Diversity of the masticatory apparatus among extant rodents: 3D analysis and modeling of form and function

Lead Research Organisation: University of Hull
Department Name: Engineering

Abstract

Rodents form the largest order (Rodentia) of mammals comprising well over two thousand species. However, despite their diversity, all rodents can be assigned to one of just three groups based on the arrangement of the jaw muscles: the squirrel-like rodents (sciuromorphs), the guinea pig-like rodents (hystricomorphs), and the rat-like rodents (myomorphs). Two groups, the sciuromorphs and hystricomorphs, also have distinct modes of feeding - the former are predominantly gnawers whereas the latter are mostly chewers. The myomorphs are generalists and do not specialise in their mode of feeding. This raises a very interesting question - are the differing feeding behaviours and related muscle arrangements driving skeletal form in the rodent skull? Surprisingly, no one has addressed this fundamentally important question, even though rodents are one of the most important groups on the planet in terms of biological research, biodiversity, and environmental health. Our aim is to draw on our collective expertise in imaging, computer modelling and evolutionary biology to address the rodent form and function question by way of three core hypotheses: Firstly, it is hypothesised that the two extreme modes of feeding found among rodents (chewing and gnawing) are associated with notably different patterns of stress and strain across the skull. It is also predicted that rats, which are adapted to both modes of feeding, will show an intermediate pattern of stress and strain. Secondly, it is hypothesised that the different stress/strain patterns will explain differences in the shape of the skull and the attachment points of the muscles between the three groups. The alternative scenario is that other factors such as brain size, body size or evolutionary history are having an equal or greater effect on the skull shape than feeding. Lastly, it is predicted that rats either develop from sciuromorph muscles on a hystricomorph skull or hystricomorph muscles on a sciuromorph skull. This predicts that by modifying guinea pig and squirrel models, we will be able to create a virtual model that closely resembles a rat. To test the above hypotheses, three-dimensional digital models will be reconstructed from computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. The models will be analysed using finite element analysis (FEA) - a technique that predicts deformation, strain and stress in a digital structure. These techniques will be used because they are non-invasive, thereby removing the need for live animal experimentation, they provide spatially co-registered data, and also because the digital models can be manipulated to test particular hypotheses or to produce hypothetical morphologies not normally found in nature. The results of this project will lead to a greater understanding of the effect of feeding on the rodent skull and the constraints imposed by the jaw muscles. This will help explain the exceptional evolutionary success of the order Rodentia amongst the mammals, and, in particular, the success of the rats and mice within the rodents. We anticipate that the research will benefit environmental and evolutionary biologists interested in modes of biodiversity and mammalian speciation.
 
Description Understanding the functional evolution of the mammalian middle ear and jaw joint across the cynodont-mammaliaform transition
Amount £53,398 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/K013831/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 03/2014 
End 02/2017
 
Description Skull modelling group 
Organisation Hull York Medical School
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution FEA and MDA modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Anatomy expertise, geometric morphometrics expertise, in vivo measurement.
Impact • PJ Watson, F Gröning, N Curtis, L Fitton, A Herrel, S McCormack, MJ Fagan. 2014. Multi-body dynamics modelling of the rabbit skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:99, 20140564. • SW McCormack, U Witzel, PJ Watson, MJ Fagan, F Gröning. 2014. The biomechanical function of periodontal ligament fibres in orthodontic tooth movement. PLoS One 9:7 e102387. • Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1983-92. • N Curtis, U Witzel, MJ Fagan. 2014. Development and 3D morphology of the zygomaticotemporal suture in primate skulls. Folia Primatologica 85: 77-87. DOI: 10.1159/000357526 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. 2013. Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:86, 20130442. • F Gröning, MEH Jones, N Curtis, A Herrel, P O'Higgins, SE. Evans, MJ. Fagan. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:84, 20132016. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Comparing the distribution of strains with the distribution of bone tissue in a human mandible: a finite element study. Anatomical Record, 296:1, 9-18, 2013. • P O'Higgins, LC Fitton, R Phillips, JF Shi, J Liu, F Gröning, SN Cobb, MJ Fagan. 2012. Virtual functional morphology: novel approaches to the study of craniofacial form and function. Evolutionary Biology, 39:4, 521-535. • MEH Jones, I Werneburg, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47852, 2012. • J Shi, N Curtis, LC Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310, 21-30, 2012. • MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans, N Curtis. Shearing mechanics and the influence of a flexible symphysis during oral food processing in Sphenodon (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia). Anatomical Record, 295:7, 1075-1091, 2012. • LC Fitton, JF Shi, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study. Journal of Anatomy, 221:1, 55-68, 2012. • F Gröning, JA Bright, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Improving the validation of finite element models with quantitative full-field strain comparisons. Journal of Biomechanics. 45:8, 1498-1506, 2012. • PG Cox, EJ Rayfield, MJ Fagan, A Herrel, TC Pataky, N Jeffery. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS One, 7(4): e36299, 2012. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Modelling the human mandible under masticatory loads. Which input variables are important? Anatomical Record. 295(5):853-63, 2012. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan. Comment on "The effects of modelling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: The alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments" (volume 44, issue 10, pages 1831-1838). Journal of Biomechanics. 45:9, 1749-50. • J Liu, JF Shi, LC Fitton, R Phillips, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 11:1 35-47, 2012 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in diapsid reptiles. PLoS One, 6:12, e29804, 2011. • MJ Higham, T Compton, C Stringer, R Jacobi, B Shapiro, E Trinkaus, B Chandler, F Gröning, C Collins, S Hillson, P O'Higgins, C FitzGerald, MJ Fagan. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in Europe. Nature, 479, 521-524, 2011. • PG Cox, MJ Fagan, EJ Rayfield, N Jeffery. Finite element modelling of the rodent skull: sensitivity analyses of finite element models of rat, guinea pig and squirrel skulls. Journal of Anatomy, 219, 696-709, 2011. • N Curtis, U Witzel, L Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis. Anatomical Record, 294:7, 1178-90, 2011 • MEH Jones, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. Hard tissue anatomy of the cranial joints in Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia): sutures, kinesis, and skull mechanics. Palaeontologia Electronica, 14:2, 17A:92p. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. The effects of the periodontal ligament on mandibular stiffness: a study combining finite element analysis and geometric morphometrics. Journal of Biomechanics, 44:7, 1304-1312, 2011. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144: 593-606, 2011. • P O'Higgins, S Cobb, LC Fitton, F Gröning, R Phillips, J Liu, MJ Fagan. Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1 3-15, 2011. • N Curtis. Craniofacial biomechanics: an overview of recent multibody modelling studies. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1, 16-25, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01317.x • PJ Watson, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, CA Dobson. Validation of a morphometric reconstruction technique applied to a juvenile pelvis. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225:1, 48-57, 2011. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Feedback control from the jaw joints during biting: an investigation of the reptile Sphenodon using multibody modelling. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:16, 3132-3137, 2010. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:14, 2804-2809, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, JF Shi, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Predicting muscle activation patterns from motion and anatomy: modelling the skull of Sphenodon (Diapsida: rhynchocephalia). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, 153-160, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Visualising muscle anatomy using three-dimensional computer models - an example using the head and neck muscles of Sphenodon. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:3, 7T:18pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_3/194). • M Jones, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The head and neck muscles associated with feeding in Sphenodon (Reptilia: lepidosauria: rhynchocephalia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:2, 7A:56pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_2/179) • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Validating a voxel-based finite element model of a human mandible using digital speckle pattern interferometry. Journal of Biomechanics. 42, 1224-1229, 2009. • K Kupczik, CA Dobson, RH Crompton, R Phillips, CE Oxnard, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139: 193-203, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 20, 8273-8277, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MEH Jones, SE Evans, MJ Fagan Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull - a computer modelling study. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Part B, 276, 39-46, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 499-508, 2008. • M Moazen, N Curtis, S Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Rigid body analysis of the lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics, 41:6, 1274-1280, 2008. • N Curtis, K Kupczik, P O'Higgins, M Moazen, MJ Fagan. Predicting skull loading: applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull. The Anatomical Record, 291, 491-501, 2008. • K Kupczik, CA. Dobson, MJ Fagan, RH Crompton, CE Oxnard, P O'Higgins. Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models. Journal of Anatomy, 210:1, 41-53, 2007.
Start Year 2007
 
Description Skull modelling group 
Organisation National History Museum, Paris, France
Country France, French Republic 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution FEA and MDA modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Anatomy expertise, geometric morphometrics expertise, in vivo measurement.
Impact • PJ Watson, F Gröning, N Curtis, L Fitton, A Herrel, S McCormack, MJ Fagan. 2014. Multi-body dynamics modelling of the rabbit skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:99, 20140564. • SW McCormack, U Witzel, PJ Watson, MJ Fagan, F Gröning. 2014. The biomechanical function of periodontal ligament fibres in orthodontic tooth movement. PLoS One 9:7 e102387. • Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1983-92. • N Curtis, U Witzel, MJ Fagan. 2014. Development and 3D morphology of the zygomaticotemporal suture in primate skulls. Folia Primatologica 85: 77-87. DOI: 10.1159/000357526 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. 2013. Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:86, 20130442. • F Gröning, MEH Jones, N Curtis, A Herrel, P O'Higgins, SE. Evans, MJ. Fagan. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:84, 20132016. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Comparing the distribution of strains with the distribution of bone tissue in a human mandible: a finite element study. Anatomical Record, 296:1, 9-18, 2013. • P O'Higgins, LC Fitton, R Phillips, JF Shi, J Liu, F Gröning, SN Cobb, MJ Fagan. 2012. Virtual functional morphology: novel approaches to the study of craniofacial form and function. Evolutionary Biology, 39:4, 521-535. • MEH Jones, I Werneburg, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47852, 2012. • J Shi, N Curtis, LC Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310, 21-30, 2012. • MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans, N Curtis. Shearing mechanics and the influence of a flexible symphysis during oral food processing in Sphenodon (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia). Anatomical Record, 295:7, 1075-1091, 2012. • LC Fitton, JF Shi, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study. Journal of Anatomy, 221:1, 55-68, 2012. • F Gröning, JA Bright, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Improving the validation of finite element models with quantitative full-field strain comparisons. Journal of Biomechanics. 45:8, 1498-1506, 2012. • PG Cox, EJ Rayfield, MJ Fagan, A Herrel, TC Pataky, N Jeffery. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS One, 7(4): e36299, 2012. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Modelling the human mandible under masticatory loads. Which input variables are important? Anatomical Record. 295(5):853-63, 2012. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan. Comment on "The effects of modelling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: The alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments" (volume 44, issue 10, pages 1831-1838). Journal of Biomechanics. 45:9, 1749-50. • J Liu, JF Shi, LC Fitton, R Phillips, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 11:1 35-47, 2012 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in diapsid reptiles. PLoS One, 6:12, e29804, 2011. • MJ Higham, T Compton, C Stringer, R Jacobi, B Shapiro, E Trinkaus, B Chandler, F Gröning, C Collins, S Hillson, P O'Higgins, C FitzGerald, MJ Fagan. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in Europe. Nature, 479, 521-524, 2011. • PG Cox, MJ Fagan, EJ Rayfield, N Jeffery. Finite element modelling of the rodent skull: sensitivity analyses of finite element models of rat, guinea pig and squirrel skulls. Journal of Anatomy, 219, 696-709, 2011. • N Curtis, U Witzel, L Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis. Anatomical Record, 294:7, 1178-90, 2011 • MEH Jones, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. Hard tissue anatomy of the cranial joints in Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia): sutures, kinesis, and skull mechanics. Palaeontologia Electronica, 14:2, 17A:92p. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. The effects of the periodontal ligament on mandibular stiffness: a study combining finite element analysis and geometric morphometrics. Journal of Biomechanics, 44:7, 1304-1312, 2011. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144: 593-606, 2011. • P O'Higgins, S Cobb, LC Fitton, F Gröning, R Phillips, J Liu, MJ Fagan. Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1 3-15, 2011. • N Curtis. Craniofacial biomechanics: an overview of recent multibody modelling studies. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1, 16-25, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01317.x • PJ Watson, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, CA Dobson. Validation of a morphometric reconstruction technique applied to a juvenile pelvis. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225:1, 48-57, 2011. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Feedback control from the jaw joints during biting: an investigation of the reptile Sphenodon using multibody modelling. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:16, 3132-3137, 2010. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:14, 2804-2809, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, JF Shi, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Predicting muscle activation patterns from motion and anatomy: modelling the skull of Sphenodon (Diapsida: rhynchocephalia). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, 153-160, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Visualising muscle anatomy using three-dimensional computer models - an example using the head and neck muscles of Sphenodon. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:3, 7T:18pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_3/194). • M Jones, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The head and neck muscles associated with feeding in Sphenodon (Reptilia: lepidosauria: rhynchocephalia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:2, 7A:56pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_2/179) • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Validating a voxel-based finite element model of a human mandible using digital speckle pattern interferometry. Journal of Biomechanics. 42, 1224-1229, 2009. • K Kupczik, CA Dobson, RH Crompton, R Phillips, CE Oxnard, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139: 193-203, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 20, 8273-8277, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MEH Jones, SE Evans, MJ Fagan Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull - a computer modelling study. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Part B, 276, 39-46, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 499-508, 2008. • M Moazen, N Curtis, S Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Rigid body analysis of the lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics, 41:6, 1274-1280, 2008. • N Curtis, K Kupczik, P O'Higgins, M Moazen, MJ Fagan. Predicting skull loading: applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull. The Anatomical Record, 291, 491-501, 2008. • K Kupczik, CA. Dobson, MJ Fagan, RH Crompton, CE Oxnard, P O'Higgins. Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models. Journal of Anatomy, 210:1, 41-53, 2007.
Start Year 2007
 
Description Skull modelling group 
Organisation Ruhr University Bochum
Country Germany, Federal Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution FEA and MDA modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Anatomy expertise, geometric morphometrics expertise, in vivo measurement.
Impact • PJ Watson, F Gröning, N Curtis, L Fitton, A Herrel, S McCormack, MJ Fagan. 2014. Multi-body dynamics modelling of the rabbit skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:99, 20140564. • SW McCormack, U Witzel, PJ Watson, MJ Fagan, F Gröning. 2014. The biomechanical function of periodontal ligament fibres in orthodontic tooth movement. PLoS One 9:7 e102387. • Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1983-92. • N Curtis, U Witzel, MJ Fagan. 2014. Development and 3D morphology of the zygomaticotemporal suture in primate skulls. Folia Primatologica 85: 77-87. DOI: 10.1159/000357526 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. 2013. Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:86, 20130442. • F Gröning, MEH Jones, N Curtis, A Herrel, P O'Higgins, SE. Evans, MJ. Fagan. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:84, 20132016. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Comparing the distribution of strains with the distribution of bone tissue in a human mandible: a finite element study. Anatomical Record, 296:1, 9-18, 2013. • P O'Higgins, LC Fitton, R Phillips, JF Shi, J Liu, F Gröning, SN Cobb, MJ Fagan. 2012. Virtual functional morphology: novel approaches to the study of craniofacial form and function. Evolutionary Biology, 39:4, 521-535. • MEH Jones, I Werneburg, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47852, 2012. • J Shi, N Curtis, LC Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310, 21-30, 2012. • MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans, N Curtis. Shearing mechanics and the influence of a flexible symphysis during oral food processing in Sphenodon (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia). Anatomical Record, 295:7, 1075-1091, 2012. • LC Fitton, JF Shi, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study. Journal of Anatomy, 221:1, 55-68, 2012. • F Gröning, JA Bright, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Improving the validation of finite element models with quantitative full-field strain comparisons. Journal of Biomechanics. 45:8, 1498-1506, 2012. • PG Cox, EJ Rayfield, MJ Fagan, A Herrel, TC Pataky, N Jeffery. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS One, 7(4): e36299, 2012. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Modelling the human mandible under masticatory loads. Which input variables are important? Anatomical Record. 295(5):853-63, 2012. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan. Comment on "The effects of modelling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: The alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments" (volume 44, issue 10, pages 1831-1838). Journal of Biomechanics. 45:9, 1749-50. • J Liu, JF Shi, LC Fitton, R Phillips, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 11:1 35-47, 2012 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in diapsid reptiles. PLoS One, 6:12, e29804, 2011. • MJ Higham, T Compton, C Stringer, R Jacobi, B Shapiro, E Trinkaus, B Chandler, F Gröning, C Collins, S Hillson, P O'Higgins, C FitzGerald, MJ Fagan. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in Europe. Nature, 479, 521-524, 2011. • PG Cox, MJ Fagan, EJ Rayfield, N Jeffery. Finite element modelling of the rodent skull: sensitivity analyses of finite element models of rat, guinea pig and squirrel skulls. Journal of Anatomy, 219, 696-709, 2011. • N Curtis, U Witzel, L Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis. Anatomical Record, 294:7, 1178-90, 2011 • MEH Jones, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. Hard tissue anatomy of the cranial joints in Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia): sutures, kinesis, and skull mechanics. Palaeontologia Electronica, 14:2, 17A:92p. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. The effects of the periodontal ligament on mandibular stiffness: a study combining finite element analysis and geometric morphometrics. Journal of Biomechanics, 44:7, 1304-1312, 2011. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144: 593-606, 2011. • P O'Higgins, S Cobb, LC Fitton, F Gröning, R Phillips, J Liu, MJ Fagan. Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1 3-15, 2011. • N Curtis. Craniofacial biomechanics: an overview of recent multibody modelling studies. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1, 16-25, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01317.x • PJ Watson, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, CA Dobson. Validation of a morphometric reconstruction technique applied to a juvenile pelvis. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225:1, 48-57, 2011. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Feedback control from the jaw joints during biting: an investigation of the reptile Sphenodon using multibody modelling. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:16, 3132-3137, 2010. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:14, 2804-2809, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, JF Shi, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Predicting muscle activation patterns from motion and anatomy: modelling the skull of Sphenodon (Diapsida: rhynchocephalia). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, 153-160, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Visualising muscle anatomy using three-dimensional computer models - an example using the head and neck muscles of Sphenodon. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:3, 7T:18pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_3/194). • M Jones, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The head and neck muscles associated with feeding in Sphenodon (Reptilia: lepidosauria: rhynchocephalia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:2, 7A:56pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_2/179) • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Validating a voxel-based finite element model of a human mandible using digital speckle pattern interferometry. Journal of Biomechanics. 42, 1224-1229, 2009. • K Kupczik, CA Dobson, RH Crompton, R Phillips, CE Oxnard, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139: 193-203, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 20, 8273-8277, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MEH Jones, SE Evans, MJ Fagan Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull - a computer modelling study. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Part B, 276, 39-46, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 499-508, 2008. • M Moazen, N Curtis, S Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Rigid body analysis of the lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics, 41:6, 1274-1280, 2008. • N Curtis, K Kupczik, P O'Higgins, M Moazen, MJ Fagan. Predicting skull loading: applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull. The Anatomical Record, 291, 491-501, 2008. • K Kupczik, CA. Dobson, MJ Fagan, RH Crompton, CE Oxnard, P O'Higgins. Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models. Journal of Anatomy, 210:1, 41-53, 2007.
Start Year 2007
 
Description Skull modelling group 
Organisation University College London (UCL)
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution FEA and MDA modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Anatomy expertise, geometric morphometrics expertise, in vivo measurement.
Impact • PJ Watson, F Gröning, N Curtis, L Fitton, A Herrel, S McCormack, MJ Fagan. 2014. Multi-body dynamics modelling of the rabbit skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:99, 20140564. • SW McCormack, U Witzel, PJ Watson, MJ Fagan, F Gröning. 2014. The biomechanical function of periodontal ligament fibres in orthodontic tooth movement. PLoS One 9:7 e102387. • Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1983-92. • N Curtis, U Witzel, MJ Fagan. 2014. Development and 3D morphology of the zygomaticotemporal suture in primate skulls. Folia Primatologica 85: 77-87. DOI: 10.1159/000357526 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. 2013. Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:86, 20130442. • F Gröning, MEH Jones, N Curtis, A Herrel, P O'Higgins, SE. Evans, MJ. Fagan. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:84, 20132016. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Comparing the distribution of strains with the distribution of bone tissue in a human mandible: a finite element study. Anatomical Record, 296:1, 9-18, 2013. • P O'Higgins, LC Fitton, R Phillips, JF Shi, J Liu, F Gröning, SN Cobb, MJ Fagan. 2012. Virtual functional morphology: novel approaches to the study of craniofacial form and function. Evolutionary Biology, 39:4, 521-535. • MEH Jones, I Werneburg, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47852, 2012. • J Shi, N Curtis, LC Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310, 21-30, 2012. • MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans, N Curtis. Shearing mechanics and the influence of a flexible symphysis during oral food processing in Sphenodon (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia). Anatomical Record, 295:7, 1075-1091, 2012. • LC Fitton, JF Shi, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study. Journal of Anatomy, 221:1, 55-68, 2012. • F Gröning, JA Bright, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Improving the validation of finite element models with quantitative full-field strain comparisons. Journal of Biomechanics. 45:8, 1498-1506, 2012. • PG Cox, EJ Rayfield, MJ Fagan, A Herrel, TC Pataky, N Jeffery. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS One, 7(4): e36299, 2012. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Modelling the human mandible under masticatory loads. Which input variables are important? Anatomical Record. 295(5):853-63, 2012. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan. Comment on "The effects of modelling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: The alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments" (volume 44, issue 10, pages 1831-1838). Journal of Biomechanics. 45:9, 1749-50. • J Liu, JF Shi, LC Fitton, R Phillips, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 11:1 35-47, 2012 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in diapsid reptiles. PLoS One, 6:12, e29804, 2011. • MJ Higham, T Compton, C Stringer, R Jacobi, B Shapiro, E Trinkaus, B Chandler, F Gröning, C Collins, S Hillson, P O'Higgins, C FitzGerald, MJ Fagan. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in Europe. Nature, 479, 521-524, 2011. • PG Cox, MJ Fagan, EJ Rayfield, N Jeffery. Finite element modelling of the rodent skull: sensitivity analyses of finite element models of rat, guinea pig and squirrel skulls. Journal of Anatomy, 219, 696-709, 2011. • N Curtis, U Witzel, L Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis. Anatomical Record, 294:7, 1178-90, 2011 • MEH Jones, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. Hard tissue anatomy of the cranial joints in Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia): sutures, kinesis, and skull mechanics. Palaeontologia Electronica, 14:2, 17A:92p. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. The effects of the periodontal ligament on mandibular stiffness: a study combining finite element analysis and geometric morphometrics. Journal of Biomechanics, 44:7, 1304-1312, 2011. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144: 593-606, 2011. • P O'Higgins, S Cobb, LC Fitton, F Gröning, R Phillips, J Liu, MJ Fagan. Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1 3-15, 2011. • N Curtis. Craniofacial biomechanics: an overview of recent multibody modelling studies. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1, 16-25, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01317.x • PJ Watson, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, CA Dobson. Validation of a morphometric reconstruction technique applied to a juvenile pelvis. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225:1, 48-57, 2011. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Feedback control from the jaw joints during biting: an investigation of the reptile Sphenodon using multibody modelling. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:16, 3132-3137, 2010. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:14, 2804-2809, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, JF Shi, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Predicting muscle activation patterns from motion and anatomy: modelling the skull of Sphenodon (Diapsida: rhynchocephalia). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, 153-160, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Visualising muscle anatomy using three-dimensional computer models - an example using the head and neck muscles of Sphenodon. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:3, 7T:18pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_3/194). • M Jones, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The head and neck muscles associated with feeding in Sphenodon (Reptilia: lepidosauria: rhynchocephalia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:2, 7A:56pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_2/179) • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Validating a voxel-based finite element model of a human mandible using digital speckle pattern interferometry. Journal of Biomechanics. 42, 1224-1229, 2009. • K Kupczik, CA Dobson, RH Crompton, R Phillips, CE Oxnard, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139: 193-203, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 20, 8273-8277, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MEH Jones, SE Evans, MJ Fagan Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull - a computer modelling study. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Part B, 276, 39-46, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 499-508, 2008. • M Moazen, N Curtis, S Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Rigid body analysis of the lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics, 41:6, 1274-1280, 2008. • N Curtis, K Kupczik, P O'Higgins, M Moazen, MJ Fagan. Predicting skull loading: applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull. The Anatomical Record, 291, 491-501, 2008. • K Kupczik, CA. Dobson, MJ Fagan, RH Crompton, CE Oxnard, P O'Higgins. Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models. Journal of Anatomy, 210:1, 41-53, 2007.
Start Year 2007
 
Description Skull modelling group 
Organisation University of Aberdeen
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution FEA and MDA modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Anatomy expertise, geometric morphometrics expertise, in vivo measurement.
Impact • PJ Watson, F Gröning, N Curtis, L Fitton, A Herrel, S McCormack, MJ Fagan. 2014. Multi-body dynamics modelling of the rabbit skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:99, 20140564. • SW McCormack, U Witzel, PJ Watson, MJ Fagan, F Gröning. 2014. The biomechanical function of periodontal ligament fibres in orthodontic tooth movement. PLoS One 9:7 e102387. • Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1983-92. • N Curtis, U Witzel, MJ Fagan. 2014. Development and 3D morphology of the zygomaticotemporal suture in primate skulls. Folia Primatologica 85: 77-87. DOI: 10.1159/000357526 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. 2013. Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:86, 20130442. • F Gröning, MEH Jones, N Curtis, A Herrel, P O'Higgins, SE. Evans, MJ. Fagan. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:84, 20132016. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Comparing the distribution of strains with the distribution of bone tissue in a human mandible: a finite element study. Anatomical Record, 296:1, 9-18, 2013. • P O'Higgins, LC Fitton, R Phillips, JF Shi, J Liu, F Gröning, SN Cobb, MJ Fagan. 2012. Virtual functional morphology: novel approaches to the study of craniofacial form and function. Evolutionary Biology, 39:4, 521-535. • MEH Jones, I Werneburg, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47852, 2012. • J Shi, N Curtis, LC Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310, 21-30, 2012. • MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans, N Curtis. Shearing mechanics and the influence of a flexible symphysis during oral food processing in Sphenodon (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia). Anatomical Record, 295:7, 1075-1091, 2012. • LC Fitton, JF Shi, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study. Journal of Anatomy, 221:1, 55-68, 2012. • F Gröning, JA Bright, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Improving the validation of finite element models with quantitative full-field strain comparisons. Journal of Biomechanics. 45:8, 1498-1506, 2012. • PG Cox, EJ Rayfield, MJ Fagan, A Herrel, TC Pataky, N Jeffery. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS One, 7(4): e36299, 2012. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Modelling the human mandible under masticatory loads. Which input variables are important? Anatomical Record. 295(5):853-63, 2012. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan. Comment on "The effects of modelling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: The alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments" (volume 44, issue 10, pages 1831-1838). Journal of Biomechanics. 45:9, 1749-50. • J Liu, JF Shi, LC Fitton, R Phillips, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 11:1 35-47, 2012 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in diapsid reptiles. PLoS One, 6:12, e29804, 2011. • MJ Higham, T Compton, C Stringer, R Jacobi, B Shapiro, E Trinkaus, B Chandler, F Gröning, C Collins, S Hillson, P O'Higgins, C FitzGerald, MJ Fagan. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in Europe. Nature, 479, 521-524, 2011. • PG Cox, MJ Fagan, EJ Rayfield, N Jeffery. Finite element modelling of the rodent skull: sensitivity analyses of finite element models of rat, guinea pig and squirrel skulls. Journal of Anatomy, 219, 696-709, 2011. • N Curtis, U Witzel, L Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis. Anatomical Record, 294:7, 1178-90, 2011 • MEH Jones, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. Hard tissue anatomy of the cranial joints in Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia): sutures, kinesis, and skull mechanics. Palaeontologia Electronica, 14:2, 17A:92p. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. The effects of the periodontal ligament on mandibular stiffness: a study combining finite element analysis and geometric morphometrics. Journal of Biomechanics, 44:7, 1304-1312, 2011. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144: 593-606, 2011. • P O'Higgins, S Cobb, LC Fitton, F Gröning, R Phillips, J Liu, MJ Fagan. Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1 3-15, 2011. • N Curtis. Craniofacial biomechanics: an overview of recent multibody modelling studies. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1, 16-25, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01317.x • PJ Watson, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, CA Dobson. Validation of a morphometric reconstruction technique applied to a juvenile pelvis. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225:1, 48-57, 2011. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Feedback control from the jaw joints during biting: an investigation of the reptile Sphenodon using multibody modelling. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:16, 3132-3137, 2010. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:14, 2804-2809, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, JF Shi, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Predicting muscle activation patterns from motion and anatomy: modelling the skull of Sphenodon (Diapsida: rhynchocephalia). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, 153-160, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Visualising muscle anatomy using three-dimensional computer models - an example using the head and neck muscles of Sphenodon. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:3, 7T:18pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_3/194). • M Jones, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The head and neck muscles associated with feeding in Sphenodon (Reptilia: lepidosauria: rhynchocephalia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:2, 7A:56pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_2/179) • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Validating a voxel-based finite element model of a human mandible using digital speckle pattern interferometry. Journal of Biomechanics. 42, 1224-1229, 2009. • K Kupczik, CA Dobson, RH Crompton, R Phillips, CE Oxnard, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139: 193-203, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 20, 8273-8277, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MEH Jones, SE Evans, MJ Fagan Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull - a computer modelling study. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Part B, 276, 39-46, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 499-508, 2008. • M Moazen, N Curtis, S Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Rigid body analysis of the lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics, 41:6, 1274-1280, 2008. • N Curtis, K Kupczik, P O'Higgins, M Moazen, MJ Fagan. Predicting skull loading: applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull. The Anatomical Record, 291, 491-501, 2008. • K Kupczik, CA. Dobson, MJ Fagan, RH Crompton, CE Oxnard, P O'Higgins. Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models. Journal of Anatomy, 210:1, 41-53, 2007.
Start Year 2007
 
Description Skull modelling group 
Organisation University of Chicago
Country United States of America 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution FEA and MDA modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Anatomy expertise, geometric morphometrics expertise, in vivo measurement.
Impact • PJ Watson, F Gröning, N Curtis, L Fitton, A Herrel, S McCormack, MJ Fagan. 2014. Multi-body dynamics modelling of the rabbit skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:99, 20140564. • SW McCormack, U Witzel, PJ Watson, MJ Fagan, F Gröning. 2014. The biomechanical function of periodontal ligament fibres in orthodontic tooth movement. PLoS One 9:7 e102387. • Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1983-92. • N Curtis, U Witzel, MJ Fagan. 2014. Development and 3D morphology of the zygomaticotemporal suture in primate skulls. Folia Primatologica 85: 77-87. DOI: 10.1159/000357526 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. 2013. Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:86, 20130442. • F Gröning, MEH Jones, N Curtis, A Herrel, P O'Higgins, SE. Evans, MJ. Fagan. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:84, 20132016. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Comparing the distribution of strains with the distribution of bone tissue in a human mandible: a finite element study. Anatomical Record, 296:1, 9-18, 2013. • P O'Higgins, LC Fitton, R Phillips, JF Shi, J Liu, F Gröning, SN Cobb, MJ Fagan. 2012. Virtual functional morphology: novel approaches to the study of craniofacial form and function. Evolutionary Biology, 39:4, 521-535. • MEH Jones, I Werneburg, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47852, 2012. • J Shi, N Curtis, LC Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310, 21-30, 2012. • MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans, N Curtis. Shearing mechanics and the influence of a flexible symphysis during oral food processing in Sphenodon (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia). Anatomical Record, 295:7, 1075-1091, 2012. • LC Fitton, JF Shi, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study. Journal of Anatomy, 221:1, 55-68, 2012. • F Gröning, JA Bright, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Improving the validation of finite element models with quantitative full-field strain comparisons. Journal of Biomechanics. 45:8, 1498-1506, 2012. • PG Cox, EJ Rayfield, MJ Fagan, A Herrel, TC Pataky, N Jeffery. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS One, 7(4): e36299, 2012. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Modelling the human mandible under masticatory loads. Which input variables are important? Anatomical Record. 295(5):853-63, 2012. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan. Comment on "The effects of modelling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: The alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments" (volume 44, issue 10, pages 1831-1838). Journal of Biomechanics. 45:9, 1749-50. • J Liu, JF Shi, LC Fitton, R Phillips, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 11:1 35-47, 2012 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in diapsid reptiles. PLoS One, 6:12, e29804, 2011. • MJ Higham, T Compton, C Stringer, R Jacobi, B Shapiro, E Trinkaus, B Chandler, F Gröning, C Collins, S Hillson, P O'Higgins, C FitzGerald, MJ Fagan. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in Europe. Nature, 479, 521-524, 2011. • PG Cox, MJ Fagan, EJ Rayfield, N Jeffery. Finite element modelling of the rodent skull: sensitivity analyses of finite element models of rat, guinea pig and squirrel skulls. Journal of Anatomy, 219, 696-709, 2011. • N Curtis, U Witzel, L Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis. Anatomical Record, 294:7, 1178-90, 2011 • MEH Jones, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. Hard tissue anatomy of the cranial joints in Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia): sutures, kinesis, and skull mechanics. Palaeontologia Electronica, 14:2, 17A:92p. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. The effects of the periodontal ligament on mandibular stiffness: a study combining finite element analysis and geometric morphometrics. Journal of Biomechanics, 44:7, 1304-1312, 2011. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144: 593-606, 2011. • P O'Higgins, S Cobb, LC Fitton, F Gröning, R Phillips, J Liu, MJ Fagan. Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1 3-15, 2011. • N Curtis. Craniofacial biomechanics: an overview of recent multibody modelling studies. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1, 16-25, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01317.x • PJ Watson, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, CA Dobson. Validation of a morphometric reconstruction technique applied to a juvenile pelvis. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225:1, 48-57, 2011. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Feedback control from the jaw joints during biting: an investigation of the reptile Sphenodon using multibody modelling. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:16, 3132-3137, 2010. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:14, 2804-2809, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, JF Shi, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Predicting muscle activation patterns from motion and anatomy: modelling the skull of Sphenodon (Diapsida: rhynchocephalia). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, 153-160, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Visualising muscle anatomy using three-dimensional computer models - an example using the head and neck muscles of Sphenodon. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:3, 7T:18pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_3/194). • M Jones, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The head and neck muscles associated with feeding in Sphenodon (Reptilia: lepidosauria: rhynchocephalia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:2, 7A:56pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_2/179) • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Validating a voxel-based finite element model of a human mandible using digital speckle pattern interferometry. Journal of Biomechanics. 42, 1224-1229, 2009. • K Kupczik, CA Dobson, RH Crompton, R Phillips, CE Oxnard, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139: 193-203, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 20, 8273-8277, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MEH Jones, SE Evans, MJ Fagan Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull - a computer modelling study. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Part B, 276, 39-46, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 499-508, 2008. • M Moazen, N Curtis, S Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Rigid body analysis of the lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics, 41:6, 1274-1280, 2008. • N Curtis, K Kupczik, P O'Higgins, M Moazen, MJ Fagan. Predicting skull loading: applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull. The Anatomical Record, 291, 491-501, 2008. • K Kupczik, CA. Dobson, MJ Fagan, RH Crompton, CE Oxnard, P O'Higgins. Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models. Journal of Anatomy, 210:1, 41-53, 2007.
Start Year 2007
 
Description Skull modelling group 
Organisation University of Liverpool
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution FEA and MDA modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Anatomy expertise, geometric morphometrics expertise, in vivo measurement.
Impact • PJ Watson, F Gröning, N Curtis, L Fitton, A Herrel, S McCormack, MJ Fagan. 2014. Multi-body dynamics modelling of the rabbit skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:99, 20140564. • SW McCormack, U Witzel, PJ Watson, MJ Fagan, F Gröning. 2014. The biomechanical function of periodontal ligament fibres in orthodontic tooth movement. PLoS One 9:7 e102387. • Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1983-92. • N Curtis, U Witzel, MJ Fagan. 2014. Development and 3D morphology of the zygomaticotemporal suture in primate skulls. Folia Primatologica 85: 77-87. DOI: 10.1159/000357526 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. 2013. Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:86, 20130442. • F Gröning, MEH Jones, N Curtis, A Herrel, P O'Higgins, SE. Evans, MJ. Fagan. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:84, 20132016. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Comparing the distribution of strains with the distribution of bone tissue in a human mandible: a finite element study. Anatomical Record, 296:1, 9-18, 2013. • P O'Higgins, LC Fitton, R Phillips, JF Shi, J Liu, F Gröning, SN Cobb, MJ Fagan. 2012. Virtual functional morphology: novel approaches to the study of craniofacial form and function. Evolutionary Biology, 39:4, 521-535. • MEH Jones, I Werneburg, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47852, 2012. • J Shi, N Curtis, LC Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310, 21-30, 2012. • MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans, N Curtis. Shearing mechanics and the influence of a flexible symphysis during oral food processing in Sphenodon (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia). Anatomical Record, 295:7, 1075-1091, 2012. • LC Fitton, JF Shi, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study. Journal of Anatomy, 221:1, 55-68, 2012. • F Gröning, JA Bright, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Improving the validation of finite element models with quantitative full-field strain comparisons. Journal of Biomechanics. 45:8, 1498-1506, 2012. • PG Cox, EJ Rayfield, MJ Fagan, A Herrel, TC Pataky, N Jeffery. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS One, 7(4): e36299, 2012. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Modelling the human mandible under masticatory loads. Which input variables are important? Anatomical Record. 295(5):853-63, 2012. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan. Comment on "The effects of modelling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: The alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments" (volume 44, issue 10, pages 1831-1838). Journal of Biomechanics. 45:9, 1749-50. • J Liu, JF Shi, LC Fitton, R Phillips, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 11:1 35-47, 2012 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in diapsid reptiles. PLoS One, 6:12, e29804, 2011. • MJ Higham, T Compton, C Stringer, R Jacobi, B Shapiro, E Trinkaus, B Chandler, F Gröning, C Collins, S Hillson, P O'Higgins, C FitzGerald, MJ Fagan. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in Europe. Nature, 479, 521-524, 2011. • PG Cox, MJ Fagan, EJ Rayfield, N Jeffery. Finite element modelling of the rodent skull: sensitivity analyses of finite element models of rat, guinea pig and squirrel skulls. Journal of Anatomy, 219, 696-709, 2011. • N Curtis, U Witzel, L Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis. Anatomical Record, 294:7, 1178-90, 2011 • MEH Jones, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. Hard tissue anatomy of the cranial joints in Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia): sutures, kinesis, and skull mechanics. Palaeontologia Electronica, 14:2, 17A:92p. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. The effects of the periodontal ligament on mandibular stiffness: a study combining finite element analysis and geometric morphometrics. Journal of Biomechanics, 44:7, 1304-1312, 2011. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144: 593-606, 2011. • P O'Higgins, S Cobb, LC Fitton, F Gröning, R Phillips, J Liu, MJ Fagan. Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1 3-15, 2011. • N Curtis. Craniofacial biomechanics: an overview of recent multibody modelling studies. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1, 16-25, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01317.x • PJ Watson, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, CA Dobson. Validation of a morphometric reconstruction technique applied to a juvenile pelvis. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225:1, 48-57, 2011. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Feedback control from the jaw joints during biting: an investigation of the reptile Sphenodon using multibody modelling. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:16, 3132-3137, 2010. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:14, 2804-2809, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, JF Shi, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Predicting muscle activation patterns from motion and anatomy: modelling the skull of Sphenodon (Diapsida: rhynchocephalia). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, 153-160, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Visualising muscle anatomy using three-dimensional computer models - an example using the head and neck muscles of Sphenodon. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:3, 7T:18pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_3/194). • M Jones, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The head and neck muscles associated with feeding in Sphenodon (Reptilia: lepidosauria: rhynchocephalia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:2, 7A:56pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_2/179) • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Validating a voxel-based finite element model of a human mandible using digital speckle pattern interferometry. Journal of Biomechanics. 42, 1224-1229, 2009. • K Kupczik, CA Dobson, RH Crompton, R Phillips, CE Oxnard, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139: 193-203, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 20, 8273-8277, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MEH Jones, SE Evans, MJ Fagan Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull - a computer modelling study. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Part B, 276, 39-46, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 499-508, 2008. • M Moazen, N Curtis, S Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Rigid body analysis of the lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics, 41:6, 1274-1280, 2008. • N Curtis, K Kupczik, P O'Higgins, M Moazen, MJ Fagan. Predicting skull loading: applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull. The Anatomical Record, 291, 491-501, 2008. • K Kupczik, CA. Dobson, MJ Fagan, RH Crompton, CE Oxnard, P O'Higgins. Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models. Journal of Anatomy, 210:1, 41-53, 2007.
Start Year 2007