are diverse, encompassing academic peers from the social science community, and a range of non-academic users of the research. The non-academic beneficiaries of this research include: i) policy-makers and practitioners at the national level (Defra), ii) devolved administrations and regional bodies (Welsh Govt Scottish Govt, Northern Ireland Executive); iii) organisations engaged in waste and environmental quality (e.g. WRAP; the 'Break the Bag Habit' campaign coalition); and iv) interested publics.

Ensuring that the research impacts beneficially upon such a diverse array of users is a challenge. However, the research team has a strong track record and experience in research engagement, and has already started to engage key users at the pre-submission stage. We are open to critical feedback from experts and policy makers external to the project team, hence our intent to form a Project Advisory Board that will provide assistance in identifying any theoretical and practical policy gaps in the work. Letters of support from relevant bodies provide evidence of our engagement with potential users of the research prior to submitting the proposal, and our plans for a targeted process of engagement with key users of the research.

Findings will be disseminated through high-impact academic journals (e.g. Global Environmental Change; Journal of Environmental Psychology) and will be discussed at symposia and conferences (e.g. International Association for People-Environment Studies conference; International Congress of Applied Psychology). Beyond the publication of results in academic journals and presentation at symposia/conferences, there are three key routes by which non-academic beneficiaries will hear about and benefit from the proposed research:

1) Dissemination Meetings (London, Cardiff) and the production of a key findings brochure.
The principal results will be launched via a major policy dissemination meeting at the Royal Society to academic and policy communities. The focus of the Understanding Society Survey analysis on the Welsh charge warrants a separate workshop for Welsh policy makers in Cardiff. Both events will not only allow for communication of results by the project team but also for stakeholder participation, with attendees encouraged to reflect critically on both our data and methodologies. The practitioner brochure will present headline findings and practical implications, and will be disseminated widely beyond this event, through the networks of participants at the launch and downloadable via our website.

2) Project Advisory Board
An advisory board with six members will provide critical feedback on the design and direction of the research. The board will comprise policy stakeholders, NGOs, and two independent academic advisors. Academic members will advise on the theoretical and methodological integrity of the research, while involvement of government and NGO representatives ensures that the research remains policy relevant. The advisory board also constitutes a vehicle for the direct dissemination of results to users of the research.

3) Public Discussion Blogs and Website
Traditional methods of academic publishing are no longer sufficient with a growing demand for research to have a more profound impact on policy and society. Interactive social media (e.g. Website, Twitter, blogs) will be used to make the findings available to the wider public, where it is free to be read, discussed, and used. These interactive forms of communication are used to enter into a conversation with publics and parties that previously would not have had access to the research. This opens up the research for feedback to make a contribution to broader civil society.
 
Description This ESRC-funded research project examined the behavioural and attitudinal impacts of the English plastic bag charge that was introduced in October 2015. The project used a mixed-methods longitudinal approach, and included a national survey, a diary-interview study, and supermarket observation study. The key results for the three elements are summarised below:

The longitudinal survey
• The longitudinal survey was developed to examine changes in behaviours and attitudes following the introduction of the English plastic bag charge.
• A representative sample of the public in England, Wales, and Scotland were surveyed one month before (n=3,066), and then one month (n=2,005) and six months (n=1,230) after the introduction of the English plastic bag charge.
• We find an immediate change in bag use after the charge was implemented. Whereas before the charge about 1 in 4 respondents from England "Often/Always" took single-use plastic bags doing their main and top-up food shop, this fell to around 1 in 10 respondents one month after the charge was introduced.
• In contrast, before the charge 70% of respondents from England "Often/Always" took their own shopping bags, which increased to 83% of respondents one month after the charge, and to 93% of respondents six months after the charge was introduced.
• The analyses indicate that the introduction of the plastic bag charge led to a substantial increase in people taking their own bags, independent of age, gender, or income. Although some differences remained between different groups, similar increases were observed for all groups considered.
• A small majority (52%) already supported a 5p plastic bag charge before one was introduced in England. Support for a charge further increased to 60% one month after, and to 62% six months after the English charge was introduced. An increase in support was observed for both men and women, as well as for different age and income groups.
• Support for a 5p plastic bag charge also increased in Wales and Scotland over the same period, with similar levels of support observed in Scotland as in England (61%), and very high levels of support in Wales (80%).
• Not only did people become more supportive of a plastic bag charge after its introduction, they also became more supportive of other charges to reduce waste. In particular, those who changed their opinion about the plastic bag charge also changed their opinion about other charges.
• Respondents from all three UK countries see plastic bag charge as a highly effective policy to reduce plastic bag use. Before the introduction of the English plastic bag charge, 76% of respondents from England agreed that it would encourage people to use fewer plastic bags. This increased to 80% six months after the charge was introduced.
• Respondents from England became far less sceptical about the charge after it was introduced. Before its introduction, two thirds of respondents from England (65%) thought that stores would use the charge to make more money. This decreased to 47% one month after the charge, and to 39% six months after the charge was introduced.
• No evidence was found to suggest that the bag charge led to any changes in shopping behaviour.
• There is evidence of Bags for Life accumulating in people's homes, with people in Wales having the largest numbers of Bags for Life at home.

The diary-interview study
• The diary-interview study aimed to provide an in-depth account of the process of behaviour and attitude change. Semi-structured diaries were followed by semi-structured one-hour interviews before (n=57 and n=52, respectively) and after (n=45 and n=43, respectively) the plastic bag charge was introduced in England. The three samples in England, Wales and Scotland were balanced in terms of age, gender, socio-economic profile, urban/rural location, and were geographically varied.
• The English plastic bag charge was highly effective at reducing the strength and automaticity of habitual use of single-use plastic bags, and replacing it by a planned and more conscious use of Bags for Life. People changed their behaviour for both financial and environmental reasons.
• There was a high level of awareness in England of the plastic bag charge coming into effect, and participants adapted easily and quickly to the charge. Support for the charge was already high before its introduction, and increased after the charge came into effect, most likely due to the understanding of its environmental benefits. A majority of participants in the three countries supported a 'blanket', exemption-free plastic bag charge.
• After the introduction of the charge in England, people experienced more encouragement from supermarkets to reuse bags. They also saw less need for both single-use plastic bags and plastic Bags for Life to be provided in supermarkets. This was corroborated by the interviews conducted in Wales and Scotland.
• Most participants stopped using single-use plastic bags as bin liners after the plastic bag charge was introduced in England. However, in Wales and Scotland a small number of people continued to use both single-use plastic bags and Bags for Life as bin liners.
• After the introduction of the charge in England, there was an increased awareness of the environmental impact of household plastic waste, and interview participants became more supportive of hypothetical charges to reduce waste. Support for a hypothetical rise in fuel duties rise was lower due to its feared impact on families' budgets, a lack of suitable alternatives to driving, and a need to develop the use of renewable energy sources.

The supermarket observation study
• We observed supermarket shoppers in England and Wales in July 2015 (n=819 and n=818, respectively) and in July 2016 (n=984 and n=1,143, respectively), exiting four supermarkets in both Cardiff and in Bristol.
• In England, over half of all shoppers (57%) were seen using single-use plastic bags before the charge was introduced. This fell to just 21% after the charge was introduced.
• In England, about 29% of all shoppers were seen using Bags for Life before the charge was introduced. This doubled to 58% after the charge was introduced.
• After the English plastic bag charge was introduced, bag use in England matched observed bag use in Wales, where a bag charge was already in place for several years.
• In England, no substantial changes were seen in the number of shoppers using personal bags (e.g., rucksacks), and no changes in the proportion of people carrying items loose without a bag, suggesting that single-use plastic bags have been replaced by Bags for Life.

Conclusions: Overall, the research has shown that the English plastic bag charge has made a strong and positive impact on people's behaviours and attitudes.
The research found that the charge was effective at breaking old habits, and that it became more popular as people adapted to the policy. Evidence was also found that the charge increased environmental awareness and the acceptability of other environmental policies.
The success of the plastic bag charge in effectively changing plastic bag use and increasing support for other charges to reduce waste suggests that similar policies could also be successfully implemented, such as a deposit return scheme on plastic bottles or a charge on disposable coffee cups.
Exploitation Route In several ways.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Environment,Other
URL http://orca.cf.ac.uk/94652/
 
Description CUROP 2015 (Cardiff Undergraduate Research Opportunities Programme)
Amount £1,440 (GBP)
Organisation Cardiff University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 07/2015 
End 08/2015
 
Description CUROP 2016 (Cardiff Undergraduate Research Opportunities Programme)
Amount £1,600 (GBP)
Organisation Cardiff University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 06/2016 
End 08/2016
 
Description ABC Radio Perth 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact This was an interview on Monday 6 February 2017 with Peter Bell at ABC Radio Perth on UK experiences with the plastic bag charge.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Aberdeen James Hutton Institute 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Poortinga,W. (2016). Plastic Bag charges, habit disruption and spillover effects. The James Hutton Institute, Aberdeen, 27 October 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description BBC Magazine 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact How can plastic bag addiction be cured? BBC Magazine
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-34401851
 
Description BBC Radio 4 Business News 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview on 29/09/16 on BBC Radio 4 Business News (0619) on the effectiveness of the English Plastic Bag Charge
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description BBC Web feature article 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact BBC website feature article (Plastic bag charge: Could fee be applied to other packaging?). Includes quotes from Elena Sautkina.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-37504109
 
Description BPS Social Psychology Conference 2016 (1) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Sautkina, E., Thomas, G. O., & Poortinga, W. (2016). "It Makes Me Think". A Multi-Method Study of the English Plastic Bag Charge as a Habit Disruptor. BPS Social Psychology Section Conference, Cardiff 31 August - 02 September 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description BPS Social Psychology Conference 2016 (2) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Thomas, G. O., Poortinga, W., & Sautkina, E. (2016). Habit discontinuity, self-activation, and the diminishing influence of context change. BPS Social Psychology Section Conference, Cardiff, UK, 31 August - 02 September 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Communicate 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Communicate is the UK's leading conference for environmental communicators, bringing together over 150 delegates each year to develop their skills, share best practice and debate the latest issues in engaging people with the natural world. At the conference I provided a seminar on: "Of Policies, Behaviour and Plastic Bags"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.bnhc.org.uk/communicate/communicate-2016/
 
Description English plastic Bag Charge and Behaviour Change launch event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The "English plastic Bag Charge and Behaviour Change" launch event that took place on Thursday 29 September from 10.30am - 2pm at the Royal Geographical Society in London consisted of a presentation of the findings of ESRC-funded research, including a longitudinal field study, a qualitative diary-interview study and a supermarket observation study. The presentation was followed by a panel discussion addressing the topic of "Policies on Litter and Waste: Where do we go from here?"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Lund Conference 2016 (2) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Thomas, G. O., Poortinga, W., & Sautkina, E. (2016). The impact of a carrier bag charge on consumer and pro-environmental behaviour: Behaviour Change and Spillover Processes. International Association People-Environment Studies, Lund, Sweden, 27 June to 1 July 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Lund Conference 2016 (3) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Sautkina, E., Poortinga, W., & Thomas, G. O. (2016). The English Plastic Bag Charge and Environmental Behaviour Change: A Diary-Interview Study. International Association People-Environment Studies, Lund, Sweden, 27 June to 1 July 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Melbourne Seminar 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Poortinga, W. (2017). Plastic Bag Charges, Habit Disruption and Spillover Effects. The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia, 9 February 2017.

Campaigns to reduce plastic bag use are gaining impetus in Victoria. This seminar provides an opportunity to from learn the UK experience. The research provides insights to behaviour change that will be useful for policy makers, program designers and advocacy groups.
This presentation reports on the main findings of an ESRC-funded project that aimed to examine the behavioural and attitudinal effects of English plastic bag charge that was introduced in October 2015.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://events.unimelb.edu.au/events/7957-plastic-bag-charges-habit-disruption-and-spillover-effects
 
Description Presentation at British Environmental Psychology Society's (BrEPS) Annual conference "Environmentally Sustainable Lifestyles", 15-16 June 2015, University of Sheffield 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Identifying 'candidate behaviours' for behaviour spillover of the Plastic Bag Charge. Sautkina, E., Poortinga, W., Thomas, G., Whitmarch, L., & Nash, N. British Environmental Psychology Society's (BrEPS) Annual conference "Environmentally Sustainable Lifestyles", 15-16 June 2015, University of Sheffield
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation at British Environmental Psychology Society's (BrEPS) Annual conference "Environmentally Sustainable Lifestyles", 15-16 June 2015, University of Sheffield 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Patterns of Pro-Environmental Behaviours, and their Associations with Values and Attitudes. Gregory O. Thomas, Wouter Poortinga, Lorraine Whitmarsh, Elena Sautkina . British Environmental Psychology Society's (BrEPS) Annual conference "Environmentally Sustainable Lifestyles", 15-16 June 2015, University of Sheffield
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://breps.org.uk/
 
Description Presentation at the 11th Biennial Conference for Environmental Psychology (BCEP) 2015; Groningen, the Netherlands, 24-26 of August 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Identifying cognitive and behavioural connections between pro-environmental behaviours: Results from a mixed-methods approach. Gregory O. Thomas, Nick Nash, Wouter Poortinga, Elena Sautkina, Lorraine Whitmarsh. Biennial Conference for Environmental Psychology (BCEP) 2015; Groningen, the Netherlands, 24-16 of August 2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://bcep2015.nl
 
Description Regional BBC News Round Broadcast 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Wouter Poortinga, from the Welsh School of Architecture, has featured extensively across the BBC's broadcast channels today talking about the introduction of a 5p charge on plastic carrier bags in England. (BBC Radio Wales; BBC General News Service. 5/10/15): (05/10/2015) 0900 SOMERSET; 0908 CUMBRIA LIVE pres:Kevin prod:james.leather (James); 0915 YORK LIVE pres: JULIA prod: allan.watkiss (adam holmes); 0922 CAMBRIDGE LIVE pres: PAUL prod: BEN.STEVENSON; 0930 MERSEYSIDE REC pres: Roger prod: angela.heslop; 0938 CORNWALL REC pres: Laurence prod: mel.osborne; 0945 GLO'STRSHIRE LIVE pres: Anna prod: gemma.dunstan (Gemma); 0952 SHROPSHIRE; 1000 NORTHAMPTON; 1008 H&W LIVE pres: Malcolm prod: stewart.kingscott (Pam Caulfield); 1015 [BREAK]; 1022 WM LIVE pres: Richard prod: kevin.pashby; 1030 WILTSHIRE LIVE pres: Sim prod: annie.martin (Rhiannon); 1038 STOKE; 1045 MANCHESTER LIVE pres: mike prod: lawrence.mann; 1052 NOTTINGHAM LIVE pres: MARK prod: HANNAH.MEREDITH
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Regional BBC News Round Broadcast 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact The following interviews took place on 29/09/16 (on the effectiveness of the English Plastic Bag Charge): 0708 DEVON LIVE 0715 GLO'STRSHIRE LIVE pres:mark prod:simon.wiliams01; 0722 CUMBRIA LIVE pres:Mike prod:steven.bell; 0730 MANCHESTER LIVE pres:ali an eamonn prod:catehrine.mutrray; 0738 NOTTINGHAM LIVE pres:David and Sarah prod:steve.beech; 0745 BERKSHIRE LIVE pres:Andrew prod:rebecca.Wood1 (Andy Jones); 0752 CORNWALL LIVE pres:james prod:matt.pengely; 0800 NEWCASTLE REC pres:jONATHAN prod:laura.marshall; 0808 SOMERSET LIVE pres: Claire; 0815 GUERNSEY LIVE pres: Jim prod Louise; 0822 FOYLE LIVE pres:Dean prod:Joe.Doran (Dean McLaughlin); 0830 0838 SUFFOLK LIVE pres:mark prod:linda.walker; 0845 HUMBERSIDE LIVE pres:Lizzie & Carl; 0852 WALES LIVE
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Seminar Eight Behaviour change seminars: Changing civic engagement behavior, Bristol, 1 December 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This was a talk on "Habit Disruption for Behaviour Change: The Case of the English plastic bag charge" as part of the ESRC Behaviour Change Seminar Series, Seminar Eight, on Changing civic engagement behavior, Bristol, 1 December 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www1.uwe.ac.uk/bl/research/csbci/esrcseminarseries.aspx
 
Description Smart Energy GB 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poortinga, W., (2016). "Would you like a Bag with that?" The (habit disrupting) power of 5p. Smarter Britain, Energising Consumers, 22 March 2016 (Organised by Smart Energy GB).

The presentation was part of an event organised by Smart Energy GB (attached). Smart Energy GB is responsible for the campaign to deliver over 50 million smart energy meters across Great Britain by 2020. The seminar brought together se leading names in behaviour policy to showcase the best and most relevant insights from around the world. The event followed a TED-style format and consist of speeches followed by questions from the floor.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z3oasnQYYeA&list=PLv-vhuCkVOm7j3W9zfgKxkeulbQ56bvif&index=5
 
Description The Conversation 2016 (moving house) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The blog reports on the results of an analysis using the Understanding Society dataset. We wanted to see whether this was the case for the whole of the UK. We analysed the Understanding Society survey, with data from 18,053 individuals working across the country. Having first looked at how long people had lived at their current address and how they chose to travel to work, we found that people who had recently moved were far less likely to commute by car than those who had lived for longer at the same address.

The analyses were conducted as part of the ESRC funded "English Plastic Bag Charge" project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://theconversation.com/moving-house-can-make-you-healthier-happier-and-greener-too-59108
 
Description The Conversation 2016 (plastic bags) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Title: "The 5p carrier bag charge has paved the way for other waste reduction policies". The blog covers the results of the ESRC funded "English Plastic Bag Charge" project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://theconversation.com/the-5p-carrier-bag-charge-has-paved-the-way-for-other-waste-reduction-po...
 
Description The Guardian 2016 (1) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact The Guardian (Shoppers in England now far more likely to use their own bags) Feature article by Adam Vaughan. The article covers the results of the ESRC funded "English Plastic Bag charge" project, and includes a number of quotes of an interview of Wouter Poortinga
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/sep/29/shoppers-in-england-now-more-likely-to-use-their...
 
Description The Guardian 2016 (2) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact The Guardian (Switch disposable coffee cups for reusables, urge campaign groups). Feature article by Adam Vaughan. The article features quotes from Wouter Poortinga
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/sep/29/switch-disposable-coffee-cups-for-reusables-urge...
 
Description The Times 2016 (1) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact The Times (Public wants to cap plastic bottle waste) 29 September 2016. By Ben Webster (includes quotes from Wouter Poortinga from an interview)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/public-wants-to-cap-plastic-bottle-waste-wmj7652wc
 
Description The Times 2016 (2) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact The Times - LEADING ARTICLE (Bottle Battle Bonanza. Vitory against plastic litter is achievable) page 31, reports on the results of the ESRC funded "English Plastic Bag Charge" project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/bottle-battle-bonanza-k3vpvlrdr
 
Description Western Daily Mail 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact The introduction in England of a plastic bag charge will have the required impact, like in Wales, of significantly reducing usage, according to leading environmental psychologist Professor Wouter Poortinga, from the School of Psychology, who is quoted extensively in the Western Mail.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description You & Yours, BBC Radio 4 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact I was interviewed about the effectiveness of plastic bag charges on You & Yours, BBC Radio 4, 5 October 2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015