Mental Disorders from Childhood to Adulthood: The Dunedin Study

Lead Research Organisation: King's College London
Department Name: Inst of Psychiatry School Offices

Abstract

At present, very little information about a patient s developmental history is incorporated into making a psychiatric diagnosis. As a result, patients having different etiology and different prognosis are often mixed as apples and oranges with the same diagnosis. This unknown heterogeneity interferes when doctors make treatment choices and when scientists identify groups to take part in neuroscience and genetics research. Our research aims to identify developmental subtypes within mental disorders, based on age of onset (childhood, adolescence, adulthood) and subsequent course (persistent, recurrent, or time-limited). We study a 1000 men and women, born in 1972, who represent the general population. Their mental health has been measured at ages 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 18, 21, 26, and 32, when 96% of the original cohort took part. Mental health will be measured again at age 38. Identifying developmental subtypes to improve precision of psychiatric diagnoses should improve the quality of both treatment and research, and also reduce the costs.

Technical Summary

Objective:
The proposed research aims to build knowledge about four behavioural disorders: depression, schizophreniform, antisocial, and substance abuse disorders. In all four disorders, developmental subtypes have been proposed as a way forward to carve up the heterogeneity that now hinders scientific and clinical progress. We will study the heterogeneity within each disorder over the first four decades of life, by analysing varaition in age of onset (early versus later) and subsequent course (persistent, recurrent, or time-limited). We aim to ascertain the existence, discriminant valdity, and implications of developmental subgroups within disorders.
Methods:
The Dunedin Study has traced the development of a representative 1972 birth cohort of 1,000 New Zealand men and women at birth and ages 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 18, 21, 26, and 32. New data will be gathered at age 37/38. Psychiatric data from childhood to age 38 will be analysed to identify developmental subgroups within each disorder.
Hypotheses address:
a) different childhood risk factors and family psychiatric histories for developmental subgroups,
(b)different adult outcomes in worklife, family life, and physical health for developmental subgroups,
(c) proximal life events that precipitate adult-onset disorder, (d) temporal comorbid sequences in which one type of disorder reliably leads to onset of another, and (e)whether findings apply to women and men, or if sex-specific models are needed.
Implications for diagnosis:
Findings will improve current DSM and ICD classification systems by enabling clinicians to use a patient s developmental history to know more about a disorder s probably etiology and prognosis.
Implications for genetic and neuroscience research: Findings will characterise psychiatric phenotypes more precisely, and show which subtypes have familial and neuro-developmental features.
Implications for prevention:
Findings will (a) yield recommendations for tailoring interventions to fit developmental subtypes, (b) clarify the relative importance of preventing onset versus recurrence, (c) identify factors posing pervasive risk for many disorders as top prevention priorities, and (d) point to common sequences of disorders, which suggest that treating disorder A may prevent disorder B.

Publications


10 25 50
Belsky DW (2014) Integrating genetics and social science: genetic risk scores. in Biodemography and social biology
Belsky DW (2013) Genetics in population health science: strategies and opportunities. in American journal of public health
Belsky DW (2013) Development and evaluation of a genetic risk score for obesity. in Biodemography and social biology
Belsky DW (2014) The potential to predict the course of childhood asthma. in Expert review of respiratory medicine
 
Description Adult ADHD paper selected by NEJM as in top 10 findings of psychiatry in 2015
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL http://www.jwatch.org/na39791/2015/12/28/nejm-journal-watch-psychiatry-top-stories-2015?
 
Description British Academy Policy Report
Geographic Reach UK 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact Rutter, M, Griffiths, S, Belsky, J, Brown G, Dunn, J, D'Onofrio, B, Eekelaar, J, Ermisch, J, Moffitt, TE, Gardner, F, Weale, A, Witherspoon, S. (2010). Social Science and Family Policies. London: The British Academy.
 
Description CAnadian Academy of Health Sciences Expert Panel
Geographic Reach North America 
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
Impact Invited member on the Royal Society of Canada - Canadian Academy of Health Sciences Expert Panel on Early Child Development Production of report detailing Dunedinand E-Risk Findings which was submitted to the Royal Society of Canada in September 2011. Early Childhood Adversities and Developmental Health in Adolescence and Young Adulthood [I will forward a copy of the published report when available]
 
Description Chair policy seminars at the Nuffield Foundation
Geographic Reach UK 
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
Impact Directly flowing from Moffitt's research, she chairs seminars for policy makers that affect policy on topics such as UK Drug and Alcohol Courts, Family childcare tax credits, age of school starting for young children, mediation for child custody in divorce cases, payment of child support by absent parents.
 
Description Consultant to the Council of Europe Directorate General I - Legal Affairs Bioethics Department, on psychiatric genetics state of the science, 2006.
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact Law was written to prevent misuse of genetic tests in European states. ; Law was written to prevent misuse of genetic tests in European states.
 
Description DSM-V working party to write diagnostic criteria disruptive disorders
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guidance committee
Impact Will establish diagnoses of pcychiatric disorders for practice and research
 
Description Early Intervention Next Steps: A report to Her Majesty's Govt. by G Allen MP
Geographic Reach UK 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact The Dunedin findings have been very influential on the UK policy shift toward early childhood intervention under the Blair and current governments. A good example is: Early Intervention Next Steps: A report to Her Majesty's Govt. by G Allen MP
 
Description National Academy of Sciences, Advisory Committee on Law and Justice
Geographic Reach North America 
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
Impact National Academy of Sciences, Advisory Committee on Law and Justice, 2005-2011. Member.
 
Description Nuffield Bioethics Council Report on The Ethical context of Genetics in Human Behaviour
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
Impact More than 6,300 copies were requested in the first year of publication and 15,600 copies have been downloaded from the Nuffield council's website. This book was covered by major British and European newspapers, radio, and television when it was released in October, because it addressed ethical issues arising from application of behaviour genetic findings, such as genetic testing, personal eugenics, designer babies, and criminal culpability.; More than 6,300 copies were requested in the first year of publication and 15,600 copies have been downloaded from the Nuffield council's website. This book was covered by major British and European newspapers, radio, and television when it was released in October, because it addressed ethical issues arising from application of behaviour genetic findings, such as genetic testing, personal eugenics, designer babies, and criminal culpability.
 
Description Ready to be counted 2015 report by Transforming Education
Geographic Reach North America 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact Dunedin research featured as rationale for reform of early years education in USA.
 
Description Science News named our paper the 4th best science story of 2015
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact not sure yet
URL https://www.sciencenews.org/article/top-stories-2015-pluto-gene-editing-new-hominid-and-more
 
Description U.S. Department of Health & Human Services policy for Maltreated Children:
Geographic Reach North America 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Our MRC-funded research into the effects of maltreatment on children's health and development is cited in report to Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. This report describes the most common problems that maltreated infants and toddlers experience, and it highlights the benefits of early interventions for this population. The report aims to aid child welfare personnel and policymakers who are responsible for assessing, referring, and advocating for maltreated children so they can make evidence-based decisions. Sara Jaffee See: APSE report on Developmental Problems of Maltreated Children and Early Intervention Options for Maltreated Children: http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/07/Children-CPS/litrev/index.htm
URL http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/07/Children-CPS/litrev/index.htm
 
Description US Institute of Medicine
Geographic Reach North America 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact - The US Institute of Medicine, 2010: http://www.iom.edu/Activities/Children/Neuronstoneighborhoods/2010-OCT-28/Panel-1/Panel-1-3.aspx This is an example, our findings are cited in a series of policy books from the IoM.
URL http://www.iom.edu/Activities/Children/Neuronstoneighborhoods/2010-OCT-28/Panel-1/Panel-1-3.aspx
 
Description US National Academy of Sciences 21st Century Skills
Geographic Reach North America 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact See pages 80 to 86 in the following National Academies of Science Publication describing our research on the Dunedin Study: http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13215 National Research Council (2011). Assessing 21st Century Skills: Summary of a Workshop. J.A. Koenig, Rapporteur. Committee on the Assessment of 21st Century Skills. Board on Testing and Assessment, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies of Press.
URL http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13215
 
Description US National Academy of Sciences Committee on Law and Justice
Geographic Reach North America 
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
Impact 2004 book Firearms and Violence: A Critical Review. REcommends policy based on the scientific evidence for guncontrol; US Government funding for firearms research
 
Description US National Academy of Sciences Panel on Demand for Drugs
Geographic Reach North America 
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
Impact Reuter, P. et al. (October 2010). Understanding the Demand for Illegal Drugs. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences.
 
Description US Supreme Court Amicus Brief
Geographic Reach North America 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact Amicus Brief Nos. 08-7621, 08-7412 to the Supreme Court, By Natalie Gilfoyle and Ann Harkavy, counsel for the American Psychological Association, in the case of Graham and Sullivan vs. Florida, on the matter of life sentences for juveniles.
 
Description USA NIH State of the Science Consensus Statement on Preventing Violence and Related Health Risking Behaviors in Adolescents, 2004
Geographic Reach North America 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact Set policy for effective prevention programmes in the USA. Our work cited in US Surgeon General's Report on youth violence policy, WHO REport on Health Impact of violence worldwide, and US Presidents Commission on Drug Policy. ; programmes are now in widespread use in the USA, UK, and other countries
 
Guideline Title US Law
Description United States Supreme Court death penalty case Roper v. Simmons
Geographic Reach North America 
Policy Influence Type Citation in clinical guidelines
Impact Our findings that show how brain development in violent life-course persistent antisocial adolescent criminal offenders lags behind normal brain development were cited in an the Amicus Curiae brief that was used to overturn the death penalty for juveniles in the United States Supreme Court. Website that discusses the case Roper v. Simmons: http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/article.php?did=885?id; Our findings that show how brain development in violent life-course persistent antisocial adolescent criminal offenders lags behind normal brain development were cited in an the Amicus Curiae brief that was used to overturn the death penalty for juveniles in the United States Supreme Court. Website that discusses the case Roper v. Simmons: http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/article.php?did=885?id
URL http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/article.php?did=885&scid
 
Description Usefulness of research to govt bodies internationally
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact As we do not receive funding to support the time-consuming activity of monitoring all uses of our research, this report is necessarily incomplete. However, Dunedin findings have been consulted and cited by a great many policy bodies in recent years, including the World Health Organization, the US Surgeon General, US Supreme Court, the UK Home Office, the Scottish Executive, the Swedish Council on Crime Prevention, and the European Parliament. For an example, see (http://www.moffittcaspi.com/Antisocial_Behavior.html). In addition, the Dunedin Study is naturally a key source of information for the New Zealand government, and we engage in almost constant communication with the NZ Police, NZ Dept of Social Development, and NZ Dept. of Health.
URL http://www.moffittcaspi.com/Antisocial_Behavior.html
 
Guideline Title American Psychiatric Assn DSM-V, wrote diagnostic criteria
Description Wrote DSM-V diagnosis for conduct disorder and ODD
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in clinical guidelines
Impact I wrote new diagnostic criteria for childhood mental disorders
 
Description impact on policy and education
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact a lot, can provide details on demand but too much to type here
 
Description large selection of impacts for 2011-2012, I have a list of Nice Guidelines, Govt reports, etc. but it is far too much to upload item by item, please e-mail if you want it TMoffitt
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
 
Description Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, NIH - PhD Studentship Belsky
Amount £150,000 (GBP)
Organisation National Institutes of Health (NIH) 
Sector Public
Country United States of America
Start 01/2009 
End 12/2011
 
Description Centenary Award H Fisher
Amount £25,000 (GBP)
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 09/2012 
End 06/2013
 
Description ESRC SCOPIC network with Cambridge TE Moffitt
Amount £278,000 (GBP)
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 08/2006 
End 07/2009
 
Description ESRC, PhD Studentship L Bowes
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 09/2008 
End 06/2011
 
Description ESRC, Project Grant Arseneault & Caspi
Amount £350,000 (GBP)
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 01/2006 
End 01/2009
 
Description Jacobs foundation Prize Moffitt & Caspi
Amount £750,000 (GBP)
Organisation Jacobs Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country Switzerland, Swiss Confederation
Start 12/2010 
End 12/2017
 
Description KGTM Think Tank Conference Grant 2012 Moffitt
Amount £75,000 (GBP)
Organisation Klaus-Grawe-Foundation for the Advancement of Psychotherapy Research 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country Switzerland, Swiss Confederation
Start 06/2012 
End 08/2012
 
Description MRC Programme Grant (G9806489) E-risk Study Moffitt
Amount £3,000,000 (GBP)
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 12/2004 
End 12/2009
 
Description MRC Programme Grant G1002190 E-Risk Study L Arseneault
Amount £3,000,000 (GBP)
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 10/2011 
End 04/2016
 
Description MRC programme grant MR/K00381X/1: Psychiatric disorder and accelerated aging Moffitt
Amount £1,000,000 (GBP)
Funding ID MR/K00381X/1 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 01/2013 
End 12/2016
 
Description NARSAD Young Investigator Award A Danese
Amount £35,000 (GBP)
Organisation Brain & Behaviour Research Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States of America
Start 01/2007 
End 01/2009
 
Description NARSAD Young Investigator Grant G Polanczyk
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Organisation Brain & Behaviour Research Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States of America
Start 01/2008 
End 01/2009
 
Description NHLBI project grant A Danese
Amount £200,000 (GBP)
Organisation National Institutes of Health (NIH) 
Sector Public
Country United States of America
Start 09/2011 
End 08/2012
 
Description NIA Dunedin Phase 45 grant
Amount $3,000,000 (USD)
Funding ID 1R01AG049789-01 
Organisation National Institutes of Health (NIH) 
Department National Institute on Aging (NIA)
Sector Public
Country United States of America
Start 09/2015 
End 08/2020
 
Description NIA Neuroimaging grant
Amount $7,000,000 (USD)
Funding ID 2 R01 AG032282-06 
Organisation National Institutes of Health (NIH) 
Department National Institute on Aging (NIA)
Sector Public
Country United States of America
Start 07/2015 
End 06/2020
 
Description NIAging methods development scheme K Sugden
Amount £50,000 (GBP)
Organisation National Institutes of Health (NIH) 
Sector Public
Country United States of America
Start 07/2009 
End 08/2011
 
Description NIDA Transdiciplinary Prevention Research Center Postdoctoral Fellow Meier
Amount £200,000 (GBP)
Organisation National Institutes of Health (NIH) 
Sector Public
Country United States of America
Start 08/2010 
End 07/2012
 
Description Population Health Sciences Fellow H Fisher
Amount £250,000 (GBP)
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 01/2011 
End 12/2014
 
Description Postdoctoral Fellow Salomon Israel
Amount $50,000 (USD)
Organisation Rothschild Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 07/2012 
End 06/2014
 
Description Postdoctoral Fellowship Dan Belsky
Amount $100,000 (USD)
Organisation Duke University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United States of America
Start 07/2012 
End 06/2014
 
Description Postdoctoral Fellowship sidra goldman
Amount $100,000 (USD)
Organisation University of North Carolina 
Sector Academic/University
Country United States of America
Start 07/2012 
End 06/2014
 
Description Royal Society Wolfson Merit Award A Caspi
Amount £150,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 07/2007 
End 06/2011
 
Description Royal Society wolfson Merit award, TE Moffitt
Amount £175,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 07/2006 
End 06/2007
 
Description US NIMH grant Gene-environment interaction A Caspi
Amount £1,700,000 (GBP)
Organisation National Institutes of Health (NIH) 
Sector Public
Country United States of America
Start 07/2007 
End 06/2012
 
Description US National Institute of Aging Grant (is psychiatric disorder a preventable cause of age related disease) Moffitt
Amount £2,000,000 (GBP)
Organisation National Institutes of Health (NIH) 
Sector Public
Country United States of America
Start 07/2009 
End 06/2013
 
Description Wellcome Trust Clinical Phd Fellowship A Danese
Amount £300,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Wellcome Trust Ltd 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 01/2006 
End 01/2009
 
Description William T Grant Young Investigator Award C Odgers
Amount £350,000 (GBP)
Organisation William T. Grant Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States of America
Start 05/2009 
End 05/2012
 
Title Dunedin Family History Data set 
Description interviews for medical and psychiatric conditions for 8,0000 family members of the 1000 cohort members. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of Data/Biological Samples 
Year Produced 2009 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact several scientific publications 
 
Title Dunedin Study Data Bank and Bio Bank 
Description Longitudinal Cohorts with tissue and DNA banks: The Dunedin Longitudinal Cohort (38 years) The E-risk Longitudinal Cohort (12 years) 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of Data/Biological Samples 
Year Produced 2006 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Over 1000 published scientific papers 
 
Title Dunedin Study Tissue Bank and Biomarker Archive 
Description DNA and blood are frozen for epigenetics work and future genotyping, MRNA is preserved for gene expression, and results of assays are archived for telomere length, inflammation, endothelial function, retinal vasculature, lung function, and more. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of Data/Biological Samples 
Year Produced 2009 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact numerous scientific publications. 
 
Title E-risk cohort data base 
Description 4 waves of longitudinal data for cohort and DNA 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of Data/Biological Samples 
Year Produced 2006 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact more publications 
 
Title Life History Calendar 
Description Our Life History Calendar, which we developed as a research tool, has now been exported for use in many depression clinics, for collecting data to research stressful life events and for ascertaining stressful life events as part of treatment planning. 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2006 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact improved standardised method for valid retrospective recall of events and disease 
 
Title Measurement of C-reactive protein in saliva 
Description 2. Measurement of C-reactive protein in saliva: A validation Study. Ouellet-Morin, I. Danese, A, Williams, B, & Arseneault, L (2011). Brain, Behavior and Immunity, 25, 640-646. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of Data/Biological Samples 
Year Produced 2011 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact several studies considering using the method 
 
Title Method to derive genome risk scores from published GWAS data. 
Description 4. Method to derive genome risk scores from published GWAS data. Belsky, DW, Moffitt, TE Sugden, K, Williams, B, Houts, R, McCarthy, J, Caspi, A. (in review) 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact not yet 
 
Title Standardized protocol for collection of biomarkers in longitudinal cohort studies 
Description 3. Development of a standardized protocol for collection of biomarkers in longitudinal cohort studies: validated, transferable protocls for the collection of DNA, RNA, and plasma proteins from blood. Funded by NIA small grant to postdoc Karen Sugden. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of Data/Biological Samples 
Year Produced 2011 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact US and NZ cohorts using protocol 
 
Title The Dunedin Family Health History Data base 
Description The Dunedin Family Health History Data base. Three-generation family histories of psychiatric disorder and physical diseases (cardiovascular, metabolic, etc.) recorded for 9,000 family members of the 1,000 probands of the Dunedin cohort, as reported by 3 informants per family. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of Data/Biological Samples 
Year Produced 2009 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This is the first such large data resource to combine family histories of medical illnesses and psychiatric illnesses for a large population representative cohort of probands. 
 
Title The Dunedin Study and Biomarker Bank 
Description over 30 years of cohort assessments, plus blood and DNA 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of Data/Biological Samples 
Year Produced 2006 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact lots of papers published, over 100 
 
Description Cambridge Cognition, CANTAB 
Organisation Cambridge Cognition Ltd
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Using the CANTAB data collection system
Collaborator Contribution they provided the CANTAB system of neuropsychological testing for our data collection
Impact data protocol
Start Year 2009
 
Description Cambridge Inst of Criminology 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Department Institute of Criminology
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We were one of 4 teams in the network, with HQ at Cambridge, ESRC SCOPIC Network
Collaborator Contribution meetings
Impact several meetings, edited books and papers
 
Description Columbia Univ School of Public Health 
Organisation Columbia University
Department School of Public Health
Country United States of America 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution we provide data
Collaborator Contribution Columbia provides funded young researcher
Impact none yet
Start Year 2012
 
Description Data sharing from the Dunedin Study 
Organisation University of Otago
Country New Zealand 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution we collect and share the data
Collaborator Contribution The Dunedin Study data set is shared among a consortium of 6 research teams, from Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and us, in the UK. Via our Unit based at the Univ of Otago in New Zealand, we share the data with more than 80 other research teams outside the Study group, including with 23 universities in the USA. This study has been ongoing since 1972, has a 32 year dataset, and has had 12 assessments.
Impact more than 1200 scientific publications since 1973
 
Description Duke University Geriatrics School of Medicine 
Organisation Duke University
Department School of Medicine Duke
Country United States of America 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution coauthor papears
Collaborator Contribution coauthor papers
Impact PNAS publication
Start Year 2014
 
Description Duke University Institute of Genome Science & Policy, Psychology & Neuroscience 
Organisation Duke University
Department Insitute of Genome Sciences and Policy
Country United States of America 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We provide data and staff time
Collaborator Contribution joint appointments for staff
Impact all our publications since 2007
Start Year 2007
 
Description EU GEne environment interplay network 
Organisation University of Maastricht (UM)
Country Netherlands, Kingdom of the 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Chair of Advisory Board, Caspi
Collaborator Contribution ideas
Impact na
Start Year 2011
 
Description Global Burden of Disease 
Organisation Global Burden of Disease Study
Country Global 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution collaborate
Collaborator Contribution collaborate
Impact 3 publications
Start Year 2011
 
Description Global burden of Disease 
Organisation Global Burden of Disease Study
Country Global 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution coauthor
Collaborator Contribution run the GBD
Impact publications
Start Year 2013
 
Description MRC HArwell 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC)
Department MRC Harwell
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution datasets
Collaborator Contribution coauthors papers
Impact Publicaton
Start Year 2012
 
Description Rijkshospitalet Psychiatry Denmark 
Organisation Copenhagen University Hospital
Department Rigshospitalet
Country Denmark, Kingdom of 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution coauthor and train students
Collaborator Contribution data registries
Impact publication
Start Year 2014
 
Description Singapore Eye Inst Retinal micro-vasculature 
Organisation Singapore Eye Research Institute
Country Singapore, Republic of 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution we contributed the cohort sample, and wrote the papers
Collaborator Contribution SERI did the grading of digital retinal photos
Impact 2 papers in press
Start Year 2010
 
Description The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health & Development Study, Otago School of Medicine 
Organisation School of Medicine Otago
Department Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health & Development Research Unit
Country New Zealand 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We raised funds and designed protocols and analysed the data
Collaborator Contribution the Unit at Otago runs the cohort study and undertakes data-collection waves
Impact over 1000 publications
 
Description University of Otago replications of genetic findings 
Organisation University of Otago
Department School of Medicine Otago
Country New Zealand 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution WE replicated findings from the NZ Dunedin cohort in the UK E-risk cohort.
Collaborator Contribution sister studies in two countries, both funded in part by MRC, we can build in replication checks for any and all findings
Impact 4 articles, reported to MRC eval under our other grant, for the Dunedin Study. All are multidisciplinary, involving genetics and pscyhiatry and psychology.
Start Year 2006
 
Description University of São Paulo Medical School and the National Institute of Developmental Psychiatry for Children and Adolescents (INCT-CNPq), Brazil. 
Organisation National Institute of Developmental Psychiatry for Children and Adolescents (INCT-CNPq)
Country Brazil, Federative Republic of 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution shared data, replicated findings
Collaborator Contribution ideas, publicationsideas, publications
Impact publications
Start Year 2007
 
Description University of São Paulo Medical School and the National Institute of Developmental Psychiatry for Children and Adolescents (INCT-CNPq), Brazil. 
Organisation University of Sao Paulo
Country Brazil, Federative Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution shared data, replicated findings
Collaborator Contribution ideas, publicationsideas, publications
Impact publications
Start Year 2007
 
Title Genetic diagnostic test involving 5HTTLPR patent 
Description US Patent Office Number 7972779 Issued 5th July 2011. APPLICATION Serial Number 10/889,450: A method for assessing behavioral predisposition: Depression in a human subject who has experienced a stressful life event, determining whether the subject carries one or more copies of a short promoter allele of a 5-HTT gene. Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation & King's College London, WARF Ref: P03167US, METHOD FOR ASSESSING BEHAVIORAL PREDISPOSITION 
IP Reference US7972779 
Protection Patent granted
Year Protection Granted 2011
Licensed No
Impact none
 
Title Genetic diagnostic test involving MAOA patent 
Description Gene environment interaction. 
IP Reference US20050009035 
Protection Patent granted
Year Protection Granted 2009
Licensed Yes
Impact Patent US Patent Office Serial Number 7,479,380: A method for assessing behavioral predisposition: Conduct disorder, violent behavior, and antisocial behavior in a human subject who has experienced childhood maltreatment, determining whether the subject carries a two or three repeat allele within a gene encoding the human monamine oxidase A enzyme. Patent issued to the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation & King's College London, 20 January 2009. WARF Ref: P03145US, METHOD FOR ASSESSING BEHAVIORAL PREDISPOSITION
 
Title Patented genetic test MAOA 
Description MAOA GxE 
IP Reference US20050037405 
Protection Patent granted
Year Protection Granted
Licensed No
Impact use in courts to mitigate sentencing
 
Title patented genetic test 5HTT 
Description 5HTT GxE 
IP Reference WO2005006971 
Protection Patent granted
Year Protection Granted
Licensed Yes
Impact none
 
Title DSM-IV and DSM-V conduct disorder subtype criterion 
Description Our research has lead the field of child psychiatry to recognise childhood-onsert versus adolescent-onset as the subtyping scheme for Conduct Disorder encoded in the DSM-4 and DSM-5 diagnostic systems of the American Psychaitric Association 
Type Diagnostic Tool - Non-Imaging
Current Stage Of Development Refinement. Clinical
Year Development Stage Completed 2010
Development Status Under active development/distribution
Impact Worldwide method for diagnosing conduct disorder in children 
 
Title FADS2 gene link with IQ 
Description We discovered that babies' genotype on FADS2 is associated with elevated IQ in response to breastfeeding, and replicated this finding. 
Type Diagnostic Tool - Non-Imaging
Current Stage Of Development Early clinical assessment
Year Development Stage Completed 2008
Development Status On hold
Impact none 
 
Title Genetic Method to assess predisposition to depression 
Description Serotonin transporter genotype to assess predisposition to depression after stressful experience 
Type Diagnostic Tool - Non-Imaging
Current Stage Of Development Refinement. Clinical
Year Development Stage Completed 2010
Development Status Actively seeking support
Impact none yet, patent application under consideration 
 
Title Genetic tests to subtype ADHD 
Description We identified genetic polymorphisms that help to divide ADHD children into subtypes on the basis of their aggressiveness, low intelligence, and poor adult prognosis. The initial MRC-funded findings were replicated. If further replicated, the findings may eventually feed into a genetically informed diagnostic practice for childhood ADHD. 
Type Diagnostic Tool - Non-Imaging
Current Stage Of Development Early clinical assessment
Year Development Stage Completed 2007
Development Status On hold
Impact none 
 
Title genetic method fo rassessing predispostion to antisocial disorders 
Description MAOA genotype to assess predisposition to antisocial disorders and violence after maltreatment 
Type Diagnostic Tool - Non-Imaging
Current Stage Of Development Small-scale adoption
Year Development Stage Completed 2006
Development Status On hold
Impact Use in criminal courts in USA 
 
Title pediatric psychiatric screening 
Description A follow-back study of the MRC-funded Dunedin cohort revealed that 75% of adults treated for psychiatric disorders had first evidenced a diagnoseable mental disorder prior to age 18. This finding identifies child psychiatric screening as a strategy for prevention to reduce adult psychiatric disorder, disability, and health service costs. 
Type Diagnostic Tool - Non-Imaging
Current Stage Of Development Refinement. Non-clinical
Year Development Stage Completed 2010
Development Status Under active development/distribution
Impact none 
 
Description 2 videos about our research programme 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience Policymakers/parliamentarians
Results and Impact n/a
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description 6 editorials about our findings 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact greater dissemination of new findings
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010,2011
 
Description A Lethal Inheritance: A Mother Uncovers the Science Behind Three Generations of Mental Illness 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact increased public recognition of the importance of family history in psychological health and treatment
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description ASC Oral History Project 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact na
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Academy of Medical Sciences Fellows Discussion Dinner, 9 July, 2012, London, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact na
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Council for Advancement of Science Writing, New Horizons speaker, 29 October, Raleigh, NC. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact na
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Dissemination of our findings on work stress 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact n/a
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008
 
Description Dr. Tulp's Anatomy Lesson at the Concertgebouw, 29-30 November, Amsterdam, Netherlands. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact na
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Gresham College Public Lecture Series, 3 July, 2012, City of London, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact na
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Home office, Council of Europe, etc. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Primary Audience Policymakers/parliamentarians
Results and Impact more than I can describe here
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2007,2008,2009
 
Description NAture's Great Experiment 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The website has been visited by more than 30,000 viewers each year since 2007. In 2010 the films are screened in lecture theatres and galleries in Belfast, Dundee, Aberdeen, Hull, and Bury St. Edmunds, as part of the Wellcome Trust "identity" series.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007,2008,2009
 
Description Public Broadcasting System, Sesame Street 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 50million viewers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
URL http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/business/jan-june11/makingsense_06-03.html
 
Description Royal Society Soiree and Webcast Behaving Badly 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact better public understanding of genetics research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008
URL http://royalsociety.tv/dpx_royalsociety/dpx.php?dpxuser=dpx_v12
 
Description Royal society soiree: Behaving Badly 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact n/a
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007
 
Description The Science of Us, a documentary Film series 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact film will be released in 2012
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010,2011
 
Description Training videos 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact Clinical and research teams from all over the world have ordered the videotape training materials.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007,2008,2009,2010,2011
 
Description Trinity Board of Visitors 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact more money for the university
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Trygfonden Foundation Denmark 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/parliamentarians
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description US Natl Acad of Sciences, UK Home Office, Insititute of Medicine, etc 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Primary Audience Policymakers/parliamentarians
Results and Impact Government funding priorities for violence research in the USA were altered.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2007,2008,2009,2010
URL http://obssr.od.nih.gov/scientific_areas/social_culture_factors_in_health/health_disparities/esrc-gr...
 
Description Univ of Zurich Public Event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact na
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description University of Capetown, series of workshops and a public lecture, 27 July- 6 August, Capetown, South Africa 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/parliamentarians
Results and Impact na
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Wellcome Trust Art Exhibit Nature's Great Experiment 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact better public understanding of genetics research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008
URL http://www.naturesgreatexperiment.com
 
Description amicus brief to US Supreme Court 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Primary Audience Policymakers/parliamentarians
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description continuing education teaching 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact We get invited back.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007,2008,2009,2011
 
Description coverage of our findings on sleep 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact N/a
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description coverage of our findings on the prevalence of mental disorders 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact n/a
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description dissemination of findings on schizophrenia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact n/a
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description film documentary Jacobs Foundation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact just went on line
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description high visibility public lectures by TE Moffitt 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience Policymakers/parliamentarians
Results and Impact n/a
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007,2008,2009,2010,2011
 
Description keynote and plenary lectures 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact education
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2007,2008,2009,2010
 
Description keynotes, plenary talks 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact more than I can describe here
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2007,2008,2009
 
Description magazine,broadsheet, TV, radio, internet news coverage 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact public understanding of genetics
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2007,2008
 
Description media coverage in 2010 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact public understanding of science
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description media coverage of cannabis research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact na
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description media coverage of endocannabinoids work 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact na
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description media coverage of gambling research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact na
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description media coverage of obesity research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact na
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description media coverage of our findings on cannabis and gum disease 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact n/a
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008
 
Description media coverage of our findings on early substance abuse 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Primary Audience Policymakers/parliamentarians
Results and Impact n/a
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description media coverage of our findings on family history 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact n/a
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description media coverage of our findings on neighbourhood effects on children 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact n/a
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description media coverage of our research in 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact enormous interest in five of our publicatons this year
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description media coverage of our work on gene-environment interaction 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact n/a
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007
 
Description media coverage of our work on stress & inflammation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Think Tank funded
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description media coverage of research on self control 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Intervention programmes begun.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description media coverage of telomere research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact na
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description more media coverage of findings on stress and inflammation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact n/a
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description secondary school education 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact is being adopted for UK secondary schools curriculum
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2007,2008,2009
 
Description workshops, CDs, booklets for training professionals 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact training pharmacists
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2007,2009,2010,2011
 
Description workshops, training CDs 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact more than I can describe here
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2007,2008,2009
 
Description you-tube video 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact just went on line
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010