Permafrost catchments in transition: hydrological controls on carbon cycling and greenhouse gas budgets

Lead Research Organisation: University of Sheffield
Department Name: Geography

Abstract

The Arctic is undergoing rapid climatic change, with dramatic consequences for the 'Frozen World' (the 'cryosphere'), including reductions in the depth, extent and duration of sea ice, and seasonal snow cover on land, retreat of ice sheets/glaciers, and melting of permafrost ("ground that remains at or below 0 degrees C for at least two consecutive years"). This is important not only for local and regional ecosystems and human communities, but also for the functioning of the entire earth system. Evidence is growing that organic matter frozen in permafrost soils (often for many millennia) is now thawing, making it available for decomposition by soil organisms, with the release of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), both greenhouse gases (GHGs), as by-products. A major concern now is that, because permafrost soils contain 1672 petagrams (1 Pg = 1 billion tonnes) of organic carbon (C), which is about 50% of the total global below-ground pool of organic C, and permafrost underlies ~ 25% (23 million km2) of the N hemisphere land surface, a melting-induced release of GHGs to the atmosphere from permafrost soils could result in a major acceleration of global warming. This is called a 'positive biogeochemical feedback' on global change; in other words, an unintentional side-effect in the global C cycle and climate system.

Unfortunately, the interacting biological, chemical and physical controls on CO2 and CH4 emissions from permafrost (and melting permafrost) environments to the atmosphere are the subject of much speculation because the scientific community does not know enough about the interactions between C and water cycling in permafrost systems. Warmer and drier soils may release more CO2, while warmer/wetter soils might release more CH4. Permafrost thawing also causes changes in the way water flows though the landscape (because frozen ground if often impermeable to water), and some areas may become drier, while others wetter. How the relative proportions of CO2 and CH4 emissions change, and their absolute amount, is critical for the overall 'global warming potential' (GWP) because these two gases have different potency as GHGs. Release of C from soils into freshwaters also needs to be taken into account because down-stream 'de-gassing' and decomposition of organic materials also influences releases of CO2 and CH4 from freshwater, or delivery of C to lakes/oceans. All-in-all, predicting the GWP of permafrost regions is scientifically challenging, and the interactions between the water (hydrological) and C cycles are poorly known.

In this project we recognise the key role that hydrological processes play in landscape-scale C fluxes in arctic and boreal regions. In permafrost catchments in NW Canada (including areas where permafrost is known to be thawing) we will measure the capture of C from the atmosphere (through photosynthesis), its distribution in plants and soils, and the biological, physical and chemical controls of C transport and delivery from soils to freshwaters, and ultimately to the atmosphere as CO2 and CH4. In essence we wish to 'close the C cycle'. Field-based measurements of key processes in the water and C cycles, including geochemical tracer and state-of-the-art C, hydrogen and oxygen isotope approaches, will be linked by computer modelling. The project team, together with partners in Canada, the US and UK, is in a unique position to link the water and C cycles in permafrost environments, and we will deliver essential scientific knowledge on the potential consequences of climate warming, and permafrost thawing, for GHG emissions from northern high latitudes. Both for local peoples directly dependent on arctic tundra/boreal forest ecosystems for their livelihoods and cultural identity, and for the global community who must respond to, and anticipate, potential consequences of climate and environmental change, this project will represent a significant step forward in understanding/predictive capacity.

Planned Impact

The proposed research will impact directly upon a range of key beneficiaries. We will use our existing contacts to contribute to the development of the stakeholder engagement strategy for the wider NERC Arctic Research Programme. Specifically, we aim to (1) enhance the profile of UK Arctic research through collaboration with the wider scientific/policy-maker communities in both the UK and Canada, (2) support outreach activities on the consequences of change to those dependent on the Arctic environment; in particular, economic and societal impact on the local and regional communities, and (3) promote a wider understanding of the local through to global implications of change in the northern latitudes within schools and the wider public through public engagement in science activities. Specific exemplars of beneficiaries we will actively target include: UK and Canadian government departments and their relevant agencies. The tangible benefits will be improved modelling, and hence more robust outputs and understanding, leading to stronger evidence-based policy decisions. In the UK these stakeholders will include the Met Office and Department for Energy and Climate Change. In Canada the principle beneficiary will be Environment Canada (EC), which is mandated to preserve the natural environment. Internationally the main route to dissemination to other governments is through IPCC and its scientific evidence base. For example, Co-I Smith and the Met Office Hadley Centre are developing the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) model, for which the ECOSSE model (used in this project), forms the basis of the modelling of soil C, N and GHG fluxes.

The existing working relationship between Project Partners and the Met Office will ensure that new understanding generated by the project will be incorporated into these models, and provide evidence for further policy development. Key direct benefits, in terms of improvement in models and their parameterisation and development, will accrue over the timescale of the life of the proposed project and ca. 12-24 months following its completion (i.e. direct impacts of very high relevance on a short timescale). For example, the IPCC Fifth Assessment report, for which one of our team members (Smith) is a convening lead author, is currently being drafted and is due for completion in 2014. Work from this project will be of direct relevance to WGI, which addresses the physical science basis of climate change.

Key international beneficiaries (further raising the UK influence in the climate change arena) include Environment Canada and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). For example, we will work with the Great Rivers Observatory Project (USGS) to enhance understanding of circum-arctic and circum-boreal affects of permafrost thaw on terrestrial and aquatic systems. Furthermore, through our contacts with EC we have constructed key parts of our proposal to build on, and extend, EC research. Our project outputs will directly benefit EC, and other national (US, UK) institutions responsible for monitoring and predicting climate change and its effects (US National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), US National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration ( NOAA), UK Met Office).

Our public engagement will help improve awareness and concern for the Arctic and likely impacts of change. Better information to individuals in the general population plays a key role in determining future public policy decisions and outcomes. All the opportunities afforded by the wealth of interactions between the public and statutory bodies detailed above, plus with local communities, schools and colleges, will be a major training component for both the early career researchers (PDRAs) employed on the project, to help broaden and develop their career paths in science. For complete details see the full Pathways to Impact document attached.

Related Projects

Project Reference Relationship Related To Start End Award Value
NE/K000284/1 22/08/2012 31/10/2013 £286,071
NE/K000284/2 Transfer NE/K000284/1 01/11/2013 29/02/2016 £196,397
 
Description Increasingly productive ecosystems in the Arctic, associated with global warming, may not mean that these systems remove (sequester) more carbon from the atmosphere than previously (as has often been assumed in modelling studies). In our study we now have strong evidence that 'shrubification' (proliferation of tall shrubs) on arctic tundra could result in net losses of soil (and, potentially, ecosystem) carbon to the atmosphere and to drainage waters. A process that we are investigating further is called 'rhizosphere priming' (and regarding which we have recently - December 2016 - launched a new project with fieldwork based in Swedish Lapland), whereby the presence of plant roots with specific types of symbiotic associations with fungi, accelerates the decomposition of soil organic matter in order to release nutrients in plant-available forms. This may be especially important in the context of highly organic-rich soils, where the carbon is potentially vulnerable to decomposition upon warming and/or thawing.

Our study also provides compelling evidence of the importance of considering land-to-freshwater fluxes of carbon, and their downstream fate, in understanding regional carbon cycling (Dean et al. (2016) Biogeochemistry, doi: 10.1007/s10533-016-0252-2). These fluxes, in headwater catchments, are often overlooked in greenhouse gas budgeting, especially in remote locations. Our analyses of streamwater chemistry, however, and both dissolved organic and inorganic carbon isotope composition, provides evidence for substantial release of pre-industrial (~1750) organic matter from the surrounding catchment. This may be related to increasing thaw depth recorded in the last 3-4 decades, and the phenomenon could be widespread in upland tundra experiencing recent warming.

Whilst our work analysing, interpreting and publishing our results is on-going (as is often the case with field-based projects; data-sets coming together towards the end of the formal project period), our results are already being fed into ecological/biogeochemical models and will inform regional and international policy on environmental management in due course.

In the future, we are keen to unravel the role of soil microbial diversity and metabolism in the emissions of carbon dioxide and methane in permafrost landscapes undergoing rapid transition. This understanding is crucial because recent analysis (Hope and Schaefer (2015) Nature Climate Change, doi: 10.1038/nclimate2807) puts the costs of thawing permafrost at $43 trillion (US) in extra economic damage by the end of the next century. Our project has also shed light directly on this issue because we have deployed 'redox' sensors at landscape scale, together with measurements of soil/sediment and stream-bed carbon dioxide and methane concentrations (Street et al. (2016) Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, doi: 10.1002/2016JG003387), to demonstrate the complexity of conditions at landscape scale, and their development through the thaw season, that influence the production of greenhouse gases. This work has also underpinned a new collaboration with Jennifer Pratscher at UEA, who has now undertaken microbial molecular analyses of a suite of samples collected from the site. The work will enable us to refine our understanding (and ability to model and predict) the effect of changing climate, and permafrost thaw, on landscape-scale physico-chemical conditions and the implications for greenhouse gas fluxes.
Exploitation Route Our results are already being fed into ecological/biogeochemical models and will inform regional and international policy on global change and environmental management in due course.

Our results also challenge the current understanding of plant-soil interactions, with implications for ecosystem carbon stocks and net greenhouse gas fluxes. In particular, the role of rhizosphere priming effects needs to be incorporated into process-based biogeochemical and biophysical modelling and scaled-up to the Pan-Arctic. We have now (as of December 2016) launched a new NERC-funded project (NE/P002722/1: Will more productive Arctic ecosystems sequester less soil carbon? A key role for priming in the rhizosphere ('PRIMETIME')) investigating priming effects in more mechanistic detail, as a direct development of HYDRA (the current project)
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Education,Energy,Environment,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Security and Diplomacy,Transport
URL http://www.project-hydra.net/
 
Description Our findings have been used in a wide range of public engagement contexts (see 'Engagement Activities' for more details), both in the UK and in Canada. They span a show at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe ('Skating on Thin Ice'; as part of the Beltane Initiative's 'Cabaret of Dangerous Ideas' series), participation in 'Bang Goes the Borders' and the 'Orkney Science Festival' in 2015, through to presenting and discussing our work with First Nations (Inuvialuit and Gwich'in) students at Aurora College in Inuvik, Canada. Whilst our work analysing, interpreting and publishing our results is on-going, our results are already being fed into ecological/biogeochemical models and will inform regional and international policy on environmental management in due course.
First Year Of Impact 2013
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Education,Energy,Environment,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections,Security and Diplomacy
Impact Types Cultural,Societal
 
Description NERC Discovery Science
Amount £794,307 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/P002722/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 12/2016 
End 05/2020
 
Description NERC 'HYDRA' Partnerships - Antoni Lewkowicz 
Organisation University of Ottawa
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Application of expertise on carbon cycle research to on-going work on hydrology in permafrost landscapes.
Collaborator Contribution We are able to access their research sites and long-term data, and to work with them on joint research outputs.
Impact Not yet.
Start Year 2013
 
Description NERC 'HYDRA' Partnerships - Iain Hartley 
Organisation University of Exeter
Department Department of Geography
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This collaboration was made possible through UK DECC funding (via NERC), to Hartley, but with a salary contribution to Wookey. The project concerns quantifying and understandning methane fluxes in landscapes undergoing rapid transition, and my role has been to work with the project PDRA (Mark Cooper) at the Trail Valley research site in Northwest Territories, Canada.
Collaborator Contribution Through PDRA Cooper, Iain Hartley has extended our methane concentration and flux measurements at Trail Valley Creek to the landscape scale. This will also strengthen the links with partner Oliver Sonnentag.
Impact A related outcome is: Hartley IP, Hill TC, Wade TJ, Clement RJ, Moncrieff JB, Prieto-Blanco A, Disney MI, Huntley B, Williams M, Howden NJK, Wookey PA, Baxter R (2015) Quantifying landscape-level methane fluxes in subarctic Finland using a multiscale approach. Global Change Biology, 21, 3712-3725.
Start Year 2013
 
Description NERC 'HYDRA' Partnerships - Jennifer Pratscher (2015 - Still Active) 
Organisation University of East Anglia
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Jennifer (a NERC Independent Research Fellow based at UEA: https://www.uea.ac.uk/environmental-sciences/people/profile/j-pratscher) became involved through links with Colin Murrell. She has now sampled and analysed soils from Trail Valley Creek for microbial community composition.
Collaborator Contribution Microbial molecular genetics analysis of soil and sediment samples.
Impact Data currently being interpreted and analysed.
Start Year 2015
 
Description NERC 'HYDRA' Partnerships - Julian Murton 
Organisation University of Sussex
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Application of expertise on carbon cycle research to on-going work on hydrology and ground ice in permafrost landscapes.
Collaborator Contribution We are able to access their research sites and long-term data, and to work with them on joint research outputs.
Impact Not yet.
Start Year 2013
 
Description NERC 'HYDRA' Partnerships - Mark Garnett 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council (NERC)
Department NERC Radiocarbon Facility (Environment)
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Development and application of state-of-the-art 14C isotope approaches (at natural abundance levels) to global C cycle research.
Collaborator Contribution Development and application of state-of-the-art 14C isotope approaches (at natural abundance levels) to global C cycle research.
Impact Hartley IP, Garnett MH, Sommerkorn M, Hopkins DW, Fletcher BJ, Sloan VL, Phoenix GK, Wookey PA (2012) A potential loss of carbon associated with greater plant growth in the European Arctic. Nature Climate Change. DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1575. Hartley IP, Garnett MH, Sommerkorn M, Hopkins DW, Wookey PA (2013). The age of CO2 released from soils in contrasting ecosystems during the arctic winter. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 63: 1-4.
Start Year 2013
 
Description NERC 'HYDRA' Partnerships - Mathew Williams 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are linking two NERC-funded projects (ours and 'CYCLOPS', coordinated by Mat Williams) to improve our understanding of processes by integrating experimental and observational data using ecosystem and biogeochemical models. This also involves Prof Pete Smith (Aberdeen) who is a direct participant in our broader project.
Collaborator Contribution Mutual expertise and data for modelling activities.
Impact Hartley IP, Hopkins DW, Garnett MH, Sommerkorn M, Wookey PA (2008) Soil microbial respiration in arctic soil does not acclimate to temperature. Ecology Letters 11:1092-1100. Garnett MH, Hartley IP, Hopkins DW, Sommerkorn M, Wookey PA (2009) A passive sampling method for radiocarbon analysis of soil respiration using molecular sieve. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 41:1450-1456. Hartley IP, Hopkins DW, Garnett MH, Sommerkorn M, Wookey PA (2009) No evidence for compensatory thermal adaptation of soil microbial respiration in the study of Bradford et al. (2008). Ecology Letters 12:E12-E14. Hartley IP, Hopkins DW, Sommerkorn M, Wookey PA (2010) The response of organic matter mineralisation to nutrient and substrate additions in sub-arctic soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 42:92-100. Hartley IP, Garnett MH, Sommerkorn M, Hopkins DW, Fletcher BJ, Sloan VL, Phoenix GK, Wookey PA (2012) A potential loss of carbon associated with greater plant growth in the European Arctic. Nature Climate Change. DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1575. Hartley IP, Garnett MH, Sommerkorn M, Hopkins DW, Wookey PA (2013). The age of CO2 released from soils in contrasting ecosystems during the arctic winter. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 63: 1-4. Hartley IP, Hill TC, Wade TJ, Clement RJ, Moncrieff JB, Prieto-Blanco A, Disney MI, Huntley B, Williams M, Howden NJK, Wookey PA, Baxter R (2015) Quantifying landscape-level methane fluxes in subarctic Finland using a multiscale approach. Global Change Biology, 21, 3712-3725.
Start Year 2013
 
Description NERC 'HYDRA' Partnerships - Oliver Sonnentag 
Organisation University of Montreal
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Oliver Sonnentag has been working at our main research site, Trail Valley Creek, in Northwest Territories, Canada, for the duration of our project, conducting eddy-flux measurements of methae (CH4) fluxes across the landscape. His data complement our own flux data, and soil/sediment CH4 concentration data.
Collaborator Contribution Oliver Sonnentag has been working at our main research site, Trail Valley Creek, in Northwest Territories, Canada, for the duration of our project, conducting eddy-flux measurements of methane (CH4) fluxes across the landscape. His data complement our own flux data, and soil/sediment CH4 concentration data.
Impact Not yet.
Start Year 2013
 
Description NERC 'HYDRA' Partnerships - Phil Marsh 
Organisation Wilfrid Laurier University
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Application of expertise on carbon cycle research to on-going work on hydrology in permafrost landscapes.
Collaborator Contribution Phil Marsh (now at Wilfrid Laurier University, but previously at Environment Canada) has, for many years, been researching the hydrological cycle at locations in the Western Canadian Arctic (Trail Valley Creek (TVC) and Havikpak Creek (HPC)). This work includes testing and improving a suite of hydrological models, including GEOtop, to consider past and future changes to the hydrological cycle, and the consideration of the interactions between climate, hydrology, vegetation and permafrost. For these studies, Marsh and colleagues have operated meteorological towers for the last 20 years over northern boreal forest, shrub tundra, and tundra surfaces at both TVC and HPC. Each site has a suite of instrumentation including standard meteorological data and eddy covariance instrumentation for sensible and latent heat flux at key times of the year. Until recently, however, Marsh and co have not been considering carbon export from these basins, but the existing hydrological and climatological data, and modeling expertise, greatly benefit our research. Specifically, Marsh and co are providing meteorological and flux data, and are collaborating with us on the analysis of these data and the publication of key results.
Impact Not yet.
Start Year 2013
 
Description NERC 'HYDRA' Partnerships - Rob Striegl 
Organisation US Geological Survey
Country United States of America 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We are complementing long-term work on the hydrology of boreal catchment systems with state-of-the-art approaches to understanding carbon cycling and fluxes.
Collaborator Contribution We are able to access their research sites and long-term data, and to work with them on joint research outputs
Impact Not yet.
Start Year 2013
 
Description NERC 'HYDRA' Partnerships - Sean Carey 
Organisation McMaster University
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are complementing long-term work on the hydrology of boreal catchment systems with state-of-the-art approaches to understanding carbon cycling and fluxes.
Collaborator Contribution We are able to access their research sites and long-term data, and to work with them on joint research outputs.
Impact Not at this stage.
Start Year 2013
 
Description NERC 'HYDRA' Partnerships - Steve Kokelj 
Organisation Northwest Territories Geoscience Office
Country Canada 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We are complementing long-term work on the hydrology of boreal and tunda catchment systems with state-of-the-art approaches to understanding carbon cycling and fluxes.
Collaborator Contribution We are able to access their research sites and long-term data, and to work with them on joint research outputs. We are also benefiting from detailed advice on ground thermal regimes and the evolution of ground ice features, as well as contacts in the First Nations communities relevant to our work.
Impact Not yet.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Bang Goes the Borders - 'Keeping Carbon Cool' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interactive public displays to communicate why we should care about the future of permafrost ecosystems.

Bang Goes the Borders, Melrose, September, 2015. Beltane Public Engagement Network.

Presenters: Lorna Street, Nancy Burns.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.beltanenetwork.org/opportunities/useful-organisations/bang-goes-the-borders/
 
Description EU Researchers' Night 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In excess of 750 members of the public (of all age ranges, but with many of primary school age) participated in an event to 'Meet a Researcher'. This sparked lots of questions and gave hands-on experience with interactive exhibits from research teams.

None tangible at this stage!
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://ec.europa.eu/research/researchersnight/index_en.htm
 
Description Edinburgh International Festival Fringe - 'Skating on Thin Ice' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A public engagement show (comedy) for the Cabaret of Dangerous Ideas at the Edinburgh Fringe in 2015.

'Skating on Thin Ice' was performed by Lorna Street (PDRA) and Philip Wookey (Principal Investigator), with Comedian Susan Morrison as the MC, at St Andrew's Square on 21 August 2015, and reached an audience of ~40. This was a fun show, but designed to address key issues and controversies concerning global warming, with a specific focus on the importance of the Arctic. The show included a lot of audience interaction, with quiz sections (along the lines of BBC's 'Have I Got News for You'), direct audience participation on stage (children), and 'live' methane analysis in the audience!
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://codi.beltanenetwork.org/codi-2015/the-shows/calander/
 
Description Orkney Science Festival - 'Keeping carbon cool' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interactive public displays to communicate why we should care about the future of permafrost ecosystems.

Orkney Science Festival, September, 2015. Beltane Public Engagement Network.

Presenters: Lorna Street, Nancy Burns.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://oisf.org/
 
Description Public Lecture, Dartmouth College, NH, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An invited public lecture at the Institute for Arctic Studies, Dartmouth College, NH, USA. 75 members of the public and faculty staff and students. Excellent wide-ranging discussion on climate change in the Arctic regions chaired by the Director of the Institute.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Public Lecture, Queens University, Kingston, Canada 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Discussions on Arctic climate work ongoing and planned; visit to field station and interactions on development of research questions and their associated experiments.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Public Lecture, University of Laval, Quebec, Canada 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Wide-ranging discussions with regional academics and their teams on possible future activities and collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Public Lecture, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Canada. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Discussions on possible future collaborations and applications.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Public lecture, University of British Columbia, Department of Geography. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Public Lecture in the Department of Geography, UBC, Canada. Wide-ranging discussion on Arctic climate change impacts and led to visits to relevant laboratories of groups at UBC in both Geography and Soil Sciences for discussions with faculty and postgraduate students.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description TEDx Presentation - The 'Arctic Amplification' of Global Warming 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 1,383 view on youtube
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://tedxtalks.ted.com/video/Arctic-Amplification-of-Global
 
Description Visit to Aurora College, Inuvik, to talk to students on the "Environmental Monitor Training Program" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The talk and demo resulted in a lively debate on global change issues in the North, and on the experiences of the students taking the class.

We learned about the First Nations' views on global change, and how it affected their everyday lives. We also received several enquiries about possible work with us in the future.

The course participants were mainly Inuvialuit or Gwitch'in, and ranged in age from early 20s to late 60s.

We have been invited to give a community presentation at the Aurora Research Institute (ARI) one evening in 2014. This will provide us with an opportunity to share the project findings and implications with a broad spectrum of potential stakeholders. ARI will host and advertise the evening.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://arp.arctic.ac.uk/news/2013/oct/29/news-scientists-talk-aurora-college-students-inuvi/